Journal Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

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Nining Nurini Andayani, M. Yasin H.G, Marcia B. Pabendon
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p133-140

Abstract:Information on genetic diversity of QPM and Provit-A maize germplasm is important to support breeding program, in order to form a high yielding maize hybrid. Simple sequence repeats (SSR) have been extensively utilized as genetic markers to study the genetic diversity, cultivar identification, and gene mapping. The objectives of this research were to investigate the genetic diversity and to obtain information the genetic relationship among 20 maize accessions using 29 SSRs. The research was carried out at the Moleculer Biology Laboratory of Indonesian Cereals Research Institute (ICERI) in Maros, South Sulawesi. Twenty nine polymorphic primers that covered the 10 maize chromosomes were used to fingerprint the genotype of the lines, detecting 83 allels, with an average allel number of 3 allels per locus, ranging from 2 to 6 alleles per locus. The results indicated that polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.10 (nc133 and phi072) to 0.74 (phi064) with the average of 0.45. Genetic distance based on genetic similarity estimate ranged from 0.39 to 0.92. The high level of PIC values and wide genetic distances indicated the large variability among maize germplasm. Cluster analysis divided the 20 maize accessions into three groups. Coefficient cofenetic value (r) was 0.85 indicated a good fit based on the genetic similarity value. As many as 30 inbred heterotic recombinants were derived by incorporating 20 QPM and Provit-A with genetic distance of ≤0.65. The SSRs proved to be reliable and is practical technique for revealing the relationship among specialty maize genotypes.
Sheny Sandra Kaihatu, Marietje Pesireron
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p141-148

Abstract:Maize has an important role in the national economy, but at some area, including in Maluku, the productivity is still low, below its potential productivity. The productivity of maize could be improved by planting high yielding and adaptive variety to the local environment. Study was conducted in the Haruru village, District Amahai, Central Maluku, from March to August 2012 aimed to identify maize varieties adaptive on dry land agro ecosystem. The study used randomized block design, replicated three times, where farmers’ fields were used as replications. The varieties tested were Srikandi Kuning, Gumarang, and Sukmaraga composites varieties. Bima-2 and Bima-2 (hybrid varieties) and Mutiara, Ungu Hati Putih, Merah, Orange Hati Putih, and Orange Hati Merah (local variety, obtained from farmers’ fields in the district of MTB). Fertilizers were drilled, 5-7 cm on the side of plant at a rate of 135 kg N, 90 kg P2O5, 60 kg K2O and 1-2 t manure/ha. Variables to be measured were percentage of surviving plants, age at 50% of male flowering, age at 50% of female flowering, plant height, ear height, cob length, cob weight, cob diameter, number of rows/ear, seed number per ear row, 100-seed weight, weight of dry grains, moisture content, and grain yield. Results showed that local varieties indicated a better growth, but grain yield were superior for the hybrid and the composite varieties. Bima-4 hybrid variety produced 10.31 t/ha dry grain, followed by Bima-2 hybrid and the composite varieties of Sukmaraga, Srikandi Kuning, and Gumarang, each was 8.70 t/ha, 7.97 t/ha, 7.60 t/ha and 7.26 t/ha, respectively. Local varieties Mutiara, Orange Hati Putih, Merah, Orange Hati Merah, and Ungu Hati Putih each yielded only 3.74 t/ha, 3.32 t/ha, 3.07 t/ha, 3.02 t/ha and 2.45 t/ha respectively.
Chaerani Chaerani, Diani Damayanti, Trisnaningsih Trisnaningsih, Siti Yuriyah, Kusumawaty Kusumanegara, Ahmad Dadang, Sutrisno Sutrisno, Bahagiawati Bahagiawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p109-118

Abstract:Brown planthopper is the most important rice pest in Indonesia. Its high adaptability to feed and reproduce on previously introduced resistant varieties to form more virulent population often causes BPH outbreak and hopperburn that lead to total crop yield loss. Rice breeding for resistant to BPH requires information on the current status of BPH virulences in the fields to anticipate the virulence adaptation on new varieties. The objectives of this study were to investigate the degree of virulence of BPH populations and to cluster the BPH virulence to form BPH core collection. Thirteen BPH populations collected from paddy fields in six provinces (Banten, West Java, Central Java, East Java, South Kalimantan, and South Sulawesi) in 2011 and 2013 were tested on 10 differential rice varieties and seven host varieties of BPH populations, using the standard seedbox screening technique. Based on resistance reaction of four differential varieties (TN1, Mudgo, ASD7, and Rathu Heenathi), most BPH populations were identified as more virulent than biotype 4 (T1, Banten, PG, West Java; BY, East Java; B2 and B3, South Kalimantan; X1 and X3, South Sulawesi), four populations were biotype 4 (JWDL, Central Java; SD, East Java; X2 and X4, South Sulawesi), and one population each was biotype 3 (T2, Banten) and biotype 2 (S1, West Java). Populations X1 and B3 showed broad virulences to all varieties, whereas T2 was the least virulent. BPH field’s population had evolved into more virulence than biotype 4. Genotype resistance screening should use the BPH of this virulence population. Five BPH clusters which were further divided into 10 subclusters representing differential virulence toward 10 differential varieties were present in the tested BPH. Each virulence cluster was characterized by its ability to overcome four to eight single or double resistant genes. This BPH virulence core collection can be used in the characterization studies of candidate for resistant varieties or to form near-isogenic lines, or to study the insect and rice plant interaction.
Slamet Bambang Priyanto, R. Nenny Iriani, Andi Takdir M.
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p125-132

Abstract:Maize yield represents the interaction between genotype and environment. An excellent genotype should have high mean yield and small variation across common locations.This information could be obtained through yield performance test and stability analysis of yield data obtained from multilocation trials. This research was aimed to find out yield stability of eight early maturing maize promising lines at five sites using the AMMI method. There were total 12 genotypes of maize hybrids used in this research, consisted of eight hybrids (CH-1, CH-2, CH-3, CH-4, CH-5, CH-6, CH-7, and CH-8) and four check varieties (Gumarang, Bima 3, AS-1, and Bisi 2). This research was conducted at five locations ie. Gowa (South Sulawesi), Donggala (Central Sulawesi), Manado (North Sulawesi), Probolinggo (East Java) and Lombok Barat (West Nusa Tenggara) from April to September 2013. The treatments were arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with 3 replications. Variable measured was grain yield at all trial locations. Analysis of variance was performed for each site data to determine the performance of each genotype at each location. Results showed that genotype CH-2, CH-4 and CH-6 were considered as stable genotypes. Genotype CH-2 and CH-4 have a potensial to be released as new early maturing variety, due to its high yield of 8.71 and 7.52 t/ha averaged over 5 locations. Genotype CH-6 yielded below the mean yield of all genotypes, while genotype CH-8 was adaptive to a specific location, such as in Donggala, with yield of 8.38 t/ha.
Hesti Pujiwati, Munif Ghulamahdi, Sudirman Yahya, Sandra Arifin Aziz, Oteng Haridjaja
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p149-154

Abstract:Al-stress on soybean causes inhibited root growth. Root length sensitivity index might be an indicator of roots tolerance to Alstress. Hematoxylin staining can be used to visualize the movement of Al in plant root tissues. This study was aimed to determine the tolerance level of soybean genotypes to the gradual Al concentrations. The experiment was conducted from February to April 2014, at the greenhouse in Cikabayan Experiments Garden, IPB, using a 4 x 3 factorial treatments in a completely randomized design, three replications. The first factor was the concentration of Al ie: without Al (A0); 0.5 mM Al (A1); 0.7 mM Al (A2) and 0.9 mM (A3). The second factor was the soybean varieties including: Tanggamus, Cikuray, and Ceneng. The observation of variable included root length sensitivity index based on hematoxylin staining, demonstrating the movement of Al on the tolerance and sensitive varieties. Results showed that: 1) Tanggamus was tolerance at 0.5 mM Al concentration and was moderate at 0.7 and 0.9 mM Al, 2) Cikuray was tolerance to a concentration up to 0.5 mM and was moderate at 0.7 mM Al but was sensitive to the concentration of 0.9 mM Al, 3) Ceneng was sensitive at concentration of 0.5 to 0.9 mM Al, 4) Staining hematoxylin indicated the root tissue advanced damages and darker blue color on the susceptible varieties, in comparison with the tolerant ones.
Saptowo J. Pardal, Suharsono Suharsono
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n2.2016.p155-162

Abstract:Some acid soil is potential for the agricultural development. Constraints for soybean production in the acid soils are Aluminum toxicity and macro nutrient deficiencies. Breeding for soybean varieties tolerant to acid soil is needed. This could be made through genetic engineering, by inserting acid tolerance genes into a soybean genome. Thirty one soybean lines (T0) had been obtained by insertion of Al tolerance genes (MaMt2) through an Agrobacterium mediated transformation, which nine of them contained MaMt2 gene based on PCR test. Further evaluation of those lines was carried out in the Biosafety Containment, where four T1 soybean lines were carrying MaMt2 gene, namely line GM2, GM5, GM10 and GM14. The study was aimed to evaluate the degree of tolerance of T2 generation of GM2, GM5, GM10 and GM14 lines to Al toxicity. Results showed that T2 line were able to grow in hygromicin media, indicating that those T2 lines were containing hygromicin resistant gene (hptII). Phenotypic analysis of T2 lines in four acid soil media treatments indicated that all lines could survive and grow on acid soil without liming and adding compost. GM2 line grew best on the acid medium than did other lines.
Siti Dewi Indrasari, Purwaningsih Purwaningsih, Erni Apriyati, Shinta Dewi Ardhiyanti
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n3.2016.p173-180

Abstract:The objectives of this research was to study the consumer acceptance to variety assurance rice labelled (VARL) wihich is produced by “Kopkarlittan” of Indonesian Center for Rice Research (ICRR). The research was conducted on September to November 2013. The respondents were asked to answer the question in questionaire and assessing the rice and cooked rice presented. The preference assessment was carried out to every rice atributes such as aroma, color, shape, wholeness, cleaness and general acceptance (like or dislike). The same assessment was also carried out to the cooked rice with different atributes such as aroma, color, translucency, softness, taste and general acceptance. The rice used were Hipa 8 variety which is represent aromatic rice and Ciherang and Inpari 23 represent non aromatic rice. Those rice were produced by “Kopkarlittan” ICRR. As controlled were used non variety assurance labelled rice (NVARL) which were bought from two modern market LM and C in Jakarta. The organoleptic data were analysed by Kruskal-Wallis test and presented in decriptive way. In general the respondents stated that VARL products is better than other NVARL product in term of shape, wholeness, cleaness, taste of cooked rice, nutritional and functional quality. Other respondents stated that VARL products is the same with NVARL products in term of color. In general the consumers in Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta stated that there is no preference different based on color, aroma, shape, wholeness and cleaness of aromatic rice sold in LM and C modern market, except general accetance atribute of Hipa 8 variety. The consumers also stated that there is no preference different to Hipa 8 cooked rice based on aroma, color, translucency, softness, taste and general acceptance. But there is preference different of aromatics cooked rice sold in LM modern market based on color, translucency, softness and taste atributes. In general consumers in Jakarta, Bandung and Yogyakarta stated that there is no preference different of non aromatic rice and cooked rice sold in LM, C modern market dan Inpari 13 variety.
Bachtiar Bachtiar, Munif Ghulamahdi, Maya Melati, Dwi Guntari, Atang Sutandi
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n3.2016.p217-227

Abstract:Development of soybean (Glycine max (L) Merr.) in tidal land are faced with problems physical, chemical and biological soil properties, such as high organic matter, high soil acidity, toxicity of Fe and Al, and deficiency of nutrients N, P , K, Ca and Mg. N content is high (> 0.51%) but with low availability. The research objective is to determine the dose and timing of N, P and K application in accordance with the needs of soybean plants to have optimally growth and production in mineral and peaty mineral soil in tidal land. The research was conducted in mineral and peaty mineral soil of tidal land type C and B, District of Tanjung Lago, Banyuasin Regency, Province of South Sumatra from April to August 2014. The model is linear using split plots in a randomized block design. Varieties of Willis and Tanggamus were used for nitrogen application experiment. The time of fertilizer application is at 2, 3 and 4 weeks after planting (WAP), 2, 3, 4 and 5 WAP, and 2, 3, 4, 5 and 6 WAP. The concentration of nitrogen is 7,5; 10; 12,5 and 15 g/l water with spraying volume of 400 l/ha. In the mineral soil, dry weight of nodules and Willis biomass increased with increasing frequency time of fertilization, otherwise Tanggamus more fluctuating and declined at higher frequency of fertilization. Wilis variety generating the highest production of 3,5 ton/ha. In the peaty mineral soil, dry weight of nodules and biomass were not significant. Willis productivity tends to decrease with increasing nitrogen concentrations. Tanggamus productivity tends to increase with increasing nitrogen concentration at all level of time fertilization. Tanggamus tend to generate higher productivity of 3,2 ton/ha.
Yudhistira Nugraha, Indrastuti A. Rumanti, Agus Guswara, Sintho Wahyuning Ardie, Suwarno Suwarno, Munif Ghulammahdi, Hajrial Aswidinnoor
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n3.2016.p181-190

Abstract:Iron toxicity could limit rice productivity on irrigated lowland acid and swampy soil. The use of iron toxicity tolerant rice is an alternative strategy to improve rice productivity in these areas. We studied the phenotypic variation of twenty-four rice genotypes and characterized the fate of Fe2+ along its path between the roots and shoot of rice plant. Twenty-four rice genotypes form different agro-ecosystem were grown under agar nutrient solution conditions with 400 mg. L-1 iron stress and under normal condition. We found variation in the biomass accumulation of rice seedling during stress of iron namely, high accumulated biomass tolerant type and low accumulate biomass tolerant type. The relative biomass weight was highly correlated with the leaf bronzing scores (LBS) under excess iron. Based on these categorizations, we chose six genotypes to observe the present of Fe in root and shoot using invivo-staining 2,2 bypiridine. The result indicated that some genotypes were able to develop root and shoot aerenchym during iron stress. This was related to the development on root iron plaque and the iron content of the shoot of the rice seedling. In this present study, rice genotypes could be classified as the includer tolerant type (Inpara 2) and some others were the excluder tolerant type (Mahsuri, Pokkali and Siam Saba). This information on tolerance strategies is important for rice breeder to develop physiological-based breeding program of iron-toxicity tolerant in rice.
Enung Sri Mulyaningsih, Ambar Yuswi Perdani, Sri Indrayani, Suwarno Suwarno
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 35; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v35n3.2016.p191-197

Abstract:The aims of research is to get upland rice lines with high yield, aluminum tolerance and resistance of blast. Genetic material were used 380 lines (F6) from six hybridization combination were evaluated under stress Al condition in environment endemic blast by using augmented design with five randomized block. Performance of lines at the field and level of tolerance was tested. The results showed that have five genetic clusters formed of 380 lines of upland rice in a test based on a quantitative character. The best cluster is cluster number 3 with lines that have characters growth vigor of plants are uniform, 50% flowering days short, harvesting of early maturing, high plant medium, amount of productive tillers is high, medium on panicle length, the most number of filled grain, the lowest of empty grains, the most weight of 5 panicles and high yield potential. Aluminum Tolerant and Blast Resistant owned by almost all clusters. But the lines on the cluster 3 have highest resistance to blast and Al at 96%.
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