COVID‐19 as a trigger of Guillain‐Barré syndrome: A review of the molecular mechanism

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a pandemic with serious complications. After coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), several post-acute COVID-19 syndromes (PACSs) and long-COVID sequels were reported. PACSs involve many organs, including the nervous, gustatory, and immune systems. One of the PACSs after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination is Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). The incidence rate of GBS after SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination is low. However, the high prevalence of COVID-19 and severe complications of GBS, for example, autonomic dysfunction and respiratory failure, highlight the importance of post-COVID-19 GBS. It is while patients with simultaneous COVID-19 and GBS seem to have higher admission rates to the intensive care unit, and demyelination is more aggressive in post-COVID-19 GBS patients. SARS-CoV-2 can trigger GBS via several pathways like direct neurotropism and neurovirulence, microvascular dysfunction and oxidative stress, immune system disruption, molecular mimicry, and autoantibody production. Although there are few molecular studies on the molecular and cellular mechanisms of GBS occurrence after SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccination, we aimed to discuss the possible pathomechanism of post-COVID-19 GBS by gathering the most recent molecular evidence.

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