Publisher Biomedical Research and Therapy-
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 3016-3026; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.524
Abstract:Introduction: Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection affects almost 180 million people around the world. Even though the development of direct acting antivirals (DAAs) has significantly improved the treatment responses to HCV infection, treatment with pegylated interferon (PegIFN) in combination with ribavirin is considered the standard of care (SOC) for chronic HCV infection treatment in countries with limited medical resources. Considering the inhibitory effect of vitamin B12 on HCV replication, we have evaluated the effect of vitamin B12 supplementation along with SOC on treatment outcomes in patients with chronic HCV infection, who were antiviral treatment-naive. Methods: In this regard, seventy-four HCV-infected patients, naïve to antiviral therapy, were randomly assigned to receive SOC or SOC in addition to vitamin B12 (SOC + B12). Viral response was evaluated at 4, 12, 24 and 48 weeks following the initiation of viral treatment and at 24 weeks after completing the treatment. Genotyping of the interleukin 28B (IL28B) polymorphisms was also performed. Demographic characteristics, clinical findings, fibroscan results and drug adverse effects were recorded. Results: Our findings showed that rapid viral response was not significantly different between the two groups; however, the rates of complete early viral response (cEVR) (p=0.033), end-of-treatment viral response (ETVR) (p=0.001) and sustained virologic response (SVR) (p=0.0001) were significantly higher in SOC + B12 patients compared to SOC patients. Besides, in SOC + B12 patients, those with a higher baseline viral load and carriers of IL28B CC genotype showed significantly higher rate of SVR. Conclusion: In conclusion, the addition of vitamin B12 significantly improved the rate of SVR in HCV-infected patients, who were naïve to antiviral therapy. As this treatment regimen is safe and inexpensive, it proposes an option for improving the effectiveness of the HCV treatment with SOC, particularly in resource-limited settings.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 3003-3015; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.523
Abstract:Background: The herbal medicine combination (HMC) containing 2% Asiaticoside and 1% Acemannan, in a Beeswax encapsulation of 2% Acetylsalicylic acid base, was developed as a topical treatment option for mild-to-moderate chronic venous disease (CVD). For control (C), Beeswax encapsulation of 2% Acetylsalicylic acid base was used. Methods: A double-blinded, randomized controlled trial comparing HMC with C was investigated among 42 CVD patients; 21 patients was allocated to receive either HMC or C, for a continuous 12-week treatment. To assess the efficacy, the following were employed: (i) Venous Clinical Severity Score (VCSS), (ii) Patients Self-Rating Symptoms Score (PSSS), and (iii) Short-form health-related quality of life score based on a Medical Outcomes Study 14-item Chronic Venous Disease (MOS CIVIQ14). The short-term safety was assessed by the patients' self-reported adverse events. The primary endpoint was a responder rate defined by a 50% reduction of the VCSS from baseline after 4 weeks of treatment. The secondary endpoints were assessed by improvement of overall disability after employing VCSS, PSSS, and MOS CIVIQ14, accordingly. Results: CVD Thai patients (N=42), regardless of clinical severity of CEAP class (CEAP1/CEAP2)or co-morbidity, responded 57.14% to HMC (N=21) as compared with 9.52% to C (N=21) the responder rate was significantly dependent on intervention (p=0.003 and p=0.003, respectively). HMC reduced VCSS markedly better than C, over the 4 weeks: 11.9048 (6.4908) vs. 22.4702 (7.9438), p
Asian Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 5, pp 6-6; doi:10.15419/ajhs.v5i1.443
Abstract:Background: Mercury is used by artisanal — small-scale (ASM) gold miners throughout the World. In 2014, the Sudanese government produced over 60 tons of gold, which make Sudan ranked Africa's third-largest gold miner. Also, Sudan is ranked the 15th global producer. In 2015, over 1 million miners participated in gold mining and extraction. Objective: This study aimed to determine mercury health risk in Sudanese traditional gold mining activities area. Method: This is an analytical cross-sectional observational stud. The studied population was from ALTWAHEN near ABUHAMED. Urine analysis was supported by epidemiological questionnaires designed by (EPI INFO software) following WHO guidelines. Eighty-six respondents completed the questionnaire. The mercury level was determined in 58 urine sample by Petroleum Laboratories Using Direct Mercury Analyzer DMA- 80 instrument. The epidemiological data were analyzed by (EPI INFO). Result: 98% exceed concentration of 100 ug/L which contaminated concentration for occasionally exposed, mean urinary mercury concentration 2785 ug/L, the highest mercury concentration worldwide reported by our study 10250 ug/L, Symptoms in 58 patient showed as Problem finding correct word 46.6%, memory problem 27.6%, problem with thinking clearly 29.3%, nervousness 31%, sadness 46.5%, sexual problem 36.2%, headache 51.7%, excessive salivation 43%, drowsy 48.3%. Conclusion: In this study, the highest urinary mercury concentration was reported (10250 ug/L) compared to other studies. Mercury concentration with no significant difference between the miner groups and others. Also, this study found high incidents of neurological symptoms associated with neurotoxicity. The problem with thinking significantly correlated to the age weighted by mercury concentration. Only tremor significantly related to the time living in the mining area. Otherwise, no significant relationship between mercury concentration ,symptoms and time living in the area. Recommendation: conducting Interventional study by using chelation therapy, Gold miners should use safety tools, Activation of laws and conventions (MINAMATA convention).
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2996-3002; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.522
Abstract:Background: Recent evidence has suggested that oxidative stress may play a role in the pathophysiology of migraine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the oxidative-antioxidative status in sera of migraine patients from an Iranian population during migraine attacks. Methods: This study recruited 46 migraine patients with or without aura and 45 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. The levels of protein carbonyl (PC), malondialdehyde (MDA) and total oxidants status (TOS) were measured as the indicators of oxidative stress. The levels of total thiols (T-SH), reduced glutathione (GSH) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were determined as markers of antioxidant status. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated by dividing TOS to TAC. Results: The serum levels of MDA (4.10 +/- 0.70 vs. 3.20 +/- 0.62, P = 0.003), TOS (18.46 +/- 4.06 vs. 16.21 +/- 3.67, P = 0.007) and OSI (1.54 +/- 0.60 vs. 1.22 +/- 0.46, P = 0.006) were significantly higher in migraine group compared to controls, however, no statistically significant differences of PC levels were found between migraine patients and controls (0.615 +/- 0.161 vs. 0.517 +/- 0.126, P = 0.1). In contrast, the levels of T-SH (273 +/- 51.71 vs. 310.88 +/- 53.32, P = 0.001), GSH (28.08 +/- 6.20 vs. 32.13 +/- 5.8, P = 0.002) and TAC (1.27 +/- 0.226 vs. 1.41 +/- 0.26, P = 0.01) were significantly lower in migraine patients compared to healthy controls. Conclusion: Our study showed higher levels of oxidative stress and lower levels of antioxidant status in migraine group compared to controls, which indicates the possible role of oxidative stress in triggering migraine attacks.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2992-2995; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.521
Abstract:Introduction: This study aimed to determine the effect of wet-cupping on pain intensity in patients with migraines. Method: 132 patients were diagnosed with migraines. Pain intensity was evaluated based on the visual analogue scale. After homogenizing the data, patients were randomly divided into two (wet-cupping and control) groups. Paired t-test, Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to analyze the data. Results: The mean of pain intensity of wetcupping (7.61+/-1.29) and control (7.22+/-1.21) before the intervention showed no significant difference (p=0.401). There was a significant difference between the mean of pain relief intensity of wet-cupping (2.4+/-1.9) and control (0.6+/-0.8) groups before and after interventions (p
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2983-2985; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.519
Abstract:Cancer is a serious pathological condition of abnormal cells are gathered in tumors in the body's tissues or organs. Due to their accelerated metabolism, cancer cells require a great demand for energy, protein (cell structure substrates), and metabolic enzyme activity. If the body does not respond adequately to this demand, the metabolic processes of cancer cells will be hampered, and their growth will be limited or even stopped. It is possible to control the metabolic processes of the cancerous tumors by performing one or more of the following approaches: stopping the energy and cell structure substrate supply, inhibiting enzymic activity, and/or destroying cancer cells with external agents (such as radiation and/or chemicals). These approaches have been investigated either in single or combination modes, but so far the results obtained have not been on par with expectations. In this paper, we propose a method of cancer treatment which entails the use of a radioisotope instead of stable metal to break down the structure of metal co-factor enzyme and to deactivate its catalytic function. With a judicious choice of the metal radioisotope, this method is even able to perform all the above-mentioned approaches, and at the same time, giving a much better efficacy in cancer treatment.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2986-2991; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i2.520
Abstract:Introduction: Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer in women and is the second most common cause of fatality in patients with cancer in the world. Cell proliferation plays an important role in the clinical behavior of invasive BC. We aimed to assess the status of Ki-67 in patients with primary breast cancer and evaluate the association of this tumor marker with other clinico-pathologic and prognostic factors. Methods: The current study recruited 220 patients with primary BC admitted to the oncology clinic of the Tabriz University of Medical Sciences. We evaluated Ki-67 IHC slides and reported the Ki-67 status and its relationship with other prognostic factors in breast cancer patients. Among 220 patients, 63.3% developed grade 2 tumors, and 63.8% were younger than 50-year-olds. 117 cases (53%) were Ki-67 positive with more than 1% tumor nuclei stained, and 53 cases (24%) had tumors with more than 15% of Ki-67 expression. Results: There was no correlation between Ki-67 and patient's age (Spearman rho = 0.375, tau Kendall = 0.374), tumor size (Spearman rho = 0.558, tau Kendall = 0.548) and grade (Spearman rho = 0.570, tau Kendall = 0.568), however, there was a marginally significant relationship between lymph node status and Ki-67 expression (Spearman rho = 0.077, tau Kendall = 0.079). Based on the Mann -Whitney test, there was a significant correlation between the expression of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) with Ki-67. Conclusion: A reliable estimation of different prognostic factors in BC patients is required for the selection of an optimal therapeutic strategy. The attention has been focused on the markers of tumor biology.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2974-2982; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i1.518
Abstract:Introduction: Lung fibrosis is a progressive, fatal disease that is characterized by increasing fibroblasts proliferation and extracellular matrix precipitation. Studies have shown that cyclooxygenase- 2 (Cox-2) could play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis. In the current study, the effect of thalidomide on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis was qualitatively studied in a laboratory animal model. Methods: Thirty-two adult male C57BL/6 mice were randomly assigned to the following four groups: Group one received 2 mg bleomycin, group two received bleomycin in addition to 4 mg of thalidomide; group three received 4 mg of thalidomide, and Group 4 received 0.1 mg of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) via intraperitoneal (IP) administration. Finally, the expression of Cox-2 protein and the percentage of contact points of alveolar spaces and pulmonary connective tissue were determined. Results: Our results showed that in the Bleo + Thal group compared to the Bleo group, the percentage of contact points of pulmonary connective tissue decreased significantly (P
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2970-2973; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i1.517
Abstract:Leukemia cutis (LC) is a rare disorder that is distinguished by the infiltration of leukemic cells into the skin. This can be a manifestation of relapse of the previously treated leukemia. We report a case of a 70-year-old woman with acute monocytic leukemia (AMOL), whose disease relapsed and developed into LC after a successful induction therapy. Salvage chemotherapy has been applied successfully to prevent the development of LC in the patient's skin.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 6, pp 2966-2969; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v6i1.516
Abstract:Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) iscurrently one of the most common diseases as a result of obesity and aging. Currently, T2DMis treated by various methods, such as insulin injection and glucose regulation agents. In this report, we report the case of a T2DM patient who was successfully treated by autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation. Methods: The patient was diagnosed with T2DM by standard methods for more than ten years. The patient agreed to be treated by the new approach – autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation. The bone marrow was collected from the patient twice at 100 mL volume each time. The stem cellenriched mononuclear cells (MNCs) in the bone marrow were isolated by gradient centrifugation. MNCs were intravenously transfused into the patient twice within the 1-month interval. The lasting glucose and 2h-after meal glucose, as well as hemoglobin A1c (Hab1c), were recorded before transplantation, and 1-, 3-, and 6-months post-transplantation. Results: The results showed that there were no adverse effect recorded during the monitoring period, and that the T2DM symptoms significantly improved. After the first round of transplantation, the glucose level reduced considerably and continued to decrease out to 3 months. Meanwhile, after 2 months of transplantation, the Hab1C level decreased and achieved the average level at the 3rd month of treatment. After 6 months, the patient was free from insulin injection and maintained glucose and Hab1c level. To date, after 9 months of treatment; the patients has continued to be free from insulin injection and without any adverse effects. Conclusion: The primary results have suggested that autologous bone marrow-derived stem cell transplantation may be a new direction for T2DM treatment.