Publisher Biomedical Research and Therapy-
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2064-2077; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i3.421
Abstract:Introduction: This study evaluates the effects of simvastatin on the liver, in a mouse model of DMBA-induced breast cancer, with regards to histopathological, biochemical and antioxidant features. Methods: Mice were randomly divided into two groups: A (control group) and B (mammary tumor group); the latter group received DMBA (50 mg/kg) by oral gavage once a week for 4 consecutive weeks. Animals positive for breast cancer tumors were randomly divided into 3 subgroups: 1) no treatment group (D1), 2) mice that received simvastatin (80 mg/kg) per os (P.O.) daily for 4 consecutive weeks (D2), and 3) mice that received tamoxifen (50 mg/kg) P.O. daily for 4 consecutive weeks (D3). Results: Administration of simvastatin to D2 mice resulted in significantly higher superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity as well as glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity and total antioxidant capacity (TAC), and accompanied by reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content in liver as compared to D1 group. Tamoxifen significantly increased liver glutathione (GSH) content as compared to D1 mice. Moreover, MDA levels in liver of mice treated with tamoxifen were significantly lower than in the D1 group. Mice in the D1 group showed significantly increased levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), aspartate transaminase (AST), and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) in liver tissues; these levels were significantly reduced by simvastatin administration. Moreover, tamoxifen decreased ALP and AST activities. Histopathological examination of liver sections from mice in the D1 group showed severe deteriorative changes. The extent and severity of changes in D2 and D3 groups were almost the same and milder than D1 group. Conclusion: In conclusion, simvastatin appears to have a hepatoprotective role in mice with DMBA-induced breast cancer, due partly to its antioxidant properties.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2050-2063; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.420
Abstract:Introduction: Beta three adrenergic receptor (ADRB3) is an adrenergic receptor that induces activation of adenylate cyclase located mainly in adipose tissue and is involved in the thermogenesis of brown fat tissue and in the regulation of lipolysis. Agonists of ADRB3 are found to induce the thermogenesis process of human brown fat tissue and thus believed to be excellent anti-obesity targets. The most studied single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of ADRB3 is rs4994. Inconsistent findings have been found in earlier studies about the association of rs4994 polymorphisms with obesity among different populations. The association of ADRB3/rs4994 polymorphism with obesity among the Saudi population is unknown. This study aimed to investigate the association of ADRB3/rs4994 polymorphism with obesity, blood lipids and blood pressure in the Saudi population. Method: This study was a case control study involving 88 obese healthy volunteers and 84 non-obese (controls) volunteers recruited from the King Khaled University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh City, Saudi Arabia. Using KASPTM (Competitive Allele-Specific PCR) the rs4994 genotype for each participant was determined. The frequency, distribution, and association of each genotype with body mass index (BMI) and lipid profile were calculated. Results: The distribution of CC, TT and CT genotypes in the study population was 0.37, 0.06 and 0.56, respectively. The heterozygote CT genotype was associated with a reduced risk of obesity (odds ratio (OR)=0.4398, 95%CI=0.2338 to 0.8277, P-value=0.010). It was more frequent in the non-obese participants compared to the obese participants (67.9% vs. 44.3%, respectively). Moreover, participants with the CT genotype had a significantly lower BMI (P=0.004). In contrast, the CC genotype was associated with an increased risk of obesity (OR=2.5, 95%CI=1.3467 to 4.8758, P-value=0.004). The frequency of the CC genotype was higher in obese participants compared to the non-obese ones (46.6% vs. 28.6%, respectively). Participants with the CC genotype demonstrated a significantly higher BMI than participants with the CT or TT genotypes (Q= 4.5, P=0.004). The TT genotype had no significant effects on the participants’ BMI (OR=2.9, 95%CI=0.7563 to 11.5759, P value=0.11), and it was higher in obese compared to non-obese participants (9.1% vs. 3.6%, respectively). No significant effect of ADRB3/rs4994 polymorphism on blood lipid profile or blood pressure was observed. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggested that the heterozygote CT genotype of the ADRB3/rs4994 polymorphism is associated with a reduced risk of obesity among the Saudi population. In the future, larger scale studies are required to further confirm these observations.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2045-2049; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.419
Abstract:Introduction: Twin pregnancies are associated with a risk of premature delivery. Case presentation: A 34-year-old primiparous female patient with twin pregnancy presented in the 26th week of pregnancy with a cervical length of 11 mm, with prolapse of membranes. The patient received specialized bed rest and support, and the pregnancy was successfully completed at 36 weeks and 5 days. Conclusion: In the second half of the pregnancy, due to the risk of emergency cervical cerclage, expectant management seems an appropriate and safe approach.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2034-2044; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.418
Abstract:Introduction: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is one of the most common cardiac problems in preterm neonates which could lead to morbidities, such as chronic lung disease, intraventricular hemorrhage and retinopathy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of oral acetaminophen on closure of PDA in preterm neonates. Methods: Sixty-nine neonates with significant PDA (confirmed through echocardiography) were recruited in this study. Ibuprofen and indomethacin were contraindicated in these neonates These newborns were randomly divided into two groups of cases (n=36) and controls (n=33). The case group was treated with oral acetaminophen at a dose of 15 mg/kg/dose every 6 hours for 72 hours. The control group did not receive any intervention. After 72 hours, both groups were re-evaluated by echocardiography. In case of failed closure of PDA, the second course of treatment would be administration of acetaminophen. The main outcome of this study was to evaluate the rate of closure of PDA and the side effects of the acetaminophen. Results: The overall rate of PDA closure in the acetaminophen-receiving group was 94.4%; the ductus arteriosus was closed in 75% of patients with the first course of treatment. Moreover, 19.4% of patients did not respond to the first course of the treatment but their ductus arteriosus was closed with the second course of acetaminophen treatment. Of the patients, 5.6% did not respond to both courses of acetaminophen treatments. For the control group, the closure rate of PDA was 15.1%. Conclusion: The results of the study showed that oral acetaminophen is an effective alternative treatment for PDA in preterm neonates.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2022-2033; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.417
Abstract:Introduction: The aim of this study is to fit Fine-Grey competing risk model and compare its results with stratified Cox model and to examine its application in breast cancer data. Methods: The study was conducted on 15830 women diagnosed with breast cancer in British Columbia, Canada. They were divided into four groups according to patients' stage of disease then for patients with stage III and IV breast cancer was fitted Cox's model and Fine-Grey competing risk flexible models to each group. Results: The data show that Out of 1888 patients, 578 lied in the age group of below 50 years old, while 1310 were above 50 years of age. The results obtained from fitting stratified Cox regression model indicate that the variables of age and surgery are significant. The patients in the age group of below 50 years old have 70% less hazard in comparison with people older than 50 years of age (HR=0.83). Further, the patients receiving surgery have 38% less hazard in comparison with the patients not receiving surgery (HR=0.62). Then we fit Fine-Grey competing risk models. the variable of chemotherapy is significant in both parametric and semi-parametric competing risk models, and its hazard ratio is HR=1.15 and HR=1.14 in the two models, respectively. On the other hand, the variable of age has not become significant in any of the models, and its hazard ratio is HR=0.92 and HR=0.93, respectively. The variable of surgery in the competing risk parametric model is significant with an HR of 0.67. In Cox model, the variable of surgery is also significant with HR=0.62. Moreover, the variable of age in the competing risk parametric model has not become significant (HR=0.92), and in contrast the variable of age in the Cox model is significant (HR=0.83). Conclusion: The results of this study show that Considering the comparison of the two models, it is observed that regardless of the properties of competing risk data, estimations of hazard ratio and the extent of significance resulting from Cox models are different from those of competing risk models.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2000-2012; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.414
Abstract:Introduction: Cartilage injury is the most common injury among orthopedic diseases. The predominant treatment for this condition is cartilage transplantation. Therefore, production of cartilage for treatment is an important strategy in regenerative medicine of cartilage to provide surgeons with an additional option for treatment of cartilage defects. This study aimed to produce in vitro engineered cartilage tissue by culturing and differentiating umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells on biodegradable Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold. Methods: Human umbilical cord derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSCs) were isolated and expanded according to previous published protocols. UCMSCs were labeled with CD90 APC‑conjugated monoclonal antibody (CD90-APC) and then seeded onto porous PCL scaffolds. Cell adhesion and proliferation on PCL scaffolds were evaluated based on the strength/signal of APC, MTT assays, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The chondrogenic differentiation of UCMSCs on scaffolds was detected by Alcian Blue and Safranin O staining. Results: The results showed that UCMSCs successfully adhered, proliferated and differentiated into chondroblasts and chondrocytes on PCL scaffolds. The chondrocyte scaffolds were positive for some markers of cartilage, as indicated by Alcian Blue and Safranin O staining. Conclusion: In conclusion, this study showed successful production of cartilage tissues from UCMSCs on PCL scaffolds.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 1986-1999; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.415
Abstract:Background: Pancreatic cancer (PC) is as the twelfth most frequent cancer and the seventh most important cause of mortality by reason of cancer in the world. Being informed about the incidence and mortality of this cancer and the potential role of development is useful in health policy. The aim of this research is investigating disparities in the incidence and mortality of PC in the world countries in the year 2012. Methods: This study was an ecologic study in the World for assessing the correlation between Human Development Index (HDI) and its details (Gross national income (GNI) per capita, average years of schooling and life expectancy at birth) with age-standardized incidence rate (ASIR) and age-standardized mortality rate (ASMR) of PC. Results: In total, 337872 new cases of PC occurred in 2012 around the world , that 178116 and 159711 cases take happen in men and women respectively, also at the same year 330391 deaths of PC occurred ,that 173,827 and 156564 cases were in men and women. In assessment the relationship between HDI and ASIR and ASMR of PC there is significant positive correlation equal to 0.767 (p
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2013-2021; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i02.416
Abstract:Introduction: Tonsillectomy in children is associated with some major complications originating from intense post-tonsillectomy pain which can distress patients, cause swallowing difficulties and discomfort, and also lead to aspiration. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of using pre-operative ketamine injection on post-tonsillectomy pain intensity in children. Methods: This double-blind clinical trial was carried out on 60 patients undergoing elective tonsillectomy. To this end, all the patients were anaesthetized by the same method. In the first group, 2 cc of ketamine (0.5mg/kg) solution was topically injected into the soft tissue of tonsillar fossa (peritonsillar space); in the second group, a similar administration was performed but with normal saline. For all the patients, incision was made 5 minutes after injection with the Blast Dissection Snare method. Moreover, the patients’ pain intensity and analgesics consumption were measured 30 minutes, and 1, 2, 4, and 6 hours after surgery. Finally, the collected data were analyzed using the SPSS software. Results: The present study was conducted on 60 patients, 37 males and 23 females, with the mean age of 9.3±3.4 years. In this respect, repeated measures analysis of variance of patients’ pain scores collected in five post-operative stages showed that pain intensity in both groups was at the highest level immediately after operation; it gradually decreased during measurement stages. However, at each measurement, the pain intensity experienced in the ketamine-treated group was significantly lower than that for the placebo group. Conclusion: It was concluded that pre-incision topical injection of ketamine can serve as an effective method to control post-tonsillectomy throat pain.
Published: 28 January 2018
Journal of Medical Research and Innovation, Volume 2; doi:10.15419/jmri.108
Abstract:Valproic acid (VPA) is a wide spectrum antiepileptic medication indicated for seizure prophylaxis across the spectrum of epilepsy. Since coming into clinical use, VPA has also been recommended for the management of a variety of other pathologies, including, most notably, mood stabilization in the manic patient. VPA’s common adverse effects include gastrointestinal, influenza-like symptoms, headache, and difficulties with sleep; nonetheless, in rare instances, VPA has been noted to cause the severe and potentially lethal condition of hyperammonemia with encephalopathy (VIHE). VIHE is the result of a dose-independent increase in ammonia levels. Often the patient is asymptomatic; if symptoms reach clinical threshold, lethargy is most common, though seizures, focal neurologic deficits and even coma are possible. VIHE can occur in patients despite normal hepatic function, normal loading doses, chronic stable doses and normal free serum drug levels. Once the diagnosis is confirmed, the first approach for symptomatic patients is to discontinue VPA, start alternative mood stabilizer as indicated, and supplement hyperammonemia treatment with lactulose, carnitine or carglumic acid. Below is a case report of VIHE that developed in an adolescent girl with a history of Bipolar I Disorder who was hospitalized in our facility for stabilization of mania. As demonstrated below, early diagnosis of VIHE is pivotal in reducing morbidity and ultimately can be life-saving. Keywords: Valproic acid, Hyperammonemia, Encephalopathy
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 1967-1974; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i1.411
Abstract:Background: The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between mortality from non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and national human development index (HDI) of a country, as well as investigate the correlation between premature mortality from NCDs and national HDI. Method: Data for age-standardized mortality rate (ASRM) of NCDs and premature mortality (before age 70 years) in percentage for total NCDs in 2015 were obtained from the World Health Organization (WHO) databases. National HDI data for the year 2015 were obtained from the 2015 Human Development Report. Linear regression model was used for assessment of correlation between HDI and mortality. One-way ANOVA was used to test the difference in mean mortality of various HDI group countries; P ≤ 0.05 was considered significant. Results: The results suggested an inverse correlation between HDI and ASRM for both men and women. The negative relation was also reported for percentage premature mortality and HDI. Tukey post hoc test (p < 0.001) indicated that countries with very high HDI have low ASRM and premature mortality (compared to those with high HDI and so on). The greatest mortality was observed in low HDI countries. Conclusion: Management of non-communicable diseases is one of the greatest challenges for low and middle HDI countries. In order to control the disease burden, governments should pay serious attention to their economic development.