Effect of early directed implementation of family-integrated care measures on colonisation withEnterobacteriaceaein preterm neonates in NICU

Background: Hospital-acquired strains (HASs) and multiresistant strains in neonatal intensive care unit often harbour virulence and resistance mechanisms, carrying the risk of invasive infections. We describe colonisation withEnterobacteriaceaein neonates receiving early directed versus routine family-integrated care (FIC) within the first month of life.Methods: A prospective cohort study included neonates with a gestational age below 34 weeks. During the first period, neonates were admitted to an open bay unit with transfer to the single-family room if available; feeding with the mother’s own breast milk (MOBM) was introduced within 24 hours, and skin-to-skin contact (SSC) within 5 days of life (the routine care group). During the second period, following a wash-in of 2 months, care in a single-family room within 48 hours, the introduction of MOBM within two and SSC in 48 hours were applied (the intervention group).Enterobacteriaceaeisolated from neonatal stool, breast milk and parental skin swabs were genotyped, Simpson’s Index of Diversity (SID) calculated, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) detected.Results: In 64 neonate-parents’ groups, 176Enterobacteriaceae, 87 in routine care and 89 in the intervention group were isolated; 26 vs 18 were HAS and one vs three ESBL positive, respectively. In the intervention group compared with the routine care group, SSC and MOBM feeding was started significantly earlier (p<0.001); during the first week of life, time spent in SSC was longer (median hours per day 4.8 (4–5.1) vs 1.9 (1.4–2.6), p<0.001) and the proportion of MOBM in enteral feeds was higher (median (IQR) 97.8% (95.1–100) vs 95.1% (87.2–97.4), p=0.011). Compared with the routine care group, the intervention group had higher SID and a reduction of HAS by 33.1% (95% CI 24.4% to 42.4%) in time series analysis.Conclusions: Early implementation of FIC measures may hold the potential to increase diversity and reduce colonisation with HASEnterobacteriaceae.
Funding Information
  • Estonian Ministry of Education and Research (Grant No. KOGU- 401 HUMB)
  • Estonian Research Council (IUT 34-24)

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