Journal Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan

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Jonni Firdaus, Usman Ahmad
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n1.2017.p29-36

Abstract:Seed is an important input component in rice production. Of the many varieties that had been release, the distinction among varieties is not always clear. Among a large number of varieties error may happen in seed processing, storage and distribution, because of the similarity of their physical shape and size, and the seed appearances are difficult to be distinguished. An alternative to distinguish rice seed varieties is using near infrared (NIR) as sensors and using artificial neural network (ANN) as data processor. This research was aimed to study the accuracy of NIR spectroscopy and ANN for detecting rice seed varieties. NIR reflectances (1000-2500 nm) of seeds of 12 varieties were given pretreatment data such as first derivative, second derivative, normalization and standard normal variates. The pretreatment data were used as input in ANN models. Each variety consisted of 12 samples, each sample was 40 grams. ANN model used backpropagation multilayer perceptron with three layers as input, hiden, and output. Network weights were estimated using gradient descent algorithm. The wave form of NIR spectra was similar among varieties, but had different absorptions in intensities, so they could be used for determining the rice seed varieties. The best model was an ANN with standard normal variate pretreatment as input data. The accuracy of varieties prediction was 100% for training, 99.1% for testing and 98.1% for validation. Results showed that the NIR spectra and ANN model can be used as detection methods in rice varieties.
M Yasin Hg, Sigit Budi Santoso, Faesal Faesal, A Haris Talanca, Made J Mejaya
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 223-232; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p223-232

Abstract:The young cob of waxy corn is consumed like sweet corn, however, waxy corn is glutinous and delicious because due to the low content of amylose which is less than 10.0%. The yield of waxy corn is commonly low around 2.0-3.0 t/ha and early maturity which is harvested in 85 days. Therefore, the yield has been improved through the intra population improvement S1 families selection. Nine genotypes were evaluated to select good population adapted under lowland condition in central corn production. The aims of reseach were to find of population (g) of maize waxy corn which good stability and average yieled was more than average in all locations. Randomized complete block design with four replications was conducted in five district (e) of central corn production (Maros, Polman, Manado, Probolinggo, Pakanbaru) on dry and wet season (s) under lowland in 2011. The spacing 75x20 cm, one plant per hill, genotypes was planted in 5.0 m lenght in four rows, and fertilized with Urea, SP36 and KCL (300-200-100) kg/ha. The yield stability was founded significant of interaction genotype x environment x season (g x e x s) and yield be increase if good environment also would increase (b>1.0) and average yield>total average in evt. The result showed that population PMS-D (Pulut Muneng Synthetics with grain texture of dent) be founded of yield 5.56 t/ha and 5.82 t/ha under wet and dry season or more than 17.0% than local check varieties (PH). Simple correlatin of yield PMS-D were significant on weight of seeds, ears weight, number of seeds in ear, and 1000 weight of seeds. There are not significant correlation of yield with amylase, carbo hydrate, protein and fat. The character’s of population was score one on plant aspect, husk cover, and ear aspect. The position of ear was middle of plant height, flowering in 45 days. The best population of PMS-D would be promising as new candidate of open pollinated variety and could increase farmers income than local waxy variety.
Eman Paturohman, M. Surahman, A. Setiawan, Giyanto Giyanto
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 211-221; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p211-221

Abstract:The improvement of soil quality and agricultural increase using probiotic microbes have been proven in a variety of commodities including maize. The study was conducted to obtain the best formulation of microbial probiotic that is able to maintain seed quality and support the growth of hybrid maize (F1). The research was conducted at the Seed Science and Technology Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University and continued in the experimental garden of Cikarawang, Kec. Dramaga, Kab. Bogor in March-December 2016. The two formulations of paste and liquid also six combinations of probiotic microbes were tested for viability and the seeds vigor using CRD two factor three replications. The experiment was continued by testing it effects toward plant growth with a split split plot design on three replications. The treatment factors were augmented with the use of NP fertilizer in 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% doses from the recommended doses. The six combinations of probiotic microbes used include: I1 (P24-AzL7), I2 (P24-AzL9), I3 (B28-AcCKB4), I4 (P24-AcCKB9), I5 (P24-AcCKB20), and I6 (P24-AcCKW5). The result shows that the paste formulation is more effective against the speed and synchronization of germination, while the liquid formulation is more effective against seed viability. The suitability of microbial probiotic formulation is influenced by microbial type and nutrient availability of plants. The formulations are not toxic for microbes and safe for seeds, so they are potentially further developed.
PRATANTI HAKSIWI PUTRI, Gatut Wahyu Anggoro Susanto, Abdullah Taufiq
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 233-242; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p233-242

Abstract:Soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) is sensitive to salinity stress. The availability of soybean cultivar tolerant to salinity stress is the main key of succeeding of soybean cultural practice on saline affected land. Objective of the research was to evaluate the resistance of soybean germplasms to salinity stress. The research was conducted on saline affected soil in Lamongan District during the dry season (May-August) 2016. Nineteen soybean genotypes that were selected from previous salinity test in the green house were reevaluated in the field using a randomized block design with three replications. Wilis cultivar (sensitive to salinity) used as check. Variable observations consisted of soil properties before planting, number of plant grow at 13 and 41 days after sowing (DAS), plant height at 41, 56 and 71 DAS, chlorophyll content index at 27, 41 and 56 DAS, soil EC at 71 DAS, number of harvested plants, yield and yield components. The results showed that among 19 genotypes tested, only five genotypes that survived up to harvest with plant population 30-50% at high salinity level. Salinity reduced plant population more than 50%, and plant height only 50% from its normal height. Based on soil EC, plant population at harvest, and yield, genotype Karat 13, Grayak 3 and Grayak 5 were identified adaptive to high salinity level with soil EC 11,7-14,4 dS/m, while MLGG 0160 were identified adaptive to moderate salinity level with soil EC up to 9,1 dS/m.
Mela Wahyuni, Memen Surahman, Abdul Qadir, Satoto Satoto
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 183-189; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p183-189

Abstract:The low production of hybrid rice seed is influenced by the syncronized of flowering time between CMS and restorer. One of several ways to syncronize both two CMS and restorer was use gibberellins. Gibberellins as growth regulator worked by triggered plant growth and flowering. The objective of this research was to obtain the optimal concentration of GA3 to support the increase hibryd rice seed production. The experiment was arranged in a split plot design based on randomized complete block design. The first factor was three hybrid rice varieties (V) i.e. V1 Hipa-8 (A1 and PK91), V2 Hipa-14 (A7 and PK92) and V3 Jatim-3 (A6 and PK88) belong to the Center for Rice Research (BB Padi) as the main plot and the second factor was four level concentrations of gibberellins (GA3) i.e. G0 (without GA3), G1 (GA3 150 ppm) G2 (GA3 200 ppm) and G3 (GA3 250 ppm) as a subplot. The treatment was performed by spraying GA3 with spray volume of one liter per a plot on the female and male parent. The results of experiment showed that concentrations of GA3 treatment significantly increased plant height, angle of floret opening and decreased number of empty spikelets. The treatment interaction of GA3 concentration and variety significantly effected on percentage of increasing plant height and productivity. The highest productivity was rice hibryd of A7 (Hipa-14) of 1 000 kg/ha with application of 200 ppm GA3.
Yuni Widyastuti, Bambang Sapta Purwoko, MUHAMMAD YUNUS, Nita Kartina, Bayu Pramono Wibowo, Indrastuti Apri Rumanti, Satoto Satoto
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 173-181; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p173-181

Abstract:The combining ability provides information on parental lines selection and F1 hybrids having high yield potential. The analysis important to evaluate new parental lines used at hybrid rice breeding. The objectives of the research were to study combining ability of line (CMS/A) and tester (Restorer/R) in producing the new hybrid rice, and to evaluate those new hybrid performance. The research was conducted in November in 2014 to February in 2015 at Indonesian Center for Rice Research field station, in Sukamandi. Mating design and analysis were done using line x tester design. Thirty hybrids and their parental lines were planted in the field using randomized complete block design with three replications. The characters of yield and yield components were observed. Among the lines, CMS IR 58025A was a good general combiner for number of filled grain per panicle, while GMJ 14A was a good general combiner for maturity, and seed set. Among the testers, PK 12 line was the best general combiner for maturity and seed set, while BP 11 was the best general combiner for number of filled grain per panicle. The new hybrid rice with high specific combining ability for grain weight per hill were GMJ 13A/PK 90 (WA), IR 80154A/R 32 (Gambiaca), and GMJ 14A/R 3 (Kalinga). The hybrids rice with the highest standard heterosis compared than Maro and Ciherang, were GMJ 13A/BP 11, GMJ 14A/PK 90, and GMJ 15A/PK 90, each with CMS with genetic background group of WA, Kalinga, and Gambiaca, respectively.
Setyorini Widyayanti, Panjisakti Basunanda, Suyadi Mitrowihardjo, Kristamtini Kristamtini
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 191-199; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p191-199

Abstract:The F4 black rice progenies and their two parents’ varieties were evaluated for their heritability and genetic variability at Padasan, Pakembinangun, Pakem, Sleman, Yogyakarta from May until September 2016. The purpose of this study is to determine genetic diversity, heritability estimates and genetic advance.The genetic materials used in this study consisted of 48 lines of F4 with their parents, local black rice and Situbagendit. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block designed with two replications. Seeds of each F4 progenies and their parents were sown 1 m × 2 m length of plot with 20 cm × 20 cm plant spacing. Genetic parameters estimatesd were calculated for heritability and genetic advance. Plant population of each F4 progenies and their parents were 40 plants in each replication. The result showed that there were 11 progenies had an early day to maturity potential, 21 F4 progenies had a moderate plant height (60-95 cm), 13 progenies had a potential number of tillers per hill (10.26 to 18.76), 9 F4 progenies had a high number of filled grains per panicle (> 80% filled grains), and 7 F4 progenies had a potential of 1000-grain weight (g). Plant height had the highest coefficient of variability. Days to flowering, days to maturity, and pericarb color had the highest heritability estimates followed by plant height (70.6%). Plant height and pericarb color had the highest genetic advances, namely 21.7% and 49.2%, respectively. In relation to improve agronomic characters, plant height and pericarb color had a highest heritability and genetic advance also a wide genetic variability.
Antonius Kasno, Tia Rostaman
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 201-210; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p201-210

Abstract:Nitrogen is the main macro nutrients that are needed rice crops, without it the yield of rice equal with rice without fertilizers. Fertilization without taking into consideration characteristics of the soil caused changes in soil nutrient imbalances. Response of plant to nitrogen fertilization changed the imbalance nutrient in the soil, so the evaluation of urea fertilization need to be done. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the urea fertilization for rice in rainfed areas. The study was conducted in six locations Andong, Jakenan, Cibeber, Gabus, Panimbang and Sukadana during the dry season in 2015 and 2016. Urea fertilization is part of the N, P, K fertilizer experiment which carried out with a randomized complete block design with four levels of N fertilizer dose. The dose level of N fertilizer were 0, 200, 300, and 400 kg urea/ha, which is repeated three times. In addition to urea as treatment, each plot of treatment added 125 kg SP-36 and 100 kg KCl per ha. The results showed that the majority of the rainfed areas containing N low. N fertilizer significant increased of plant height between 12.9 – 32.4 cm, number of tillers from 3.3 to 8.6 stems, weight of dried grain harvest from 1.93 – 5.00 t/ha, weight of grain dry milled 1.52-2.59 t/ha, and dry straw weight increase between 2.29 to 3.17 t/ha. The optimum dose of urea fertilizer for rice rainfed areas ranged between 200-300 kg urea/ha. Dose of fertilizer based on productivity of the rice is still relevant is used as a basis for the create of urea fertilizer recommendation.
Indiati Indiati, BEDJO BEDJO
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1, pp 243-253; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n3.2017.p243-253

Abstract:Leaf-eating caterpillars are important soybean pests that widely distributed from tropical to sub-tropical regions under wet and humid conditions. In Indonesia, these caterpillars attacked 1,316 hectares of soybean crops in year 2002, and it increased to 2,902 hectares of soybean crops in year 2006. Therefore, the effective pest control needs to be identified. The experiment on controlling leaf eating caterpillars used bio-insecticides of NPV and SBM, and resistant varieties was conducted at Kendalpayak Experimental Farm of Indonesia Legumes and Tuber Crops Research Institute in dry season of 2016. A strip plot design with three replications was applied, where the vertical factor was varieties i.e. (1) Wilis, (2) Degra 1, and (3) G100H, and types of insecticide as horizontal factors i.e. (1) without insecticides, (2) 50 g of neem-seed flour (SBM) in 1 litre of water, (3) 2 g of SlNPV in 1 litre of water, (4) SBM + NPV, and (5) chemical insecticide. The results indicated that SlNPV was effectively suppressed the population of caterpillars as shown by its lowest numbers. Also, the combination treatment of SBM + NPV had better suppression than that of chemical insecticide. The role of Degra 1 variety, which is a resistant variety to leaf eating caterpillar, was very important in suppressing the damage rate of the plants as pointed out by 26% reduction of damage rate compared to that of Wilis variety (the susceptible variety to leaf eating caterpillars). The effectiveness of leaf eating caterpillars control could be enhanced by combining the resistant variety of Degra 1 with NPV bio-insecticide. This application obtained 35% of suppression rate which was equal to that obtained by the combination of the resistant variety of Degra 1 with chemical insecticide. It is therefore, the variety of Degra 1 has a huge opportunity to be developed in leaf eating caterpillars’ endemic soybean areas.
Trustinah Trustinah, Astanto Kasno, Made J. Mejaya
Jurnal Penelitian Pertanian Tanaman Pangan, Volume 1; doi:10.21082/jpptp.v1n2.2017.p165-172

Abstract:Cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) is more tolerant to drought and acid soil, compared to the other leguminous crops. A total of 150 cowpea germplasm accessions were grown at Muneng Research Station (Probolinggo) during dry seasson of 2014, using a randomized block design, with two replications. Each accession was planted in two rows, of 4 m. Among the total accessions they varied in qualitative and quantitative traits. Most of the accession had ovate leaf shape, purple flower color, cream color of mature pod, and brown to yellowish grain color. Grain yield had a high phenotipic and genotypic coefficient of variation. Low phenotipic and genotypic coefficient of variation was shown on days to 50% flowering and days to physiological maturing. Of the eight variables characterizing the cowpea accessions 64.2% could be explained by three factors. The first factor related to grain yield components (number of fertile nodes, number of branches, and grain weight), second factor associated with crop cycles (date of flowering and harvesting), and the third factor associated with the supporting factors (plant height, pod length, and number of grains per pod). The cowpea germplasm could be divided into three groups. Date of flowering and pod maturing were a determinant variable discriminant function. Group I consisted of 70 accessions, dominated by accessions with early maturing, medium plant height, long pod, high number of grains per pod and high grain yield. Group II consisted of 47 accessions with medium pod maturing, short plants, short pod, low number of grains per pod and low grain yield. Group III consisted of 33 accessions, characterized by medium maturing, high plant, short pod, high number of grains per pod and high grain yield. Accessions of cowpea in group I and III have a high yield and are prospective for further utilization.
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