Journal Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya

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Rita Parmawati, Soemarno Soemarno, Maryunani Maryunani, Agung Sih Kurnianto
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 1-15; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p1-15.2018

Abstract:Poverty in forests surrounding communities shows a contrast between wealth of forest resources and poverty. The poverty of forests surrounding communities is seen as inefficient development to rural needs in general and forest management in particular. This study aims to analyze the factors affecting poverty, the relevance and Sustainable Livelihood Approach in poverty. This research was conducted in Argosari Village, Jabung Subdistrict and Mentaraman Village, Donomulyo District, Malang Regency. Sustainable livelihood approach is applied which adapted on five elements: human, natural, physical, social and financial asset. The sample was determined by proportional random sampling method. Participatory Rapid Appraisal (PRA) were used in this study. Quantitative approach in this study using descriptive analysis and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Poverti Gap 2 indicator (the number of family member) has the greatest contribution to Argosari poverty. The High Consumption 3 indicator (the number of new clothing in a year that can be bought) has the smallest contribution. Significantly, eight indicators have established in Mentaraman, which is indicated by a p-value less than 5% (0.05). Based on the size of the standardize coefficient, it is found that the Poverti Gap 2 indicator (the number of family member) has the greatest contribution to Mentaraman poverty. Keywords : Argosari, Forest, Mentaraman, Poverty, SLA
Amiruddin Ketaren, Pangeran Putra Perkasa Alam Nasution
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 103-117; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p103-117.2018

Abstract:This article presents a narrative snippet of circumstances of the food security over the Javanese transmigrants during the Acehnese Freedom Movement (GAM) vs Indonesian Government (NKRI) conflict. The data presented through a case study in Cot Girek sub-district, Aceh Utara district, Aceh. The article ellaborates food availability strategies during the conflict, food accessibility, food security. The narration in this article is presented based on data obtained by qualitative research methods. Primary data obtained by interview (in-depth). The narrative notion in this paper propose that conflict often occurs as a result of some past memories coverage racial exclusion, religion, to political and economic discrimination; including the seizure of strategic resource controls, such as land, water, trade routes, and mineral deposits of the earth.Dissatisfaction that encompasses the disparity of land distribution and discriminatory economic policies that hinder decent living standards for every community. Tensions escalate into violent conflicts especially as economic conditions worsen and people face a subsistence crisis. Conflict is created when everyone feels that they have nothing to lose and are therefore willing to fight for resources, political power, and cultural respect. It is fitting for all parties to ensure social integration in the proper arrangement of economic and political distribution and in the spirit of equality. On the issue of food security, the goal is to create conditions for everyone at any time to gain food to support survival.
Ida Rosida
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 85-101; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p85-101.2018

Abstract:This article discusses the Jakarta urban women body in Indonesian consumer culture as reflected in Miss Jinjing Belanja Sampai Mati (2008) by Amelia Masniari. Within consumer culture, consuming commodities is seen as a natural. However, it is the impact of the power (dominant ideologies) that present in that culture. The primary objective of this paper is to explore how the Jakarta urban woman body is constructed within Indonesia’s consumer culture in which portrayed in Miss Jinjing Belanja Sampai Mati (2008) through the character of Amelia Masniari. This is a qualitative research with cultural studies approach. The concept of Mike Featherstone about the body in consumer culture is used to analyze the text. The results show that the Jakarta urban woman body as reflected through Amelia's character is constructed by capitalism, consumerism and patriarchal ideology. The emergence of these three ideologies are seen through contradictions in the text such as the contradiction between values of self-pleasure, social status as well as patriarchal values. In conclusion, the Jakarta urban woman body (Amelia) in Indonesian consumer culture as reflected in Miss Jinjing Belanja Sampai Mati (2008) is site of ideological contestation; capitalism, consumerism and patriarchal ideology. The presence of these ideologies are not mutually tearing down but mutually reinforcing one another and in the end there is coherence between each ideology.
Riau Sujarwani, Fitri Dewi Wulandari, Alfi Husni, Faizal Rianto
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 17-31; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p17-31.2018

Abstract:Salah satu program pemberdayaan dari pemerintah adalah program pemberdayaan komunitas adat terpencil. Desa Tajur Biru Kabupaten Lingga merupakan desa yang memiliki banyak suku terdalam yaitu suku laut, fenomena yang terjadi adalah terbatasnya pelayanan umum seperti sarana jalan, penerangan, posyandu dan belum terjangkau pelayan sosial seperti keadaan di atas menjadikan Desa Tajur Biru sebagai sasaran program komunitas adat terpencil. Tujuan penelitian ini pada dasarnya adalah mendeskripsikan Pemberdayaan Masyarakat Komunitas Adat Terpencil Oleh Pemerintah Kabupaten Lingga pada Desa Tajur Biru Kecamatan Senayang Kabupaten Lingga. Menemukan kendala- kendala dalam Pemberdayaan Masyarakat serta mendeskripsikan model Pemberdayaan yang lebih tepat untuk Masyarakat Komunitas Adat Terpencil Desa Tajur Biru Kecamatan Senayang Kabupaten Lingga. Untuk dapat melihat pemberdayaan masyarakat tersebut mengacu pada pendapat Soetomo (2011:96). Teknik pengambilan sampel yang digunakan adalah purposive sampling, yang mana sampel dalam penelitian ini 5 (lima) orang. Berdasarkan dari uraian yang telah dijelaskan, maka dapat diambil kesimpulan bahwa Pemberdayaan Komunitas Adat Terpencil belum mampu memberdayakan masyarakat komunitas adat terpencil tersebut. Kendala yang terjadi adalah selama ini pemerintah sebagai instansi lokal hanya memberikan pembinaan, pelatihan dan pemahaman terhadap pemberdayaan Komunitas Adat Terpencil, namun sarana prasarana belum dapat dilengkapi dengan baik seperti sarana prasarana pendidikan, tempat ibadah dan layanan kesehatan. Adapun saran yang dapat disampaikan adalah sebagai berikut seharusnya ada sarana prasarana pendukung kemudian adanya sekolah yang didirikan bagi anak-anak dari komunitas adat terpencil, merubah pola pengembara hidup dengan program mengapung.Seharusnya ada pola pemberdayaan lainnya seperti membangun rumah permanen di darat untuk masyarakat suku laut.Memberikan kesadaran pendidikan pentingnya pendidikan bagi masyarakat suku laut.
Asrinaldi Asrinaldi, Azwar Azwar
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 57-69; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p57-69.2018

Abstract:The Malay penghulu adat have traditional authority that can direct their people to maintain their own identity and existence. In fact, although the function of these Malay penghulu adat is only in the context of customs and culture, but in some cases these penghulu also influence the implementation of local democracy. For example, in the election process of the head of the region, although the function of the penghulu adat leader as a leader can direct the tribe and his people, but this function is rarely used because it is contrary to the principle of propriety in Malay custom. Nevertheless, the presence of this penghulu adat remains important to strengthen the legitimacy of the power of the political elite. This is reasonable because the legitimacy of the Malay customary is very important as a basis for building political support derived from indigenous communities. This article is derived from field research using descriptive qualitative methods. The informants of this research are adat penghulu, members of local elections commissions, bureaucrats, politicians and local academics. This article finds the dimensions of the Malay penghulu adat authority only used to establish Malay identity by strengthening Malay customs and culture. Moreover, the people of Riau are more complex than the social and cultural aspects. Their involvement gives support to the regional head only in order to preserve Malay culture to be accommodated in local government policy and not in the form of political activity. Therefore it is not surprising that every Riau governor is given the title of Datuk Seri Setia Amanah customs so that those who are given this title take part in preserving Riau Malay culture.
Miswanto Miswanto, Mat Safaat
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 45-55; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p45-55.2018

Abstract:Riau Islands as one of the tourism destinations in Indonesia that has unique tourist uniqueness. The uniqueness and potential of tourism in the Riau Islands is developed as one of the tourism destinations based on culture and supported by the beauty of nature is very interesting. The emergence of maritime tourism as the most popular place impacts the tourism in the Riau Islands region. Many changes occur due to the development of tourism. However, the most attention is the high level of tourism accommodation development with a very limited amount of land. The limitation does not necessarily stop development and even leads to a higher level of functional alteration that threatens the existence of green open spaces that also impact to other areas as happened in Teluk Village Mangrove, Gunung Kijang District. Beside that, the lack of human resources, especially in Teluk Bakau Village, Gunung Kijang Sub-district, is still not able to compete in tourism sector either in local, national or international scale. If this is left is not impossible that tourism was originally expected to be able to improve the welfare of society it will threaten the welfare of the community itself. Intangible is seen there is a movement of people who are now tend to orient towards profit financially or profit oriented. Because, tourism industry is seen as a profitable activity and able to bring in great revenue.namun, reality in the field shows that the development of Tourism Village has not been side with the community of Teluk Bakau Village. As the development of coastal tourism is a tourism asset sold for tourist satisfaction. However, the development of tourist villages is not aligned with people's lives. The socio-economic life of the Bakau Bay community is unchanged while investors reap huge profits from this tourism activity. In fact, if there is no coastal tourism industry tourism in Teluk Bakau Village will not grow
Yolla Ramadani, Astrid Qommaneeci
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 71-83; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p71-83.2018

Abstract:Artikel ini merupakan hasil penelitian yang dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pelaksanaan kenduri sko (pesta panen) terhadap perekonomian dan kepercayaan masyarakat Kerinci. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode kualitatif deskriptif dimana data dikumpulkan dengan observasi, wawancara dan studi dokumentasi. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa Kenduri sko (pesta panen) telah dilaksanakan turun temurun dari generasi ke generasi oleh masyarakat Kerinci. Rangkaian kegiatan yang dilaksanakan dalam kenduri sko diantaranya pergelaran seni budaya, Tarei Asyeik untuk mengundang roh-roh nenek moyang, penobatan gelar adat, pembersihan benda-benda pusaka dan syukuran atas hasil panen yang melimpah. Kenduri Sko adalah ungkapan rasa syukur kepada Allah SWT yang telah memberikan rizki dan memohon untuk dilipatgandakan pendapatan mereka lewat hasil panen padi untuk tahun yang akan datang. Upacara ini selain memberi manfaat terhadap masyarakat Kerinci untuk menambah rasa syukur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa juga memberikan pengaruh dalam bidang sosial, yang mana Kenduri Sko memberikan pengaruh pada adanya ikatan sosial yang terjalin antara masyarakat. Dalam bidang ekonomi, Kenduri Sko berpengaruh pada pendapatan daerah Kerinci. Dalam bidang agama, Kenduri Sko memberi pengaruh pada kehidupan kerukunan umat khususnya masyarakat Kerinci yang beragama Islam. Dimana Islam mengajarkan untuk saling tolong menolong dan memupuk rasa persaudaraan antar sesamanya.
Ermayanti Ermayanti, Hendrawati Hendrawati, Lucky Zamzami
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 20, pp 33-43; doi:10.25077/jantro.v20.n1.p33-43.2018

Abstract:This research article was conducted in the village of Sungai Beringin, Payakumbuh District, 50 Kota Regency. This regency is one of the best in West Sumatra, in the implementation of PNPM-MPd, especially in the village of Sungai Beringin. Achievements were obtained from this village is the improvement of the capacity of the community in physical and economic developing, women activities and helped the community to access the entire potential in the village of Sungai Beringin for realizing independent and prosperity of the community. This research used a qualitative approach, as a case of study with research focused to community participation into PNPM MPd levels, which these phenomena specifically attention about time, place and condition has happened in the village of Sungai Beringin. A result of the research shows that factors which influenced community participation can say still low. Planning of development participation is consistent and seriously from another side in PNPM MPd implementation, which consists of training of community empowerment, especially poverty community, internal factors which influenced are age, status, gender, jobs, and education. External factors also influenced all of the form and community participation level in meeting and discussion active in the meeting.
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 101-107; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p101-107.2017

Abstract:Di kawasan hutan tropis dataran rendah terbesar di Pulau Sumatra Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo telah berlangsung proses pengalihan fungsi hutan yang semula sebagai sumber kekayaan plasma nutfah dan keanekaragaman hayati, habitat satwa khas, penghasil oksigen, mengatur iklim mikro maupun makro, menyerap gas-gas perusak lapisan ozon penyebab efek rumah kaca yang menaikan suhu bumi, melindungi tanah serta air tanah, penghasil produk hutan seperti getah, madu, buah-buahan, obat-obatan, protein hewani, rotan, damar dan kayu serta sumber mata pencaharian penduduk perdesaan sekitar kini mengalami berbagai benturan kepentingan. Rantai panjang proses benturan kepentingan tersebut meliputi fakta penebangan hutan secara besar-besaran untuk industri kayu, pengalihan fungsi hutan primer yang heterogen menjadi hutan tanaman homogen dan pembukaan perkebunan besar sangat tidak hanya mengancam pelestarian keanekaragaman hayati, tetapi juga telah menimbulkan dampak negatif bagi eksistensi masyarakat lokal.Penelitian ini merupakan studi kasus dan menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif, maka pengambilan informan dilakukan berdasarkan tujuan tertentu, yaitu untuk memperoleh gambaran seluas-luasnya tentang konflik antar pemangku kepentingan di seputar Taman Nasional Tesso Nilo. Informan dalam penelitian ini adalah tokoh-tokoh terkait dengan masyarakat, otoritas pemerintah pengelola kawasan, perusahaan dan pemerintahan daerah.Situasi sosial ekonomi desa-desa sekitar TNTN masih ditandai dengan terdapatnya kesenjangan sosial ekonomi antara desa asli/tempatan yang umumnya lebih miskin dibandingkan dengan desa-desa transmigrasi. Keberadaan perusahaan-perusahaan besar sekitar desa-desa sekitar TNTN ternyata belum memberikan kontribusi berarti bagi perbaikan ekonomi masyarakat desa. Terdapat hubungan yang berkonflik antara penduduk desa-desa sekitar TNTN dengan perusahaan-perusahaan perkebunan kelapa sawit yang berkenaan dengan konversi kebun plasma kelapa sawit. Di desa-desa yang berbatasan langsung dengan kawasan Tesso Nilo, serangan gajah cukup intensif yang menimbulkan kerugian terhadap perekonomian penduduk. Sosialisasi program konservasi TNTN, khususnya sosialisasi program konservasi gajah ternyata masih minim dan belum merata diterima masyarakat sehingga pandangan pro kontra tentang program-program konservasi ini berpotensi meluas dan cenderung kontra produktif bagi upaya menggalang partisipasi masyarakat perdesaan dalam rangka pembangunan TNTN itu sendiri.
Indah Adi Putri
Jurnal Antropologi: Isu-Isu Sosial Budaya, Volume 19, pp 167-178; doi:10.25077/jaisb.v19.n2.p167-178.2017

Abstract:This paper discusses the matrilineal kinship network used as social capital by women legislative candidate in the 2014 election. It is known that in Minangkabau which adheres to matrilineal kinship system, where there are ninik mamak and bundo kanduang that play a big role in the people. This is a social capital that can be used by women candidates as a strategy to get and gain voice support. The research was conducted on three women candidates who advanced for DPRD West Sumatra, two of them are petahana. The research method is qualitative with case study type. Data were collected by conducting in-depth interviews to women legislative candidates, and those involved in the process of winning candidates, such as ninik mamak and bundo kanduang.
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