Damage may be assessed using several damage indices with values associated with different structural damage states. The usefulness of a variety of current response-based damage indices in seismic damage assessment is addressed and critically assessed. A novel rational damage assessment method is provided, which measures the structure’s physical reaction characteristics. A practical method based on various analyses is given to evaluate the damaged structures in earthquakes of different intensities. This paper provides an overview of previous research works on the damage assessment of the reinforced concrete structures. This study may be helpful for easy understanding about the damage assessment of reinforced concrete structures and reduce the impacts of disaster and surrounding structures.