This study investigated changes in oxidative stress and the relevant mechanisms in the liver of goats fed a high-concentrate (HC) diet for 5 weeks. Twelve goats were randomly assigned to a low-concentrate (concentrate-to-forage = 55:45, LC, n = 6) or HC diet (concentrate-to-forage = 90:10, n = 6), with dry matter as the base. Enzyme activity assays, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to evaluate antioxidant parameters and gene expression in the liver. Superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), total nitric oxide synthase activity and total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) in the liver declined (p < .01) in HC-fed goats compared to those in LC-fed goats. The mRNA levels of GPX1, CAT and SOD1 were down-regulated (3.69, 47.37 and 27.61%, respectively) in HC-fed goats compared to those in LC-fed goats. Furthermore, glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) was upregulated (466.35%, p < .01) in the liver of HC-fed goats. The mRNA and protein levels of the nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (NRF2) and total glucocorticoid receptor (GR) declined (p < .05) in HC-fed goats (by 28.57, 33.1, 30.85 and 34%, respectively). However, the nuclear translocation of GR increased (p < .05; by 44.75%) in HC-fed goats. Negative correlations were detected for hepatic nuclear GR protein expression with hepatic CAT activity and GPx activity. In conclusion, feeding an HC diet to goats for 5 weeks suppressed NRF2-dependent antioxidant responses and enhanced GR nuclear translocation in the liver.
Funding Information
  • National Natural Science Foundation of China (31320103917, 31372342, 31402105)
  • Ministry of Science and Technology of China (2008YFD0501903, 2016YFD0501206)
  • Youth Innovation Team Project of ISA, the Chinese Academy of Sciences (2017QNCXTD_ZCS)
  • Hunan Provincial Science and Technology Department (2017JJ1028)
  • Open Fund of Key Laboratory of Agro-ecological Processes in Subtropical Region, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ISA2017304)
  • CAS Science and Technology Service Network Initiative (KFJ-STS-ZDTP-075)
  • CAS Visiting Professorship for Senior & Young International Scientists (2017VBA0026)
  • Major Project of Hunan Province (2017NK1020)
  • Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation (2019JJ40134)
  • Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department (18A098)
  • hunan provincial graduate research and innovation project (CX2018B404)

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