Journal Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya-
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 125-128; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p125-128.2017
Abstract:Traditional food is considered as one of the identities that makes a nation, and it is caused by the varieties of cultures. Tempoyak (asam durian) is one of the examples of traditional foods, specifically for the Malayan ethnic, and it is widely known in Palembang. The majority of Palembang citizens are known to be nomads, and since durians are abundant in Sumatra, food processing is done to increase shelf life. Tempoyak is the result of fermenting durian for 3-7 days by adding salt into the fruit. Fermentation is one of the many ways of food processing. The fermentation of durian gives tempoyak a unique flavour that combines sourness from the fermentation process and sweetness from the fruit itself. Fermentation is one of the most well-known food processing in Indonesia, and has been known for years. To the Malayan ethnics, tempoyak has a unique taste that can increase ones appetite, and it is usually used as a complementary food for rice, and also spices. One of the foods that use a tempoyak spices is brengkes.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 129-138; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p129-138.2017
Abstract:The core of Wayang stories (Mahabharata, Bharatayuda, Ramayana) is the reflection of human that is always continuously in crisis and emergency situations and conditions. Tragic. Wayang stories raise humanity problems so that the existences of human conception experience the perpetuity of dehumanization, existential instability and ambiguous. The killing of the essence of the human existence purpose on earth. It is an issue fundamentally of anti-human.Shadow play perspective does not rest on human understanding or Knight (Pandawa, Kurawa, Rama, Giant), the heaven God (Bathara Guru), and/or Prabu Khresna, incarnation of Wisnhu God. Wayang stories evoke Togog and Semar angle. Liyan. Grassroots. The general public. Amorphous: No Man is not a knight instead of a brahmana is not god instead of giant.Arises a question that is closely related to the presence of Togog and Semar. Why do shadow play stories present the figure of the them, while the authentic story of the Mahabharata and Ramayana India version does not exist at all? Are Togog and Semar truly actualization of post-human aesthetic and post-human anthropology ideas?The substance of this writing ask us to discuss regarding the idea of Togog and Semar in shadow play into the realm of post-human discourse as a result of dehumanization signs in the frame of shadow play stories. The main focus of the discussion focused on the position of Togog and Semar as the figure as linuwih or great beyond human (knight) and god. Study restriction on the context of Purwa Java Gagrak Jogja and Solo wayang; similarly in East Java, Sunda and Bali, there are also those two figures.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 89-99; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p89-99.2017
Abstract:This paper aims to investige about congenital diseases are an absolute risk in all types of cousin marriages. Methods: this review is a review of literature on cousin marriages and congenital diseases in cousin marriages, as well as qualitative research conducted on the Mandailing community in the village of Tanjung Baringin, North Sumatra, which practices many cross-breed cousins. Results show the risk of the illness impacted by cousin marriage, is not an absolute negative impact on all cousin pairs. A parallel cousin has a great chance to experience it. This can be proved by some researchers who investige health risks in populations that practices parallel cousin marriage. In cross-cousin pairs did not find any health risks. Therefore, cousin marriage still exixtsnce until now, especially in cross cousin marriage.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 139-147; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p139-147.2017
Abstract:Ethnic and religious conflicts are still a hot conversation in early 2017. Discourses on non-Muslim Muslims as well as indigenous non-indigenous peoples are the main topics in various news in Indonesia. Peace that has been maintained, post-conflict that occurred in Sampit and Ambon, suddenly disturbed. People in Indonesia are again divided into religious groups (Muslim or non-Muslim) or ethnic groups (indigenous or non-indigenous). However, Indonesia has the hope to make peace in the differences and make it harmony in society. We can learn from Enggano society. The people of Enggano are the people who live in one of the outer islands in Indonesia. The island is located in the west of Sumatra Island. The Enggano people are able to live in diversity even though their lives are far from prosperous, poor access and facilities, and far from the government's attention. Almost no conflict occurred on this island. This is because Enggano local wisdom is so strong that it can bridge the differences.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 101-107; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p101-107.2017
Abstract:Di kawasan hutan tropis dataran rendah terbesar di Pulau Sumatra Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo telah berlangsung proses pengalihan fungsi hutan yang semula sebagai sumber kekayaan plasma nutfah dan keanekaragaman hayati, habitat satwa khas, penghasil oksigen, mengatur iklim mikro maupun makro, menyerap gas-gas perusak lapisan ozon penyebab efek rumah kaca yang menaikan suhu bumi, melindungi tanah serta air tanah, penghasil produk hutan seperti getah, madu, buah-buahan, obat-obatan, protein hewani, rotan, damar dan kayu serta sumber mata pencaharian penduduk perdesaan sekitar kini mengalami berbagai benturan kepentingan. Rantai panjang proses benturan kepentingan tersebut meliputi fakta penebangan hutan secara besar-besaran untuk industri kayu, pengalihan fungsi hutan primer yang heterogen menjadi hutan tanaman homogen dan pembukaan perkebunan besar sangat tidak hanya mengancam pelestarian keanekaragaman hayati, tetapi juga telah menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi eksistensi masyarakat lokal.Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus dan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, maka pengambilan informan dilakukan berdasarkan tujuan tertentu, yaitu untuk memperoleh gambaran seluas-luasnya tentang konflik antar pemangku kepentingan di seputar Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo. Informan dalam penelitian ini adalah tokoh-tokoh terkait dengan masyarakat, otoritas pemerintah pengelola kawasan, perusahaan dan pemerintahan daerah.Situasi sosial ekonomi desa-desa sekitar TNTN masih ditandai dengan terdapatnya kesenjangan sosial ekonomi antara desa asli/tempatan yang umumnya lebih miskin dibandingkan dengan desa-desa transmigrasi. Keberadaan perusahaan-perusahaan besar sekitar desa-desa sekitar TNTN ternyata belum memberikan kontribusi berarti bagi perbaikan ekonomi masyarakat desa. Terdapat hubungan yang berkonflik antara penduduk desa-desa sekitar TNTN dengan perusahaan-perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang berkenaan dengan konversi kebun plasma kelapa sawit. Di desa-desa yang berbatasan langsung dengan kawasan Tesso Nilo, serangan gajah cukup intensif yang menimbulkan kerugian terhadap perekonomian penduduk. Sosialisasi program konservasi TNTN, khususnya sosialisasi program konservasi gajah ternyata masih minim dan belum merata diterima masyarakat sehingga pandangan pro kontra tentang program-program konservasi ini berpotensi meluas dan cenderung kontra produktif bagi upaya menggalang partisipasi masyarakat perdesaan dalam rangka pembangunan TNTN itu sendiri.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 109-123; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p109-123.2017
Abstract:This paper explores some of the ways in which the connection between people and space has changed among the Suku Asli (‘Indigenous People’) living in Sumatra. The eastern coasts of Sumatra, Indonesia, are low and marshy lands, which are divided by numerous brackish rivers, and covered by vast mangrove forests. This region was a largely unpopulated area where some orang asli (‘indigenous’) groups and a few Malay people lived before the colonial era. ‘Suku Asli’ are one of the orang asli groups who were known as ‘Orang Hutan’ (Forest People) in the past - they lived along the banks as well as estuaries of rivers. Although their space was always somewhat of a ‘niche’ and did not exhibit any clear boundaries in terms of individual or collective ownership, the Suku Asli were confronted with the necessity to establish the boundaries after the state independence. However, their way of ensuring their land was not a simple one to claim their antecedent right of the land. At first in the 1960s, they joined the government deforestation programmes of hinterland ‘for giving lands to our children and grandchildren’. More recently, through the involvements with the ‘indigenous movement’ and environmentalism, they have tried to claim the rights of economically-worthless coastal marshy lands as their ‘ancestral lands’. In this paper, I try to describe the historical changes in the relation between the Suku Asli and the space surrounding them by focusing on the cultural 'logic' that is used to explain and support their connection to it - a 'logic' that enables the Suku Asli to conceptualize their relationship to land as both an embodiment and a manifestation of their collective identity.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 167-178; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p167-178.2017
Abstract:This paper discusses the matrilineal kinship network used as social capital by women legislative candidate in the 2014 election. It is known that in Minangkabau which adheres to matrilineal kinship system, where there are ninik mamak and bundo kanduang that play a big role in the people. This is a social capital that can be used by women candidates as a strategy to get and gain voice support. The research was conducted on three women candidates who advanced for DPRD West Sumatra, two of them are petahana. The research method is qualitative with case study type. Data were collected by conducting in-depth interviews to women legislative candidates, and those involved in the process of winning candidates, such as ninik mamak and bundo kanduang.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 149-154; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p149-154.2017
Abstract:All societies experience the change. But also with the society that is in the village of Rawa Mekar Jaya, Subdistrict of Sungai Apit, Regency of Siak. Here, there is unique tradition that is called menumbai interrelated the use of sialang’s honey bee. Together with the age development, this tradition starts to have dynamics. So that the questions come 1) What kind of aspects that experience the cultural social change in the processing activity of sialang’s honey bee in the village of Rawa Mekar Jaya Then, what kind of factors that push that change?. The research method that is used is descriptive qualitative. The location election in the village of Rawa Mekar Jaya because this location has sialang’s tree and the activity that is involved with the sialang’s honey. The research subject consists of the village chief, society figure, owner of sialang trunk and sialang’s trunk climber. The Data Collecting Technics are such as observation and deep interview. The sampling technic is namly purposive sampling. Based on the research result, it can be known that the aspects that experience the change in the processing activity of sialang’s honey is aspect of language, knowledge, tools and life equipment, economy system and religion system. Meanwhile, the factors that push the change is the contact with another culture, unsatisfication of society towards certain life sectors, future orientation and value that the human should struggle to fix the life.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 155-165; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p155-165.2017
Abstract:Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui perkembangan kehidupan keagamaan masyarakat Samin di Dusun Belikwatu Desa Sumberbening Kecamatan Bringin Kabupaten Ngawi pada tahun 1969-1999. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama lima bulan. Sumber data yang dapat digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah sumber data primer dan sumber data sekunder. Teknik pengambilan data melalui wawancara, observasi dan dokumentasi. Analisis datanya menggunakan analisis kualitatif model interaktif. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa religi dalam masyarakat merupakan sumber sikap altruistik yang mempunyai dampak mengendalikan egoisme, yang mendorong manusia untuk berkorban dan tidak pamrih. Orang yang harus mengetahui bahwa para umat manusia, religinya merupakan sesuatu yang nyata dan benar. Kehidupan keagamaan masyarakat Samin mempunyai sikap dan perilaku yang baik terhadap masyarakat Samin maupun masyarakat yang bukan Samin. Masyarakat Samin menyatakan bahwa dirinya itu tidak memiliki agama, namun agama dari masyarakat Samin adalah agama Adam. Agama adam memang bukan sebuah agama namun sebagai kepercayaan. Inti ajaran dari agama Adam yaitu Manunggaling Kawolu Gusti. Masyarakat Samin menyebut Yang Maha Esa dengan Hyang Wenang Pramesti Agung. Selanjutnya dalam hal puasa agama Samin yang dijalaninya setiap hari yang menurut mereka lebih dari puasa-puasa pada umumnya yang terdapat dalam ajaran keagamaan bukan Samin dan dapat dipertanggung jawabkan dikemudian hari.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19; doi:10.25077/jantro.v19.n1.p11-25.2017
Abstract:Sari The debate on the involvement of youth in music is not a new topic in the discourses on youth and life styles. The article discusses a research work on a group of Malay urban youth in Malaysia who were involved in underground rock music and the activities associated with it. The qualitative research based especially on a collection of primary data analyzes the elements of the underground rock music and the dynamics of its particular subculture. It touches both the ideological and behavioral aspects related to the youth’s involvement in underground rock music. The findings show that a group of Malay urban youth favors this type of music not only as a source of entertainment, but also underground rock music provides them with a channel to express their specific feelings, sentiments, and opinions associated with their specific life experiences, both as individuals and as a group within the society. Their involvement is very much related to factors such as the particular characteristic features of the music and the social elements or issues touched upon such as subjects on social consciousness, generational identity, individual’s creativity, social status, choice and freedom. For many youth, these elements have significant meanings for their daily living experiences and lifestyles and they provide them with a strategy needed to position themselves in a certain niche for survival as a group in the changing society like Malaysia.