A hospital‑based cross‑sectional study to examine the echocardiographic features of patients with type-2 diabetes

Aim: This study aimed to investigate echocardiographic features in patients with diagnosed T2DM.Material & Methods: A hospital‑based, cross‑sectional observational study included 100 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes, who presented to Medicine Department K S Hegde hospital for one year. This study included type 2 diabetes diagnosed as per American diabetes association 2018 criteria. Their ECG findings were noted and correlated with their blood sugar levels.Results: There were 55 males and 45 females. Out of 100 cases, 5 cases (5%) of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes were in age group 31-40 years, 24 cases (24%) were in age group 41-50 years, 26 cases (26%) were in age group 51-60 years, 30 cases (30%) were in age group 61-70 years, 10 cases (10%) were in age group 71-80 years and 5 cases (5%) were above 81 years. Out of 100 cases of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 54 cases (54%) were smokers and 46 (46%) were non-smokers, 20 (20%) consumed alcohol and 80 (80%) didn’t consume alcohol. Out of 100 cases of newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 50 cases (50%) had HTN, 25 (25%) had CAD and 75 (75%) did not have CAD. Out of 100 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes, 40 cases (40%) had left ventricular diastolic dysfunction, 26 cases (26%) had left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), 15 cases (15%) had RWMA, 10 cases (10%) had RA/RV dilated, 6 cases (6%) had dilated LV and 3 cases (3%) had dilated LA.Conclusion: Type 2 diabetics without cardiovascular symptoms must be screened for cardiovascular abnormalities so that early interventions can be done to prevent further progression to symptomatic cardiovascular abnormalities. ECG should be done to predict cardiovascular risk in type 2 diabetic patients without cardiovascular symptoms. Echocardiographic abnormalities are very common in outpatients with type 2 diabetes, but neither cardiac symptoms nor clinical characteristics are effective to identify patients with echocardiographic abnormalities.