Publisher International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding (IJMMU)-
Published: 5 March 2019
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 6, pp 307-319; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v6i1.620
Abstract:This thesis explores the role of the addooyyee institution in making friendship and sisterhood relation among girls. It aims at discussing the procedure by which addooyyee established between girls and used as girls’ friendship. During data collection, ethnographic methods such as observation, focus group discussions and semi-structured interview were employed. In data analysis, interpretive method was used to discuss the collected data. The analyzed data shows that, the addooyyee institution has vital role in making friendship and sisterhood relation among girls in their social, economic and cultural life. The institution strengthen the relation of girls during wedding ceremony, working hand crafts (hodhaa), and their journey to collect firewood and migira buqqisuu (uproot grass), decoration wisdoms and daboo dubartii (girls’ cooperative work). Girls run all the above systems through their addooyyee institution to help each other and to exercise their friendship and unity among the society as gender based traditional institution. The thesis concludes that the addooyyee institution enables girls to come together and help each other in their social, economic and cultural life. To windup, concerning bodies should have to use this readymade institution in helping girls to strength their relation in all aspects of social activities.
Published: 5 December 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 62-72; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i6.465
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between perceived discrimination and psychological well-being of Manjo ethnic minority in Kaffa zone, Ethiopia. One hundred and forty nine (149) study participants from the Manjo ethnic minority were randomly selected and filled out the perceived discrimination and psychological well-being questionnaire scales. Pearson Product moment correlation was computed to determine the strength and direction of relationship between their perception of discrimination by others and the psychological well-being report. Perceived discrimination is a variability of thought that results from an act of segregation and distancing of an individual or group of individuals mainly because of bias and prejudice. The psychological well-being variable was measured by six dimensions, which are named as autonomy, environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationship with others, purpose in life and self-acceptance of individuals. The result of the study showed the presence of a strong and significant negative correlation between the Manjos’ perception of discrimination they experience from other ethnic groups and the corresponding psychological well-being state.
Published: 11 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 286-302; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.455
Abstract:The study has been conducted aiming to explore the perception of PWDs regarding the accessibility of universities Physical environment for their needs in five purposively selected public universities of Ethiopia. Students with physical disabilities and visual impairments were participants of the study. The study employed survey design to answer the basic questions of the research. Questionnaire has been used as exclusive data collection tool. In addition, quantitative analysis method has been used to analyze the collected data. The result of the study revealed that, in general, respondents believed that theuniversities buildings and overall campuses physical environment were inaccessible for the needs of PWDs. The study also investigated the most common perceived campus physical environment barriers for PWDs such as inaccessible classrooms, libraries, bookstores, auditoriums, dining halls, dorms, circulation areas, corridors and bathrooms. In addition, campus shops, parks, museums, students’ clinic and banks were perceived as not been barrier free to be easily accessed by PWDs. Furthermore, poor ramp designs, lack of elevators and lack of accessible building entrances were also perceived as barriers for PWDs.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 21-32; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.257
Abstract:In today’s global environment, communication plays a crucial role since everyone cannot be separated with communication activity. Language is believed as a tool of communication. It provides the means to take the place in the society, to express and convey information, to learn about the people and the world around us. This qualitative case study is set to investigate the use of communication strategies on the perspective of language proficiency because the most significant predictor of specific communication strategy use is language proficiency. There are twelve students with high and low proficiency level as the subject of this study which is taken purposively. They are the second year students of English Education Department at one of the universities in Indonesia. In this study, the researcher used multiple data sources, namely observation, interview, and documentation. It is intended to address the research questions. The results showed that the students with high proficiency level used five (5) types and ten (10) sub-types of communication strategies. While the students with low proficiency level used four (4) types and nine (9) sub-types of communication strategies. It means that students with high proficiency level utilized more types and sub-types of communication strategies than the low proficient students did. The study provides valuable contribution in introducing communication strategies and raising students’ awareness to actually use English in real-life communication.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 49-57; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.294
Abstract:Exercise is the right of every human being, and the government as stipulated in the law has an obligation to facilitate the community in exercising, therefore what the government has done should be evaluated to correct what policies are not true or lacking. This study aims to find out and evaluate: 1) availability of open space for sports in the metro city; 2) availability of sports human resources in the metro city; 3) the level of community participation in sports in the metro city; 4) level of people's physical fitness in the metro city; 5) sports development index (SDI) in the metro city. This research method using the quantitative method. The sample was 270 people from 3 sub-districts using cluster sampling technique. The instruments used were questionnaires, interviews, as well as Multistage Fitness Test. The results of this study were: 1) the index of open space in the metro city was 0.712 in the SDI norm into the medium or enough category; 2) the human resource index in the metro city was 0.00104 in the SDI norms in the low category; 3) the index of participation in the metro city was 0.474 in the SDI norms in the low category; 4) physical fitness index in the metro city is 0.33 in the SDI norms in the low category; 5) SDI in the metro city was of 0.379 in the SDI norm included in the low category. That means the development of sports in the Metro city is still lagging behind or still very less, where there are 3 indicators in SDI is still low that is the availability of human resources sports, and community participation to exercise, and physical fitness of people who are still in the low category so that more attention from the Metro city. The availability of sports manpower is the lowest that is only 0.00104.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 1-10; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.241
Abstract:The aims of this research were to design the integrated-skills materials for the four grade students of Islamic elementary schools, and to find out the appropriateness of the materials developed. The type of this research was Research and Development (R & D). The research model followed the Dick and Carey model in developing the materials which simplified into six steps. This research employed three techniques in collecting the data namely survey, interview and observation. Based on the techniques, the instruments of the research were questionnaires, the guideline for interview and observation sheets. The result of this study is the integrated-skills materials for the students of Islamic elementary school entitled “Let’s learn English” which consisted of integrated-skills activities and some Islamic values in every unit. The unit design of the materials presented the warming-up activity, the main activity including integrated skills activities, games, and grammar notes, glossary, reflection and general knowledge containing Islamic values. The appropriateness of the learning materials was shown in terms of content, language, presentation, and graphics. The developed materials were categorized as “very good” based on the expert evaluation. It achieved a final mean score of 3.7 which was in the range of 3.25 < x ≤ 4. The results of materials evaluation based on the students’ evaluation were categorized as “very good” which achieved 92.25%.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 33-42; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.291
Abstract:The development of the times make the public aware that maintaining health is important but this is not supported by the availability of time because it runs out for other activities,and the presence of calisthenics makes the public feel easy to exercise anywhere and anytime, this study aims to see where the concept of calisthenics sport growing in the public and see the supporting aspects so that this sport can grow and be liked by many people. The results obtained in terms of public expectations such as wanting a fit body, healthy, long life, want to be popular, have a complete training program, provide great motivation ,public space provision in the countryside, and from the appreciation marked by the participation of the community is the availability of calisthenics facilities, public space provision, sponsorship support, the ease of licensing, access to information, provide educational space, the freedom of use of facilities, and the preservation of facilities, public perceptions are also very positive in describing calisthenics, the role of government, the concept of exercise, the concept of community and public can describe how to maintain a healthy lifestyle with calisthenics and the conclusions are the development of calisthenics in Lampung province creates a good perspective for the public. This is reflected in the high expectations, appreciation and public perception to street workout community, the public also knows aspects of exercise in this community, and exercise routines are always awake, also the support of government and stakeholders through the provision of a new public space is also getting better, and with the discretion given by the government, health services can provide services in sports centers with a very professional, and also in the provision of public education space, make experts in sports, health, nutrition, psychology can be assembled and share information to the public.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 43-48; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.292
Abstract:The purposes of this study were to identify the gotten benefit of the mountain climbing for climbers. The study was conducted in the Mount Merbabu National Park, Boyolali Regency, Central Java Province. It was a qualitative research by using phenomenological approach, research objectives phenomenology was to comprehend a phenomenon about what happened to the research subject. The results of the study could be concluded as follows benefits for physical activities of mountain climbing to climber; a) benefits for physically: as a sport, maintenance health of the body, physical training, and helpful to lose weight; b) benefits for psychology: revitalizing the mind or refreshing, relaxation and recreation, character building, getting pleasure or satisfaction, learning to live independently, and getting a new experience; c) benefits for socially: adding friends and as a means of socializing; d) benefits for spiritually is closer to God.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 65-74; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.302
Abstract:The Knowledge-based Era demands scholars to be experts in their fields. Language Awareness (LA) is L2 explicit knowledge about language. Its presence as one of the expertise qualifications for foreign language learners is inevitable. This study aims to describe the extent of LA within the qualitative case study approach. Eight TEFL master students were chosen as the subjects. The researchers collected the data from exams and interviews. The general findings showed that the students have ‘adequate’ LA. In a closer look, their analyzed knowledge was better than metalinguistic knowledge; it was a relatively normal condition since analyzed knowledge requires simpler cognitive process rather than metalinguistic knowledge. Additionally, it seemed that the multiple choices in the exams enlighten the cognitive process within analyzed knowledge. However, their metalinguistic knowledge had a problem with grammatical terminologies. In sum, both types of knowledge are vital but metalinguistic knowledge deserves more priority to be improved.
Published: 1 October 2018
International Journal of Multicultural and Multireligious Understanding, Volume 5, pp 58-64; doi:10.18415/ijmmu.v5i5.297
Abstract:Physical activity is any body movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Interval training both aerobic and anaerobic is a form of physical activity that can increase oxidative stress. This study aims to determine: 1) the effect of aerobic and anaerobic interval training on oxidative stress degree and 2) the effect difference between aerobic and anaerobic interval training on oxidative stress. This was experimental research with posttest only control group design. There were 27 samples recruited by purposive sampling. The research instrument used blood MDA level test with TBARS method. Paired t (t-test) was used for data analysis. Findings showed that there was statistically significant different effect between aerobic and anaerobic interval training (p = 0.000) on oxidative stress. There was significant different effect between aerobic and anaerobic interval training on oxidative stress where the effect of anaerobic interval training is greater than aerobic interval training on o oxidative stress.