Publisher Europa Publishing-
Published: 4 December 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 8-13; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.12.1000
Abstract:Most living forms of life need clean water, air and nutrient resources to maintain a healthy life. The increased population and industrial and technological development have caused more energy needs. This affects air quality (AQ) and hence human health negatively. Because AQ is critical for human health, various measurement and analysis methods are developed and the amount and variety of airborne pollutants are examined by today's methods such as passive and active samplers, automatic analyzers and remote sensors. In this study, AQ measurement is aimed to create an alternative to ready remote sensing systems by designing low cost and programmable microprocessor system which allows in place and instant data collection. Arduino, an electronic prototype platform, is used to collect, transfer and process sensor data. An interface was coded using the Visual Studio to make the data instantaneously analyzed by any program on the computer. The BEUHavaKalite device is a handheld AQ measurement device providing a wide range of measurements, gas diversity, calibrated according to the internal and external environment, high sensitivity and low cost. The other unit of this system is HavaKaliteSoft, the user interface for transferring and processing the sensor measurement results to the computer. This system tests have been carried out in Tatvan and Merkez districts of Bitlis province and the measurements confirm the accuracy of the device. The device is especially important because it allows scientists working in this field to collect data related to the field of AQ and carry out detailed studies.
Published: 30 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 89-94; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.952
Abstract:In recent times several methods for automated diagnostic systems have been proposed to overcome the problems faced due to large number of patients, and the necessity of having high accuracy when dealing with a human life. Traditional way of examining the Diffusion Weighted (DW) brain images of the subjects with Intracerebral Haemorrhage (ICH) involves the inspection of specific features, by a human observer. Present work makes an effort to develop a computer based method to automatically identify the regions of ICH on DW brain images of the ICH subjects, and thereby help in transforming the conventional qualitative investigative criteria into a quantitative feature classification problem. In this direction feature extraction techniques, namely Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) and Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) are employed to provide description of the significant properties of the DW brain images. Subsequently, K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) method of image classification is employed to analyze the properties of the extracted features. The maximum classification efficiency of the KNN classifier for the correct output classification of the ICH subjects using DCT method is obtained as 71.50% for k value = 1.00, and using DWT method is obtained as 90.00% for k value = 9.00, respectively. Results imply that the technique proposed in the present work could positively be helpful in the fast diagnosis of the ICH subjects, even in the absence of a medical expert.
Published: 30 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 83-88; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.985
Abstract:Environmental pollution in transportation is very serious. Finding alternative fuels is becoming increasingly urgent in order to minimize environmental pollution and diversify fuel sources for marine engines. In alternative fuels, bio-oils are considered as a potential fuel. The paper presents theoritical findings on application of exhaust energy for heating up biodiesel/bio-oil used in ship engines in order to raise the fuel’s viscosity and to improve the volatizing and mixing abilities with ambient air. This fuel heating system is designed basing on the energy balance between the required energy to raise the fuel temperature to the target one and the energy either directly obtained from the exhaust gas or gained from intermediate medium. Results of this study are potentials to direct the design and fabrication of this bio-fuels heating system for ship engines which can meet the operating conditions and safety issues of this kind of engines.
Published: 30 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 78-82; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.970
Abstract:Heating water with solar energy is easy and effective in both domestic and industrial areas. The initial implementation cost of a solar-water-heating system is high but long term use of it makes it cost effective. For geographical location, Bangladesh is very suitable for using it. In a solar collector system, collector area is an important design factor. To achieve better thermal performance, 0.81m2 solar collector was used in this study. Commonly used flat plate collector takes more space to be installed. In Bangladesh, space on the roofs of houses and industries are limited and so there is a little scope to use flat plate collector system. Compound parabolic collector can solve this problem. Solar collector with compound parabolic collector needs less space than flat plate collector with reflector. When compound parabolic concentrator was attached with the solar collector, thermal performance improves. Compare with other alternatives that improve thermal efficiency, compound parabolic concentrator shows better thermal performance. Compare thermal efficiency of the consecutive three months. In this system, when water flow rate increase, outlet water temperature decrease but thermal efficiency increases. It is also observed that when solar intensity increases, thermal efficiency also increases likewise when solar intensity decreases, thermal efficiency also decreases. In this research, outputs of different similar researches are compared to show the effectiveness of the compound parabolic concentrator based solar collector. The compound parabolic concentrator reflects more solar radiation, eventually directs it to the collector and increased the difference between the inlet and outlet water temperature.
Published: 30 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 73-77; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.976
Abstract:Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is a very effective tool for detecting and identifying objects below the ground surface. based on the propagation and reflection of high-frequency electromagnetic waves. The GPR reflection can be affected by many things like the type of objects orientation, their shapes ..ect. The purpose of this paper is to study by simulation the effect of objects orientation in two different mediums (dry and wet sand) on the GPR signal reflection using Reflexw software which is based on a numerical method known as finite difference in time domain (FDTD). The simulations that have been realized included a conductor and dielectric objects. The results obtained have led us to find that the propagation path, the reflection strength and the signal form change with the change of object orientation and nature. To confirm the validity of the results, we compared them with experimental results previously published by researchers under the same conditions.
Published: 29 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 66-72; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.907
Abstract:This paper describes the application of Monte-Carlo simulations for parameter optimization, uncertainty estimation and sensitivity analysis using hydrological model developed by author  for Wardha River basin, Maharashtra, India. The Monte Carlo simulations revealed that the average values of parameters for the local optima of the calibration period seem to give good fit to the data and performance measure (NSE) does not differ significantly from the local optima of the respective calibration years. It is interesting to notice that, if the Monte Carlo simulations are carried out all over again, it generate yet another set of random numbers as realizations of model parameters. However the model objective function (NSE) differs mere by 0.1% by running the new set of realizations and the local optimum parameter values are close to the earlier local optima. It seems that the model structure is in agreement with the ‘‘equifinality’’ or ‘‘non-uniqueness’’ concept as many different parameter sets give good fit to the data. However particular area of the parameter space is observed to be dominant in fitting the available observations, this is in contradiction to Beven’s theory behind rejecting the idea of optimum parameter set.
Published: 29 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 58-65; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.925
Abstract:Military training activities as well as manufacturing and decommissioning operations, lead to the generation of large quantities of explosive chemicals. Detonation and disposal of these explosive chemicals contaminate soil and ground water, thus posing a threat to living organisms and natural resources. The most commonly used explosives in artillery shells, bombs, grenades and other munitions are 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT), Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and Octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX). Due to their recalcitrant nature, toxicity and persistence in the environment, the study of their biodegradation and biotransformation is paramount. This paper reviews the chemistry, fate, degradation and transformation of this explosive chemicals in the natural environment. Emphasis is placed on TNT, RDX and HMX. This review will help scientists to adopt strategies and develop optimum biological treatment scheme for the in situ bioremediation of explosives-contaminated soil especially at firing/impact ranges.
Published: 25 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 37-41; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.921
Abstract:This research has focused on the evaluation of raw materials that used in the wings of modern airplane. These materials either would be fiberglass, carbon-fiber or aramid based composites like Kevlar. These common materials have been selected and evaluated depending on experimental data obtained from mechanical tests. These tests include: hardness, tensile strength and bending stress. The tests based on ASTM standards for mechanical properties. The results show increasing in the hardness value of graphite-epoxy by 9% comparing with that of fiberglass and by 18% comparing with that of Kevlar-epoxy. The results also show an increasing in the maximum tensile strength of graphite-epoxy by 2.9 times to that of fiberglass and by 5.5 times to that of Kevlar-epoxy. Furthermore, the results of bending stress test show increasing of the maximum strength of Kevlar-epoxy by 30% comparing to that of glass fiber and by 75% comparing to that of graphite-epoxy.
Published: 21 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 32-36; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.969
Abstract:Diesel engines are more efficient than forced ignition engines but due to diffused combustion and work with high air residue levels, burning products contain soot and NOx, pollutants that work Handling it on the road today still has many technical problems. The technology of organizing the combustion of diesel engines directly affects the level of pollution generated. Direct injection diesel engines have a lower fuel consumption than a combustion engine with a separation of about 10% and a lower level of soot emissions when the engine is operating in local loading mode. However, direct injection engines work noisier and generate more pollutants (NOx, HC). Today, this type of combustion chamber is only used for heavy-duty truck engines. Limiting the optimal emission level for diesel engines needs to balance the concentration of the two main pollutants, NOx and soot. Low temperature combustion (LTC) engines need different enabling technologies depending on the fuel and strategy used to achieve combustion of the premixed fuel–air mixture. Controlling the combustion rate is one of the major challenges in LTC engines, particularly in PPCI combustion engine to achieve higher thermal efﬁciency, the desired phasing of combustion timings is essential even at moderate combustion rates. Present chapter describes the combustion control variables and control strategies used for LTC engines. Various methods demonstrated to control the LTC engines can be categorized in to two main strategies: (i) altering pressure–temperature and (ii) altering fuel reactivity of the charge.
Published: 21 November 2018
European Journal of Engineering Research and Science, Volume 3, pp 20-24; doi:10.24018/ejers.2018.3.11.967
Abstract:Recent technological developments have altered the working conditions in manufacturing industries. Currently, the term Industry 4.0 is used to describe the fourth industrial revolution that has enabled the digitization of the value chain. This revolution has also enabled the connection of production sites via intelligent information systems, which means that machines can communicate with other machines and products. In addition, more accurate data can be delivered, and information can be processed in real time. However, history says that technological development takes time. The complete adoption and realization of the potential of Industry 4.0 will likely require about 20 years. Our discussion in this paper is based on a particular example of an automation integration platform. To understand the potential of big data and the Internet of Things in manufacturing companies, we investigated the production process of an auto parts company. Currently, data is collected manually and automatically. Other types of data are automatically recorded by an information system. Depending on where in the production process the data is collected, the data are logged and processed using different systems.