Publisher Biomedical Research and Therapy-
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2876-2887; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.506
Abstract:Background: Hyperthyroidism is a disorder that occurs when the thyroid gland secretes more thyroid hormone than the body needs. Thyroid hormone is essential for the normal growth and development of normal organs. Polyherb (POH) formulation has proven to be useful in number of diseases and has been used in folk medicine as an anti-hyperthyroidism, anti-oxidant, and appetitestimulating agent. The aim of the study was to evaluate the curative effect of POH against L-thyroxin (LT4)-induced hyperthyroidism in male rats. Methods: Seven groups (10 rats each) were used for this purpose. Determination of phytochemical analysis, oxidative stress markers, brain appetite marker and cell energy marker were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) techniques. Thyroid hormones were detected via ELISA, and liver functions were determined by colorimetric method. Results: The data showed that LT4 altered thyroid function via decreasing serum Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), serum total protein, albumin and globulin, while increasing Triiodothyronine (T3), Thyroxine (T4), and Aspartate aminotransferase (AST). Moreover, oxidative stress markers in liver tissues were increased, via up-regulation of nitric oxide (NO), oxidized glutathione (GSSG), malondialdehyde (MDA), and 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8OHdG). Meanwhile, glutathione (GSH) and ATP were alleviated; in contrast, metabolites of ADP and AMP were elevated. Neuronal appetite marker in brain tissue was decreased via low serotonin levels. On the other hand, rat groups treated with POH and Carbimazole (CBZ) showed markedly amelioration of hyperthyroidism in rats at low dose only but did not show complete amelioration at high dose of POH. The data were confirmed through histopathological examination of the thyroid. Conclusion: The data obtained demonstrated that POH, at low dose, can be very effective for completely treating hyperthyroidism in rats, and was safer than Carbimazole (CBZ) and ameliorated most signaling pathways and in different tissues.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2850-2862; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.504
Abstract:Introduction: The aim is to study the microbiological and clinical efficacy of decamethoxinebased quaternary ammonium antiseptic inhalations in the complex management of respiratory infectious complications in critically ill children. Methods: The use of inhalation of antiseptic medicinal decamethoxine (DCM) was studied in patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) (n=30), of ages 12-18 years. All patients received standard intensive care according to the guidelines. Inhalations of 5 mL DCM (0.02%) antiseptic per inhalation TID for 7 days in combination with systemic antibiotic therapy were used in the study group (n=15). Clinical microbiological studies and assessment of Toll-like receptor (e.g. TLR-4) serum levels were performed in patients. Results: The use of DCM inhalations along with systemic antibiotic therapy improved parameters of dynamic compliance by 3.4-fold and decreased lung resistance by 2.4-fold in patients after 48-72 hours of mechanical ventilation. The microbial spectrum of patients at the beginning of VAP was represented by gram-positive (S. aureus — 28.6%, S. pyogenes — 10.2%) and gramnegative (P. aeruginosa — 16.3%; A. baumannii — 12.24%; K. pneumoniae — 10.2%) pathogens. The pathogens were isolated in the monoculture (20.4%) and in microbial associations (79.6%). A significant decrease by 3 orders of magnitude (log (2.640.43) CFU/mL) in the microbial count in tracheobronchial secretions was determined after 7 days of additional use of DCM inhalations when compared to the initial levels of microbial colonization (p
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2863-2875; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i12.505
Abstract:Introduction: The aim of this study was to investigate whether the circulating level of sST2 would predict adverse LV remodeling in STEMI patients with TIMI III flow through the myocardial infarctrelated coronary artery six months after intervention. Methods: The study retrospectively included 65 patients with STEMI and TIMI-III flow after primary or facilitated percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). These patients were admitted to the intensive care unit of L.T. Malaya Therapy National Institute between August 2016 and July 2018. Primary PCI with bare-metal stent implantation was performed in 33 patients, and 32 patients were previously treated with primary thrombolysis followed by PCI within 12 hours after initial STEMI confirmation. Angiographic, clinical, and biochemical parameters were evaluated. B-mode, Tissue Doppler, Strain Echocardiography, and blood sampling for biomarker assays were performed at admission, at discharge from the hospital, and at six months after STEMI. Results: Late adverse LV remodeling is defined as an increase of LV end-diastolic volume (EDV) six months post STEMI (first cohort, n=29), while other patients (second cohort, n=36) did not demonstrate a decreasing trend of LV EDV, or they had never revealed any decrease of this parameter. There was a significant difference between the two cohorts in the serum level of sST2 at discharge, while the levels of natriuretic peptides, troponin I were similar (P=0.24). Indeed, the circulating level of sST2 in the first cohort was higher than that of the second cohort (59.72 ng/mL; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 36.99 ng/mL -139.53 ng/mL versus 44.75 ng/mL; 95%CI =28.25 ng/mL -77.32 ng/mL, P=0.039, respectively). ROC-analyses showed that the best balanced cut-off point for sST2 to predict adverse remodeling at 6 months post PCI was 35 ng/mL (AUC=0.672 95% C 0.523-0.799; P=0.0344 sensitivity = 46.7% and specificity = 85.7%). Conclusions: We showed that the circulating level of sST2 measured at discharge in acute STEMI patients intervented by PCI could predict late adverse LV remodeling six months post PCI. These findings offer a new biomarker to stratify patients with successful coronary re-vascularization at risk of HF.
Asian Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 4, pp 1-10; doi:10.15419/ajhs.v4i2.442
Abstract:Introduction: The insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism of 287 bp Alu repeat sequence in intron 16 of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) gene resulting in three genotypes I/D, D/D and I/I. ACE gene expression is associated with ACE levels in cells and in the plasma. It indicated that the polymorphism may modulate the expression of the ACE gene. The D/D genotype is believed to confer deleterious effect to many pathogenesis, also, it might be a cause-effect for type 2 diabetic nephropathy (T2DN). In this study, we evaluated the frequency of the different genotypes of ACE gene and investigated if there is an association between ACE gene polymorphism and T2DN by comparing the genotypes results of T2DN patients to healthy control, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and nephropathy patients in Gaza Strip. Methodology: The study included 170 subjects, consisting of 43 T2DM patients undergoing dialysis "T2DN" compared to 41 T2DM patients who were not undergoing dialysis, 43 patients undergoing dialysis without T2DM and 43 healthy individuals. Blood samples were collected in EDTA tubes for DNA extraction. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was used to detect ACE gene polymorphism. All subjects were asked to fill the questionnaire interview. Results and Conclusion: The initial results showed that there is no statistically significant association between ACE genotypes and T2DN, also between the T2DM and nephropathy when compared to the healthy control (p> 0.05). The (D/D) genotype was the most frequent in all study groups. Moreover, no association was observed between ACE genotypes and gender, diabetic nephropathy, nephropathy, diabetes, hypertension, obesity and various other diabetes complications.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2841-2849; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i11.503
Abstract:Introduction: Stroke is one of the most serious and debilitating diseases in our society. Stroke survivors can suffer several neurological impairments. They typically show pathological changes in neural functions of brain areas. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can be applied to modify cerebral excitability and has been recently applied in the treatment of neuropsychological and neurological disorders. The aim of the study herein was to evaluate changes in movement and cognitive functions of chronic ischemic stroke patients using anodic and cathodic tDCS. Method: In this clinical trial, 100 patients with chronic ischemic stroke were divided in 4 groups (control, sham, anodic tDCS, and cathodic tDCS; n=25 per group). The patients underwent routine treatment and received the same tDCS protocol (3 times per week of 30-min sessions during one month). Movement and cognitive functions were evaluated using the NIHSS Scale & Trail Making Test and the Beck Test, before and after 1 and 3 months of tDCS sessions. All data were analyzed by 2-way repeated measures ANOVA using SPSS program (version 18). Results: The results showed that there were significant increases (P
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2832-2840; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i11.502
Abstract:Objectives: This study was designed to characterize 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) for localization of the left free wall lateral accessory pathway (AP) in patients with typical Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome, to develop a new algorithm ECG for localizing APs, and to test the accuracy of the algorithm prospectively. Method: We studied 129 patients; 84 patients had typical WPW syndrome with single anterograde AP identified by successful radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA), and were enrolled to build a new ECG algorithm for localizing left free wall APs. Then, the algorithm was tested prospectively in 45 patients and compared with the location of APs successfully ablated by RFCA. Results: We found that the 12-lead ECG parameters in typical WPW syndrome, such as delta wave polarity in V1, R/S ratio in V1, transition of the QRS complex, and delta wave polarity in inferior, lead to diagnosis and localization of APs, with highest accuracy predicted from 74.5%-100%, and for development of a new ECG algorithm. From the 45 patients who were prospectively evaluated by the newly derived algorithm for the left free wall pathways, the sensitivity and specificity was high (from 75-100%). Conclusion: The 12-lead ECG parameters in typical WPW syndrome are closely related to left free wall AP localization and can be used to develop a new ECG algorithm by the parameters above. Moreover, the new ECG algorithm can predict the location of APs with high accuracy.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2827-2831; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i11.501
Abstract:Background: Acute appendicitis is the most common surgical emergencies; while unusual symptoms have a differential diagnosis. This study aimed to determine the diagnostic accuracy of CBC and abdominal X-ray in acute suppurative appendicitis. Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed on 198 patients. For all patients, complete blood count and abdominal X-ray were recorded. The pathological report after surgery was the gold standard for diagnosis. Then indicators of the validity of tests CBC, X-ray and neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, consisted of positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV), sensitivity, specificity, were analyzed. Results: Out of patients, 133 of patients were male (67.2%), and 65 (32.8%) were female with mean age of 29.13 years. Acute appendicitis confirmed in 77.8% of pathological study, and 17.7% was the normal appendix. Leukocytosis, NLR and abdominal X-ray tests, each have a sensitivity of 89.5%, 78.5% and 100%, specificity of 31.4%, 31.4% and 31.8%, PPV 85.8%, 84.2% and 53.9%, NPV 39.2%, 23.9% and 100%, respectively. There was a significant relationship between appendicitis and WBC> 10.000 and abdominal radiography findings. Conclusion: Due to the sensitivity of performing CBC and leukocytosis and NLR is at an acceptable level, especially with a relatively high positive predictive value, could be concluded that the positivity of these tests for confirming the diagnosis in suspected cases might be helpful and can help to strengthen the clinical diagnosis. Our results in relation to the x-ray of the abdomen suggest its usefulness in the diagnosis of appendicitis.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2820-2826; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i11.500
Abstract:Background: Chromosome Xq11-12 is the place that the androgen receptor (AR) sequence appears. Herein, the prevalence of this biomarker and its relation with pT stage and tumor grade was reported. Methods: Four online sites (PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library) have been searched up to Sep 2018 systematically. Meta-Analysis software version 2.0 (CMA 2.0) and STATA 14.0 statistical software were utilized. Publication bias did not exist. Results: From the initial 1141 articles identified from the systematically searches. At last, nine of them remained for analysis. The meta-analysis included 1447 patients that 345 of them had AR expression. AR expression significantly correlated with low tumor grade and low tumor pT stage. Conclusion: AR expression was 28.2%, and it had the relationship with tumor low grade and low pT stage. Additional studies required to figure out the role of it on RCC patients.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2811-2819; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i11.499
Abstract:Background: Plaque psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory skin disease. Conventional treatments of psoriasis are not completely effective. In addition, unwanted side effects limit their long-term use. In this regard, developing new natural treatments with fewer side effects could be an alternative option. This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of topical chamomile-pumpkin oleogel (ChP) in treating plaque psoriasis. Methods: A total of 40 patients with mild-to-moderate plaque psoriasis were enrolled in this intra-patient, double-blind, block-randomized clinical trial. In each patient, bilateral symmetrical plaques were treated with ChP or placebo twice daily for four weeks. For clinical assessment, the Psoriasis Severity Index (PSI) and the Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) scale were evaluated at baseline and after the treatment. At the end of the study, patients' satisfaction with the treatment was evaluated using a visual analog scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 10. For safety assessment, all treatment-related side effects were recorded. Results: Thirty-seven subjects (20 female, 17 male; age 20–60 years) completed the study. The mean decreases in the PSI score in the ChP group (4.09 +/- 2.24) were significantly (p = 0.000) greater than the placebo group (0.48 +/- 1.39). According to the PGA results, 13/37 (35%) of the ChP-treated plaques could achieve marked to complete improvement compared to 0% in the placebo group. Three patients dropped out from the study due to worsening of bilateral plaques during the first week of trial. Conclusion: Our results suggest that topically applied ChP could provide a safe and effective complementary option for psoriasis plaque management. IRCT registration code: IRCT2016092830030N1.
Asian Journal of Health Sciences, Volume 4, pp 3-3; doi:10.15419/ajhs.v4i2.439
Abstract:Objectives: To investigate the knowledge, awareness, and attitudes of school teachers towards breast cancer in Kaduna metropolis. Methods: A survey of school teachers aged 20 – 65 years was conducted in both public and private schools in Kaduna metropolis. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data. Results: Out of the 997 participants, mean age 40.69 (SD = 12.09) years. Of all the participants, 259 (26.0%) were males, and 738 (74.0%) were females. The role of a teacher in disseminating information or knowledge cannot be overemphasized. Because of that crucial role they play thus makes it necessary that they have the right information so that they can transfer such to their students or wards. The children today represents the young generation that is growing. It will be good if they have the right knowledge about breast cancer concerning what breast cancer is, what causes it, knowledge of signs and symptoms, and what measures to take to prevent or treat it. Conclusion: This study shows that there is breast cancer awareness but there is low in-depth knowledge about the disease. There is low knowledge of risk factors, signs and symptoms, low response to breast self-examination (BSE), clinical breast examination (CBE) and mammography. Educational health programs can be organized to help create more awareness and knowledge about breast cancer which has the potential to help the public in making informed decisions thereby reducing the incidence of this disease.