Publisher Biomedical Research and Therapy-
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2504-2517; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.460
Abstract:There is little about the incidence, mortality and risk factors of Esophageal cancer (EC) in the world. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the incidence rate, mortality and EC risk factors in the world. This review study was conducted on published English research by January 2017 with the search in by March 2018 by searching in the databases of PubMed, Scopus, and Science Direct with the keywords "esophagus cancer," "epidemiology," "incidence," "mortality," "risk factor," " world." Based on the findings of this study, the geographical distribution of the EC differs according to subtitles, as AC is more prevalent in developed countries, while SCC is more prevalent in countries in Africa and East Asia. The most important risk factors for EC are the low intake of vegetables and fruits, drinking drinks and hot liquids, reducing the intake of nutritional supplements such as selenium and zinc, smoking, excessive consumption of alcohol, past medical history, obesity and exposure to some environmental factors. According to the findings, it seems that the main cause of EC- is an undesirable lifestyle. Therefore, it is possible to improve the lifestyle and inform the community about EC risk factors and healthy lifestyle education.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2518-2527; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.461
Abstract:Background: Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) arises from an imbalanced proliferation and differentiation of lymphoid progenitors due to special chromosomal and epigenetic abnormalities affecting cell cycle regulation. The cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CDKI) family has crucial functions in G1 progression and G1 to S entry regulation. Among CDKIs, P21 and P27 are able to exert remarkable effects on all CDKs. Hence, we investigated the expression levels of P21 and P27 in ALL patients to determine whether or not their expression had been altered. Materials and Methods: In the present study, we evaluated P21 and P27 expression in bone marrow and peripheral blood samples of 52 newly diagnosed ALL patients (30 males, 22 females) and 13 healthy normal controls (5 males, 8 females) using quantitative real-time PCR. Data were analyzed via SPSS (version 16) software and P
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2528-2537; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.462
Abstract:Background: Enteral nutrition (EN) intolerance is a common complication in critically ill patients that contributes to morbidity and mortality. Based on the evidence of curing effects of fenugreek seeds in some gastrointestinal disorders, this study aimed to determine the effects of fenugreek seed powder on enteral nutrition tolerance and clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. Materials & Methods: A randomized, double-blinded clinical trial of 5-day duration was conducted on 60 mechanically ventilated patients divided in 2 groups (n=30). Group 1 was given fenugreek seed powder by gavage, twice a day in addition to routine care, while Group 2 received only routine care. Enteral nutrition tolerance and clinical outcomes were measured throughout the study. Demographic and clinical data were recorded and clinical responses to the primary outcome (enteral nutrition tolerance) and secondary outcome (other clinical factors) were interpreted. Data were analyzed using the independent t-test, Chi-squared test, covariance analysis, and repeated measure ANOVA via SPSS statistical software (v. 20); statistical significance was set at p< 0.05. Results: Patients who were fed with the fenugreek seed powder showed a significant improvement in enteral nutrition tolerance, as well as some complications of mechanical ventilation for Group 1, as compared with Group 2. The mortality rates were not different between the two groups. Conclusion: This study shows the beneficial effects of fenugreek seeds on food intolerance in critically ill patients and that the seed powder can be used as an add-on therapy with other medications. Thus, the use of fenugreek seeds to treat mechanically ventilated patients is recommended.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2440-2454; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.456
Abstract:Background: The anti-hyperglycemic potential of methanol stem bark extract of Anacardium occidentale (MSBEAO) was investigated using an alloxan-induced diabetic rat model. Alloxan administration induces the generation of free radicals which can affect antioxidant status resulting in the disruption of the β-cells of the pancreas. Therefore, this study examines the antioxidant potential of the plant extract and the ameliorating effect on the pancreas of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Methods: Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 150 mg/kg body weight of alloxan monohydrate. MSBEAO, at a concentration of 100 or 200 mg/kg b.w. was orally administered to alloxan-induced diabetic rats and normal rats. The hypoglycemic effect, oral glucose tolerance test, and biochemical assay of alloxan-induced diabetic rats were assayed using standard procedures. Results: Preliminary phytochemical screening of the extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, saponins, terpenoids, carbohydrates, and phenols at moderate concentrations. The lethality dose (LD50) of the plant extract was found to be equal to or less than 5000 mg/kg b.w. The hypoglycemic effect of the extract on the non-diabetic rats revealed a significant (p
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2432-2439; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.455
Abstract:Introduction: Jaundice is the most common condition requiring medical attention in newborns. Phototherapy is the standard treatment for jaundice. However, in recent decades, phototherapy has been considered as an oxidative stress that can cause lipid peroxidation and damage to DNA. Accordingly, the present study was conducted to examine the possible effects of phototherapy on the Pro-oxidant/Antioxidant Balance (PAB) in jaundiced newborns. Methods: The present clinical trial was conducted on 70 icteric term neonates admitted to Ghaem Hospital of Mashhad, Iran between February 2013 and February 2015. The study population consisted of all term neonates who were admitted to the hospital within 2 to 14 days after birth for unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia (bilirubin levels > 15 mg/dl) and were treated with phototherapy. Neonates’ and mothers’ characteristics, along with the cause of jaundice, were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire, and neonates’ bilirubin levels and PAB values were simultaneously checked before, during and after the phototherapy. Finally, bilirubin levels and PAB values were compared using statistical methods. Results: According to the results, neonates’ underlying characteristics were not statistically different. The average and standard deviation of bilirubin levels and PAB values were, respectively, 18.90±2.97 and 16.29±9.83 (before phototherapy), 15.71±3.16 and 29.63±12.56 (during phototherapy), and 12.37 ±3.57 and 40.91 ±13.35 (after phototherapy). Conclusion: The results of this study demonstrate that decreased levels of bilirubin after phototherapy cause a shift in the PAB value in favor of oxidants.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2480-2492; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.458
Abstract:The objective: to investigate the relationship between levels of growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) and circulating number of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) with angiopoietin phenotypes: CD34+CD14+CD309+, and CD34+CD14+CD309+Tie2+ in patients with type 2 DM. Methods: The study was retrospectively involved 76 patients with type 2 DM aged 38 to 55 years and 30 healthy volunteers. Data collection included demographic and anthropometric information, hemodynamic performances and biomarkers of the diseases. Flow cytometry was used to determine EPCs' populations. Results: The levels of GDF-15 in peripheral blood of diabetics associated with age (r = 0.31, P = 0.044), high-sensitive C-reactive protein [hs-CRP] (r = 0.40, P = 0.001), smoking (r = 0.38, P = 0.001), body mass index [BMI] (r = 0.34, P = 0.001), LDL cholesterol (r = 0.28, P = 0.001), glycated hemoglobin [HbA1c] (r = -0.28, P = 0.001), number of CV risk factors (r = 0.26, P = 0.001). In univariate logistic regression analysis we found that level of GDF-15 ≥ 618 pg/mL, hs-CRP ≥7.12 mg/L, HbA1c ≥6.4%, fasting glucose ≥6.7 mmol/L, and BMI ≥27.3 kg/m2 predicted deficiency of both angiopoetic phenotypes of EPCs. In multivariate logistic regression model GDF-15 ≥618 pg/mL demonstrated the best odds ratio values for declining of EPCs in diabetics in comparison with other predictors including BMI, HbA1c and hs-CRP. Conclusion: GDF-15 was remarkably evaluated in type 2 DM population to healthy volunteers, and it was an independent factor that contributes to mobilization and probably proliferation of endothelial precursors with high angiopoetic activity.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2493-2503; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.459
Abstract:Background: Esophageal Cancer (EC) is the eighth most common cancer in terms of incidence. Despite various studies, there is no general estimate of EC incidence in Iran. Therefore, the present study is conducted to evaluate the incidence rates of EC in Iran. Method: A systematic search was conducted on all published studies of EC incidence using Medline/PubMed, Scopus, Web of sciences, Google scholar, and four Iranian databases (Scientific Information Database, MagIran, IranMedex, and IranDoc) until November 2017. This systematic review was done according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA). Result: The database, grey literature searches, and hand searching yielded 346 potentially relevant studies. A total of 22 studies were included. The results of the random effect model were demonstrated the age-standardized rate (ASR) of EC was 25.05, 95% CI (20.84 to 29.26) among males and 22.93 95 % CI (18.97-26.88) among females. Conclusion: In comparison to other geographical locations, the incidence of EC is higher in Iran. However, organized system for collecting data of cancer is required to specify the incidence and trend of EC in Iran.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2466-2479; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.457
Abstract:Introduction: This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of Cymbopogon citratus (CC), i.e. lemon grass, in a Doxorubicin (Dox)-induced male testicular damage and infertility model. Moreover, the anticancer role of the main active constituents of CC (Apigenin and Quercetin) was evaluated on prostatic and colon cancer (PC-3 and HCT-116 carcinoma cell lines, respectively). Methods: In vitro studies of the cell lines were carried out to determine the IC50 of each active constituent of CC, in order to select the most suitable dose for in vivo studies. For the in vivo studies, 24 rats were divided into 4 groups: Group 1 received saline treatment (negative control), Group 2 received treatment with CC (300 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)), Group 3 received Dox treatment (25 mg/kg b.w. intraperitoneally (i.p.)) on day 9 of the study, and Group 4 received CC treatment followed by Dox treatment on day 9 of the study. All the treatments were administered orally for 10 consecutive days. Results: The data revealed that Apigenin and Quercetin (AQ) had greater potency against PC-3 cells than HCT-116 cells. In vivo studies demonstrated that Dox treatment induced testicular damage and increased nitrosative stress, inflammation, and cell death, while decreasing cell energy markers for testes. In contrast, rats treated with CC only, or in parallel with Dox, showed ameliorative responses against Dox; they also showed greater testicular activity than normal, which reflected the ability of CC to significantly improve reproductive health performance. Conclusion: In conclusion, CC inhibits the activity and growth of PC-3 and HCT-116 carcinoma cell lines and, moreover, the whole extract of CC ameliorates testicular dysfunction induced by Dox.
Biomedical Research and Therapy, Volume 5, pp 2455-2465; doi:10.15419/bmrat.v5i7.454
Abstract:Introduction: Pulsatile tinnitus (PT) is a discrete repetitive sound that is synchronous with the patient’s pulse. Incidence of abnormal, often treatable and structural findings in patients with PT has been noted to be high, ranging from 44% to 91%. So, accurate diagnosis of pathologic causes is important for treatment and prognosis. Objective: The main objective of our study was evaluation of abnormal findings in temporal bone HRCT scan and CTA/CTV in patients affected by pulsatile tinnitus, and comparing these findings with unaffected ear of the same individuals. Methods: A case-control study was conducted and all the patients who had subjective pulsatile tinnitus with normal physical examinations among outpatient individuals referred to our institution; Rasoul Akram Hospital from September 2015 to august 2017 was included in this study. All patients underwent brain CT Angiography/Venography (CTA/V) and temporal bone high resolution CT scan (HRCT), and their findings were compared. Results: Thirty patients consist of 20 females and 10 males with mean age of 50.83 years were evaluated in this study. Pulsatile tinnitus was unilateral in all patients except one. Comparing results of CTA/V and temporal HRCT scan in the affected ear showed that temporal HRCT scan in 19(63.3%) out of 30 patients reported normal, while CTA/V only in eight (26.6%) of these patients reported normally. So, capability of CTA/V is statistically significant in diagnosis of abnormalities in the affected ear (P=0.012). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that CTA/V can be a more accurate imaging tool than temporal bone HRCT in initial assessment of patients with subjective pulsatile tinnitus and normal physical examination, and should be done as the first imaging tool in these patients.
Published: 26 July 2018
Journal of Medical Research and Innovation, Volume 2; doi:10.15419/jmri.144
Abstract:The Journal of Medical Research and Innovation would like to thank each and every one who has helped us to review and edit the articles. As a small token of appreciation, we would like to mention the names of all the editors and reviewers in random order here who have edited or reviewed the articles for the July, 2018 issue. The list will be updated as when more reviewers review the articles.