Journal Technology audit and production reserves-
Published: 28 December 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 1, pp 38-45; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.123463
Abstract:The object of research is the method of monitoring and assessing the technical condition of the large-sized building structure of the International Exhibition Center (Kyiv, Ukraine). The currently applied method of monitoring this structure is based on the use of deformation indicators. The indicators of this method do not allow estimating the global technical state of the structure. Taking into account the social importance of the structure, it is possible to use dynamic monitoring while monitoring its technical condition.In the course of the study, two independent finite element models of the controlled facility are developed in the SCAD (Russia) and NASTRAN (USA) software complexes. With their help, a modal analysis was made and the values of the frequencies and forms of the natural oscillations of the structure were determined. The natural measurements of its natural frequencies have been made. It is found that the difference between the calculated and natural values of natural frequencies does not exceed 3 %.In addition, version of an automated experimental control system is proposed, which includes the use of three-component accelerometers MS2002+, Geoscop software, controlled by the operating system MS Server.The received results testify to the efficiency of the use of frequencies and forms of natural oscillations in the system of monitoring the technical state of the given structure. In comparison with static deformation parameters, they allow estimating the global technical condition and determining the integrity of the structure.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 17-21; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.153343
Abstract:The object of research is the process of formation of an effective organizational structure of the village council to ensure the fulfillment of its numerous tasks, which are caused by the need to solve complex social and economic problems typical of this region. One of the most problematic places is the objective determination of directions for improving the organizational structure of the existing village council, taking into account the results of its activities.To eliminate the subjective approach, the developed methodology is used to assess the current organizational structure of the village council, which provides for the following algorithm of actions:development of the nomenclature of performance indicators and their numerical values;development of a questionnaire with selected indicators;conducting a survey;mathematical processing of research results;determination based on the results of improving the current organizational structure.The statistical methods are used – calculation of the percentage of satisfied of the total number of respondents, as well as the determination of the average value of satisfaction in points with a five-point assessment.Quantified data on respondents' satisfaction with the work of the Liubech village council (Ukraine) is obtained, which is a typical representative of recently created local councils. So, out of all 10 questions of the questionnaire, 63.3÷96.7 % of respondents give positive assessments of the effectiveness of the work of the current village council. Satisfaction of 90÷96.7 % of respondents with work refers to the coordination of the actions of the units; unity in solving complex issues; conflict resolution by heads of departments; employee response rates to complex issues; consistency of the objectives of the village council units. Up to 73.3 % of respondents are sympathetic to the management style of the chairman of the village council; sequence in the actions of leadership.Thanks to the survey, it is possible to determine numerically (as a percentage) who are satisfied with the work of the current organizational structure, and also to evaluate on a five-point scale the average satisfaction score. In particular, the average score (among respondents who are satisfied with the work of the Liubech village council) is 3.73÷4.16 points. The results show that the improvement of the existing organizational structure should be carried out in such a way that of all the ten areas considered to ensure maximum efficiency and understanding, as well as support from society. Compared with the existing approaches, a numerical assessment of satisfaction with local established criteria is proposed, which ensures an increase in information content and an objective determination of the directions for improving the organizational structure of the existing village council taking into account the results of its activities.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.150309
Abstract:The object of research is a complex self-regulating socio-economic meso-level system: enterprise. The article deals with industrial enterprise as a complex self-regulating management system of socio-economic factors. The heart of their management is based on the factors of state regulation that require special scientific analysis to improve the infrastructure for their provision. There is a problem of managing of the object-subject region – industrial enterprises.Considering the categories of economic development and economic growth as objects of research and regulation, let’s admit the theoretical and practical prevalence of the first of them. Philosophical and economic thought formulates development as an irreversible, forward-looking, natural change in material and ideal objects. Only the simultaneous presence of all three distinguished properties distinguishes development processes among other changes. The inverse nature of changes characterizes the processes of functioning (cyclical reconstruction of a constant system of functions). The absence of a pattern is characteristic of random processes of a catastrophic type. In the absence of directivity, changes cannot accumulate and, therefore, the process is deprived of a single, interdependent line characteristic of development.The research provides an analysis of institutional and legislative support in the selection of the horizon for forecasting innovative development of enterprises, where insufficiently investigated factors of self-organization, self-management and self-regulation of social and economic factors are revealed. The conglomerate of research is the approaches to the analysis of the competitiveness of enterprises, which are the strategic goal of their innovative development. Based on the system-structural analysis, classification and methodological generalization, the problem of designing the mechanisms of innovative and strategic development of the industrial enterprises are highlighted.The development of a balanced sound development strategy should consist in the:complex linking of issues of focus and economic growth;identifying and managing its determining factors;forecasting sustained growth of the macro system.With sufficient study of the above management problems, it is possible bring the competitiveness of enterprises to a higher level.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 4-10; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.149673
Abstract:The object of research is theoretical and practical aspects of decentralization in the framework of the transformational change of the system of local self-government in Ukraine. One of the most problematic places is the presence of many different approaches, methods and ways of reforming the country, which requires significant changes that need to be aimed at creating an open political system. As well as the development of civil society and increase the welfare of every individual citizen.The analysis of the current state of the system of local government is made in the context of the results of successful implementation of the decentralization reform. The main directions of implementation of decentralization reform until its completion are step-by-step determined. The actual implementation of all planned activities outlines areas that hampered the further improvement of intergovernmental fiscal relations is complex and lengthy procedure. In the process of research, general scientific and special research methods were used. In particular, the dialectical method of cognition allows to explore the theory of decentralization as a new management system. The methods of scientific research and determination of the principle of the complexity of the methodological base have allowed to ensure the objectivity and reliability of the main provisions of the conclusions.Retrospective analysis and evaluation of indicators of local budgets are conducted, which helped to identify opportunities for improvement of life in each locality and in the country as a whole. The directions of effective use of financial resources of local communities, providing:direction of funds for the development of the internal market, the creation of investment platforms and the training of local farmers to unite in cooperatives;rationalization of expenditure on social services (revision of benefits, distribution of paid services, the revision of the minimum wage and subsistence level);training the management team of the local community regarding the use of public funds.As a result of the decentralization of their implementation will provide the ability to obtain the powers and resources that will give local authorities greater opportunities for development of territories, creation of modern educational, medical, transportation, housing and utilities infrastructure. In comparison with similar methods of implementation of decentralization proposed project will allow efficient allocation of financial resources, taking into account existing development trends, which in turn will enhance the role of local government.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 4-8; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.151762
Abstract:The object of research is the hinge unit of the universal spindle of rolling mills. The most common for such conditions are used hinges with anti-friction liners with sliding friction. One of the most problematic parts of the hinge with sliding friction is the uneven distribution of pressure on the contact surface of the segments, which reduces the wear resistance of liners and operational reliability of the spindle. To identify the causes of uneven pressure and determine areas of significant excess of torsion loads, studies are carried out on the developed mathematical model of the hinge.In the course of the research, a mathematical analysis of the influence of the parameters of liners on the magnitude of pressure on the contact surfaces under the working loads of the roller blades and segments of the hinge liners is used. The parameters of the zones of high pressure in the contact liners typical forms in the form of a continuous segment with flat and cylindrical surfaces. It is established that it is necessary to change the liner section plane along the length and width of the segment.Analytical dependences of the hinge parameters on the active loads and pressure are obtained. The formulas for determining the geometric dimensions of the hinge segments with regard to its radius and rigidity are derived. The study of the hinge with inserts, in which bevels on a flat surface and slopes to the ends along the length and from the middle to the side faces, indicates the possibility of uniform distribution of pressure along the length and width of the segments of the inserts.Thus, research on the mathematical model and in the laboratory has shown that it is advisable to use the developed design of the liner with a variable section plane along the length and width of the liner. The uniform distribution of contact loads is confirmed by pressure plots along the length and width of the segments. This makes it possible to increase the wear resistance of the hinge joint of universal spindles of powerful rolling mills. Compared with the known designs of hinges, the operational reliability of the spindles and the period of trouble-free operation of states are significantly increased.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 42-49; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.149539
Abstract:The object of research in the work is the systems of remote control of electronic devices. There are wired and wireless means of implementing a remote communication channel between the slave and control devices. Analysis of existing means of creating a communication channel, found a low value of the ratio of system flexibility and data transfer rate within the created network. One of the reasons for the low ratio is the use of modules as part of a system with a high minimum operating time. Such modules are modules for filtering and decoding the received signal at the receiver side, encoding and modulation at the transmitter side. Replacing these modules with one with a significantly lower time spent will significantly improve the value of the ratio of system flexibility and data transfer rate. The ability to create a module that will have the necessary properties of time spent on work, provides a neural network.The model of a remote control system obtained during the study has several advantages, in particular, the presence of a neural network, makes it possible to reduce the time spent and to improve the accuracy of the system during the entire system operation time. This is achieved thanks to the ability of the neural network to self-learning without human intervention and its ability to analyze any input signals with different background noise values. These properties allow the replacement of elements that do not allow to increase the rate of exchange for elements of the neural network that will perform the same functions with greater speed, reliability and accuracy.The data obtained during the work proves the expediency of integrating the elements of the neural network into the remote control systems of electronic devices. Also, possible places for the integration of a neural network into the remote control system of electronic equipment have been proposed, which will improve the stability, accuracy, speed of the system.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.152266
Abstract:The object of research is the settlements with online store buyers. One of the most problematic places is the issue of accounting and analysis of e-commerce currency settlements, as this issue remains beyond scientific research. This leads to real problems in practice in the corresponding subsystems of the enterprise management system.The normative and legal base of the Ukrainian legislation concerning the settlement of purchases with the Internet store is analyzed. The correspondence of accounting accounts of settlements with buyers in terms of cash and electronic money is investigated. During the settlement by electronic money, such payment systems as WebMoney, RUpay are considered.In the course of the research, the method of scientific generalization (when summing up the results of this study), grouping and system analysis – to determine the essence of payments with online store buyers) are used.During the study, it is found that despite the rapid growth of trade through the Internet, this area remains unregulated at the legislative level. Legislation does not provide for a separate normative document that could regulate trade through an online store, that is, it is regulated by the same documents as other types of trade. And the reflection in the accounting transactions of settlements with buyers should be carried out depending on the methods of delivery and type of payments. At the same time, settlements by electronic money are complicated by the fact that in order to determine the tax base of the amount of received income, they must be confirmed by statements from the bank, that is, these settlements should be carried out with the help of a bank.The practical value of the research results is that they can be used in the future when making managerial decisions by the management of the company and developing measures to increase the settlement discipline between suppliers and buyers of the online store. This research topic today is very relevant, because the legislation of Ukraine does not define a regulatory document that could establish trade through the online store. Thus, there is a need to improve state regulation of trade through the global Internet.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 18-22; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.150585
Abstract:The object of research is the melting and casting system of special casting shops. The process is considered on the basis of simulation modeling of the requirements of chill or melts pressure casting machines and the capabilities of the melting and holding furnaces to meet this need. The modeling is carried out on the basis of typical solutions for the used brands of furnaces for the manufacture of aluminum alloys in non-ferrous casting shops of a machine-building enterprise specializing in the manufacture of casting in metal molds for engineering products.As a result of simulation modeling, a description is obtained of the influence of the intensity of applications on the melt on the part of chill machines or injection molding machines, and the time taken to complete these applications for the total costs of the implementation of the technological process. It is proposed to determine the total costs as the sum of the costs associated with the consumption of technological electricity, and the costs associated with the likely downtime of machines due to lack of metal. Moreover, the second component reflects the requirement for the performance of machines in terms of their actual operation. Therefore, the total cost of the process of chill casting or casting under pressure in terms of the consistency of the elements of the melting and casting system is chosen as the criterion for optimizing its operation.It is proposed to consider the melting and casting system as a queuing system (QS) with failures. Such a presentation is the most stringent in terms of requirements for ensuring a given performance. Using the study of the response surface, the optimization problem is solved according to the consistency of the intensity of requests for the melt and the time of their execution, which minimizes the total costs of the implementation of the technological process. Local optimal technological solutions are obtained that enable technologists to choose the most rational decisions for conducting a melting campaign using transfer furnaces with a capacity of 0.16–0.25 tons. Such solutions will provide the possibility of reducing the cost of manufacturing aluminum casting.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 29-35; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.152055
Abstract:The object of research is a rock massif of iron ore, which is destroyed by an explosive located in deep wells. One of the most problematic places is ensuring uniform grinding of the rock massif during underground mining of mineral deposits at great depths. In the Kryvyi Rih iron ore basin (Kryvyi Rih, Ukraine) in underground mining let’s use the Ukrainian-made Grammonite 79/21 explosive, which provided an opportunity to obtain high-quality grinding of the ore mass to a depth of 1200 m. With a decrease in mining, these indicators deteriorate significantly, due to the manifestations of rock pressure, which leads to the overcoming of wells and increased specific charge for blasting.A comprehensive method is used based on an analysis of existing methods that affect the specific charge of an explosive. According to practice data, it is found that when using an emulsion explosive in mining operations, the specific consumption of an explosive decreases, while the cost of extraction decreases and the quality of grinding of the massif improves. However, due to the lack of a methodology for calculating the parameters of drilling and blasting operations, the «Ukrainite PP-1» emulsion explosive is not widely used. The development of the methodology taking into account the characteristics of the «Ukrainite PP-1» emulsion explosive will improve the extraction of ore mass.It is shown that the use of «Ukrainite PP-1» emulsion explosive leads to a decrease in the total length of wells by 35 %, and a decrease in production costs. This is due to the fact that the proposed method of calculation has the peculiarity of taking into account the specific costs of emulsion explosives obtained by pilot tests, in particular, the efficiency coefficient of emulsion explosives.Due to this, the costs of drilling and blasting work are reduced and it is possible to obtain a calculated economic effect from the introduction of this technology at the level of 0.6 c. u./t. The proposed pattern of drilling the massif by the downward fans, compared with similar known, can reduce the time for drilling and improve the grinding of the rock massif without changing technology.
Published: 31 May 2018
Technology audit and production reserves, Volume 6, pp 11-16; doi:10.15587/2312-8372.2018.150879
Abstract:The object of research is the process of creating adaptive clusters of energy efficiency in the architecture and construction industry. Today, it is important to solve infrastructural problems of energy saving; therefore, the research is aimed at developing a methodology for creating functionally sustainable adaptive clusters in the context of a rapidly growing shortage of energy resources.One of the most problematic places is the system properties of clusters, which often become the cause of the inadequacy of the models developed for forward planning and the development of a strategy for the development of cluster organizational structures.During the study of the processes of formation and forecasting of possible scenarios for the development of clusters of the architecture and construction industry, special attention is paid to the analysis of features related to the inertia of construction processes and the duration of the life cycle of construction objects. These features significantly reduce the reliability of forecasting for long periods of time due to uncertainty and risks of a different nature. The developed methodology is based on simulation modeling of different trajectories of cluster development and the introduction of fast adaptive algorithms with feedback. This is due to the fact that the development scenarios of each existing cluster structure remain multivariate throughout the life cycle due to the action of various superpositions of environmental factors. When simulating the selection of the best clustering conditions that can provide the maximum synergistic effect, is based on the forecasts, which are carried out taking into account various indicators of external influences. The set of possible changes in the external environment and the degree of influence of system properties on the cluster adaptation mechanism, at this stage of development, are determined and evaluated by experts.The choice of the best management is proposed to be carried out on the basis of the system analysis of the results of computational experiments; it will ensure the formation of the cluster structure that is optimal according to given criteria and their adaptability to rapid and unpredictable changes in the environment. The process of developing mathematical tools for modeling the optimal in terms of energy efficiency cluster structure is described.