Journal Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

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Amin Nur, Karlina Syahruddin, Marcia B. Pabendon
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p143-151

Abstract:Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a subtropical crop, therefore Indonesia has a very limited genetic variation. Convergent wheat breeding involving multi parents is an effort to expand the genetic diversity in wheat and to obtain genotipes that have desirable spesific character. The aim of this reserch was to determine the genetic diversity of wheat population derived from convergent breeding using the tool of Simple Sequence Repeats (SSRs). Fifty seven wheat genotipes derived from such crosses were tested using 39 SSR markers to determine their diversity. Results based on UPGMA grouping on similarity matrix showed genetic similarity coefficients ranging from 0.30 to 0.95. The similarity coefficient at 0.3 separated the 57 genotipes into two groups: the first group consisted of segregants Oasis and Guri1 and Guri2 and the second group consisted of Dewata, Alibey, Rabe/M088, Selayar, HP 1744 and Tepoca/Rabe. The number of alleles formed from all wheat genotipes detected using 39 primers were 137 alleles with a range of base pairs from 85.6-553 bps. PIC value and the average number of alleles were 0.35 and 3.51, respectively. The genetic variability in the wheat germplasm population obtained from convergent breeding increased, and 22 recombinant genotipes with high values of genetic distance (<0.75) containing many genetic recombinations were obtained.
Roy Efendi, Andi Takdir M., Muhammad Azrai
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p83-96

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Kristamtini Kristamtini, Taryono Taryono, Panjisakti Basunanda, Rudi Hari Murti
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p115-124

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Andy Wijanarko, Benito Heru Purwanto, Dja’far Shiddieq, Didik Indradewa
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p153-163

Abstract:Continuous growing cassava on dry land reduces soil quality and fertility, and decreases cassava yield. Returning the crop residues is expected to reduce the rate of decline in soil fertility. This study was aimed to determine the effect of returning groundnut residues and maize stover on improving soil fertility and soil quality of dry land. Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted at Iletri Malang in 2012. Laboratory study was to determine the N mineralization. The treatments were combination of crop residues and soil status. The crop residues consisted of groundnut residue; maize stover; 50% of groundnut + 50% of maize; 66% of groundnut + 34% of maize; 34% of groundnut + 66% of maize; and no application of crop residue. The soil status were soil planted to cassava in less than 10 years; and soil planted to cassava in more than 30 years. The twelve treatment combinations were arranged in a completely randomized design in three replicates. The soil treatments were incubated for 14 to 84 days. N mineralization was estimated using the first order equation. Similar twelve soil treatments were tested in the green house, using 15 kg treated soil, and were arranged in a randomized block design in three replicates. Treatments were incubated for twelve days before planted with cassava, which was harvested after the crop was three mounth old. In greenhouse experiment data were collected for pH, N and C in total, NH4+, NO3-, N labile fractions, C labile fractions and uptake of N, P, K. Results showed that application of groundnut + maize residues of 2 to 1 ratio, increased the rate of K mineralization by 27-32% and increased the amount of mineralized N by 171-222%, as compared with that of no residues application. Application of groundnut maize + residues of 1 to 1 ratio or groundnut maize residues of 2 to 1 ratio was able to improve soil fertility as indicated by the increases of the availability of total N, C-organic, NH4+ and NO3-. Soil quality improved with the increasing of the soil quality variables namely N and C labile fractions. The treatments also increased the uptake of N, P and K by cassava plant. Returning the crop residues of groundnut mixed with that of maize had restored the soil fertility of dry land continuously planted to cassava.
Dini Yuliani, Sudir Sudir, Made Jana Mejaya
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p133-142

Abstract:Bacterial leaf blight (BLB) caused by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae (Xoo) is an important disease in rice crop. The objectives of this research was to determine the dynamic composition and the domination of the Xoo pathotypes in rice crop under unsynchronous planting pattern. The research was carried out in Klaten Regency, Central Java Province, during Wet Season (WS) of 2014/2015 and Dry Season (DS) of 2015. The research consisted of three steps, namely: observation and sampling of the diseased plants from the field, isolation of the pathogen in the laboratory, and pathotype identification in the greenhouse. Observations and samplings of the diseased plants from each growing season were conducted at three planting times, i.e.: early planting (I), mid planting (II), and late planting (III). The observation of BLB disease in the field showed that disease severity during WS 2014/2015 was higher than that during DS of 2015. The Xoo pathotype composition during wet season and dry season consisted of pathotype III, IV, and VIII with varying degrees of dominancy among the planting periods in the season, as well as among seasons, and between observation locations. The composition of Xoo pathotypes was dominated by pathotype IV during the early and mid season planting periods of the wet season, whereas at the end of planting period was dominated by pathotype III. Xoo composition during early, mid, and late season planting periods of the dry season was dominated by pathotype III. The recommendation for BLB disease control in an unsynchronous cropping pattern at early and mid season planting periods of the wet season is by growing varieties resistant to Xoo pathotype IV, while in late planting period it is suggested to grow varieties resistant to Xoo pathotype III and VIII. The BLB disease control in areas practicing early, mid, and late planting periods during the dry season is suggested to grow varieties resistant to Xoo pathotype III or VIII.
Trustinah Trustinah, Astanto Kasno, Made J. Mejaya
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p165-172

Abstract:Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) is more tolerant to drought and acid soil, compared to the other leguminous crops. A total of 150 cowpea germplasm accessions were grown at Muneng Research Station (Probolinggo) during dry seasson of 2014, using a randomized block design, with two replications. Each accession was planted in two rows, of 4 m. Among the total accessions they varied in qualitative and quantitative traits. Most of the accession had ovate leaf shape, purple flower color, cream color of mature pod, and brown to yellowish grain color. Grain yield had a high phenotipic and genotypic coefficient of variation. Low phenotipic and genotypic coefficient of variation was shown on days to 50% flowering and days to physiological maturing. Of the eight variables characterizing the cowpea accessions 64.2% could be explained by three factors. The first factor related to grain yield components (number of fertile nodes, number of branches, and grain weight), second factor associated with crop cycles (date of flowering and harvesting), and the third factor associated with the supporting factors (plant height, pod length, and number of grains per pod). The cowpea germplasm could be divided into three groups. Date of flowering and pod maturing were a determinant variable discriminant function. Group I consisted of 70 accessions, dominated by accessions with early maturing, medium plant height, long pod, high number of grains per pod and high grain yield. Group II consisted of 47 accessions with medium pod maturing, short plants, short pod, low number of grains per pod and low grain yield. Group III consisted of 33 accessions, characterized by medium maturing, high plant, short pod, high number of grains per pod and high grain yield. Accessions of cowpea in group I and III have a high yield and are prospective for further utilization.
Faesal Faesal, Nurasiah Djaenuddin, Soenartiningsih Soenartiningsih
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p105-114

Abstract:Maize stover is difficult to decompose naturally, therefore special treatment is needed to accelerate the decomposition process. Research was aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of decomposer bacteria for maize stover to be used as organic fertilizer. The research was conducted in South Sulawesi Indonesia from June to Desember 2013, consisted of collecting soil samples taken from the bacterial natural habitats ie: maize planting site, soil under the heap of stalk and maize cob, soil under the heap of rice straw and husk, and soil under the heap of sorghum stalk. The soil samples were brought to the Pest and Diseases Laboratory for the isolation of bacteria. A total of 119 isolates were collected, and were screened under 50o C temperature, where 29 isolates were found as decomposer bacteria. The 29 isolates were tested in vitro using stalk plus leaf of maize, and 16 strains were found as effective bacteria. The green houses experiment tested 16 strains for effectiveness using 0.5 kg of stalk plus leaf of maize. There were 6 strains of effective decomposer bacteria, which were more effective compared to the commercial EM4 bacteria as control. Those effective isolate decomposer bacteria were: E7.1, E7.3, B7.1 (Bacillus sp.), E7.7 (Pseudomonas sp.), H7.1 (Escherichia sp.), and C4.1 (Micrococcus sp.).
Sudarmaji Sudarmaji, Nur ‘Aini Herawati
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p125-131

Abstract:The research was conducted at the Indonesian Center for Rice Research, Sukamandi, Subang, West Java from August 2007 to August 2008. The research covered 150 ha of rice in lowland area with three rice crops in a year. The aim of the research was to study the population growth of the rice field rat in rice fields implementing such cropping pattern. Rat population sampling was done using Trap Barrier System (TBS) and Linear Trap Barrier System (LTBS) methods, where both systems were considered as physical rat control techniques. Seven TBS units with 25 m x 25 m dimension were set near the rice fields. LTBS unit was installed around perimeter of the entire rice field. The total length of LTBS was 10,000 m and equipped with 150 traps. The rice field rat population was observed by calculating the number of rats caught in TBS and LTBS traps. The total number of rats was counted every day during the rice planting season (RPS) from RPS-1 to RPS-3. The other variables observed were rice damages area due to rat, and rice yield. Results showed that rice field rats population increased significantly from the first crop season (RPS-1) to the following crop seasons (RPS-2 and RPS-3). Rice field rats caught in TBS increased from 224 rats in RPS-1 to 492 rats in RPS-2, and 677 rats in RPS-3. Similar trend was seen in the rat number caught in LTBS, which increased from 429 rats in RPS-1 to 1,423 rats in RPS-2 and 1,733 rats in RPS-3. The rice rat damaged area during the three planting seasons was categorized as light damaged, less than 20%, and the rice yields in each planting season were considered normal, between 5.53 ton/ha and 7.38 ton/ha.
Slamet Bambang Priyanto, Roy Efendi, Bunyamin Z., M. Azrai, M. Syakir
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p97-104

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Nita Kartina, Bayu Pramono Wibowo, Indrastuti Apri Rumanti, Satoto Satoto
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n1.2017.p11-19

Abstract:One of the objectives in rice breeding is to increase grain yield. Grain yield is quantitative characters that are complex and highly influenced by the environment. The selection of superior genotypes should not only base on grain yield, but also need to consider characters that associated with grain yield. This research was to evaluate the relation between grain yield and yield components of experimental hybrid rice. The information would be useful for determining selection criteria in preliminary and advanced yield trial. The experiment was conducted during the rainy season (November-February) of 2013 in Cilacap, Central Java and in Malang, East Java, using Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with four replications. A total of 18 experimental hybrid rice and two check varieties, namely Hipa 8 and Ciherang were used in the study. Results showed that grain yield was affected by locations, genotypes and interaction between locations and genoptypes. The average yield of Hipa 8 was 9 t/ha, while Ciherang was 8.78 t/ha. Panicle length, 1,000 seed weight, percentage of filled grain and number of productive tillers as yield components gave positive effects on the increased of grain yield and could be used as selection criteria for choosing genotype among experimental hybrid rice. There were two experimental hybrids, i.e. A7/BH25B-1B (9.13 t/ha) and A1/CRS516 (9.15 t/ha) that produce the highest grain yield and are potential to be released as new hybrid variety.
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