Journal Ukrainian Journal of Ecology-
Published: 25 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 966-974; doi:10.15421/2018_300
Abstract:Over the past decade, Ukraine has been one of the leaders in exporting honey to EU countries. The main obstacle to increasing the export of Ukrainian honey to EU countries is the discrepancy of honey safety indicators with the requirements of importing countries. This is due to the use of a significant number of drugs with antimicrobial spectrum of action in the treatment and prevention of diseases of bees, the remains of which fall into honey. In domestic honey, according to recent data, the remains of such groups of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents as chloramphenicol, nitrofuran, nitroimidazole, sulfanilamides, tetracyclines and aminoglycosides are most commonly found.The nitrofurans, which are quite stable, can be stored in honey for a long time and are not destroyed even at high temperatures. Therefore, the urgent question remains the development and introduction into practice of laboratory analysis of a sensitive and reliable method for determining the residual amounts of nitrofurans in honey.The method developed by us allows us to determine the residual amounts of metabolites of nitrofurans in honey, namely: furazolidone derivative - 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), furaltadone-3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), nitrofurase-semicarbazide SEM) and nitrofurantoin-1-aminohydandomine (AHD).The use of drugs nitrofuran number in the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases of bees involves the receipt of their metabolites in honey in the human body.The conducted studies revealed that nitrofurantoin (38% of honey samples) was used most often in beekeeping, followed by fureladone (24%), while nitrofurase and furazolidone were used equally in 19% of honey samples, respectively.The conducted studies revealed 4 metabolites of nitrofurans in natural honey, namely the metabolite furazolidone 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), nitrofurase-semicarbazide (SEM), furaltadone-3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ), and nitrofurantoin - 1-aminohydandomine (AHD).The content of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ) and semicarbazide (SEM) in honey exceeds the MDR by the norms of Ukraine. According to EU norms, the content of 3-amino-2-oxazolidinone (AOZ), 3-amino-5-morpholinomethyl-2-oxazolidinone (AMOZ) and 1-aminohydinotin (AHD) in honey exceeds MDR and the semicarbazide content (SEM) permissible concentration.
Published: 25 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 961-965; doi:10.15421/2018_299
Abstract:We proved that tank mixture (Task Extra 440 g ha-1 + Par Trend 0.2L ha-1 + Vympel 1000 g ha-1) had the maximum efficiency in corn protection against the weeds in the conditions of Northern Ukrainian Steppe. This mixture had high index of herbicide technical efficiency (96.6%) and contributed to a steady tendency to increase the plant height by 5-7 cm (2.1-2.8%), the leaf surface area by 5-6%, structure elements of the yield (cob length by 13.6 cm (5.1%), cob graininess by 18 pieces (3.9%), weight of 1000 grains by 29 g (9.1%) and grain yield by 0.33 t ha-1 (5.3%) compared to control. The tank mixture of the herbicide Titus Extra with the plant growth regulator Vympel (Titus Extra 50 g ha-1 + Par Trend 0.2L ha-1 + Pennant 500g ha-1) has also positive effect and was slightly lower than Task Extra 440 g ha-1 + Par Trend 0.2L ha-1 + Vympel 1000 g ha-1) for the grain yield by 0.12 t ha-1 (1.9%).
Published: 23 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 953-960; doi:10.15421/2018_298
Abstract:Woody plants are able not only to absorb metals of anthropogenic origin, but also to deposit their significant quantities in wood, leaves, and thereby temporarily remove them from the cycle of substances of urban ecosystems. The paper compares the content of heavy metals – Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the leaves of the bioindicator species Pоpulus рyramidalis Roz and their mobile forms in soils collected from 6 test locations from various functional zones of the Southern industrial district of the City of the Cherkassy. Soil-geochemical associations of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd content in the investigated locations indicate that the main source of Zn, Cu is the emissions of of the Cherkassy thermal power plant, and Pb, Cd – of urban transport. According to the total accumulation in the leaves of P. pyramidalis. The heavy metals are located as follows: Pb> Cd> Cu> Zn. It was established that the content of mobile forms of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd in the soils of the experimental sites was several times higher than background values, and the coefficient of biological accumulation in the leaves fluctuated in insignificant limits. According to the results of indicators of the accumulation coefficient, the leaves of P. pyramidalis have low bioavailability in Cu and Zn, and the availability of Pb and Cd approaches the average. The obtained data can be used for the creation and reconstruction of green plantings of urban transport highways, sanitary protection zones of industrial sites of enterprises, recreational areas, squares.
Published: 23 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 975-982; doi:10.15421/2018_301
Abstract:Abundance and biomass of the invasive thiarid snails such as Melanoides tuberculata (Müller, 1774) and Tarebia granifera (Lamarck, 1822) were studied in conditions of the cooling pond of Zaporizka NPP (Nuclear Power Plant) in autumn, 2017. The total biomass of M. tuberculata and T. granifera averaged 12.39 g/m2 in the cooling pond and 177.69 g/m2 in the upstream channel. In order to resolve the problem of snail foulings, an attempt was undertaken by means of introduction of such snail-feeding predatory species as black carp, Mylopharyngodon piceus (Richardson, 1846) and Anentome helena (von dem Busch, 1847). As shown by the aquarium experiment, the level of thiarids consumption by the hostile snail declines in the presence of tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852) living in Zaporizka NPP’ сooling pond, as its fecal pellets are the additional food for A. helena. Taking into account the literature data, results of the model experiment and especial conditions of constructions and water bodies within the thermal structure of NPP, the introduction of the A. helena snail was proposed for biological control of the invasive species (M. tuberculata and T. granifera) primarily inside of pipes, and the fish predatory species was preferably provided for the cooling pond and upstream channel of Zaporizka Nuclear Power Plant.
Published: 22 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 948-952; doi:10.15421/2018_297
Abstract:The effect of herbicides (2,4-D, Roundup, Senkor) and surfactant sodium lauryl sulfate (pure and as part of detergents) on enzymes of energy pathways in the scaly carp's body was studied. Gills, brain, liver and white muscle were selected for the analysis. To determine the levels of activity of enzymes in energy metabolism, lactate dehydrogenase (EC 22.214.171.124) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (EC 126.96.36.199) in the cytoplasmic fraction and isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 188.8.131.52) in the mitochondrial fraction were studied. The research found that sodium lauryl sulfate, both pure and in a synthetic detergent, increase the activity of enzymes in all experimental groups. Effect of herbicides was ambiguous. Under the influence of Sencor the activity of enzymes increases in all tissues. Roundup causes inhibition of enzymes in the brain, but there is an increase in the activity of enzymes in other tissues under the influence of this toxicant. The influence of 2,4-D causes increased activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase in all experimental groups, as well as the activity of lactate dehydrogenase in the brain and the liver increases, whereas in gills and white muscle it decreases. The activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase by the impact of 2,4-D was decreased only in the liver, in other groups - was increased. The investigations may be evidence of adaptive alterations in energy metabolism aimed at the survival of fish under conditions of herbicides and surfactants toxic effects. Also increase the activity of enzymes can be related to detoxification processes occurring in the body and require additional energy consumption. The article presents the results of the study of the influence of herbicides (2,4-D, Zenkor, Roundup) and surfactant the sodium laurylsulfate (pure and as a part of the synthetic detergent) on the activity of lactate dehydrogenase, isocitrate dehydrogenase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the liver, gills, brain and white muscle of scaly carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Human impact on water forcing fish to use various mechanisms of adaptation to the changed environmental conditions. Knowledge about the features of the receipt, distribution, accumulation of xenobiotics in organs and tissues, biochemical changes as a result of poisoning can be used to find out the mechanisms of fish's adaptation to toxicants, for identify the causes of death of hydrobionts in natural waters and to justify methods of controlling environmental pollution. The results of the research show that the influence of herbicides and surfactants causes significant changes in the processes of energy metabolism of scaly carp.
Published: 21 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 939-947; doi:10.15421/2018_296
Abstract:The aim of the study was to estimate the effects of the CAPN316, CAST282, GH L127V, GHR F279Y and A257G on milk yield, fat and protein yield and content on daughters produced by dairy sires. 24 dairy sires were 100% Holstein (14), 100% Brown Swiss (5) and Holstein mixed with another dairy breeds (5). Analyses included data on 32733 daughters for 2014-2017 years. Molecular genetic analysis was performed by PCR-RFLP. Statistical analysis revealed that population was on Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. SNPs F279Y and A257G were not in linkage disequilibrium (r2 = 0.029, D’ = 0.074), because linkage of certain alleles was observed only in 7.4% of cases (D’). C-allele of SNP CAPN316 was strongly associated with protein content, despite C-allele of SNP CAST282 showed negative association with milk, fat and protein yield. Daughter milk performance traits (DMPTs) for SNP CAPN316 corresponded to CC>CG>GG pattern, except variations in milk and fat yield (kg). For SNP CAST282 Milk, fat and protein yield (kg) were significantly higher for CG than for CC genotype. C-allele for SNP L127V showed significant association and differences between genotypes with DYDs for fat yield (kg) – 20.45±5.53 (P<0.01) and content (%) – 0.13±0.06 (P<0.05), T-allele for SNP F279V was not significantly associated with any trait studied and A-allele for SNP A257G significantly associated with milk and fat yield (kg) for DMPTs/DYDs 1988.33±419.93/-269.69±89.92 (P<0.01) and 84.30±15.64/-8.33±3.87 (P<0.05). Results of this study reveal and support known advantages of SNPs studied in panels and selection programs.
Published: 20 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 927-938; doi:10.15421/2018_295
Abstract:The purpose of the given research was to carry out complex ecological assessment of vegetables grown in the city of Zhytomyr and in its residential suburb as to the content of nitrates and heavy metals in them. The results of the research showed that on the average from the whole amount of samples selected on the territory of the city the excess nitrate content was found in potatoes, bulb onion, green onion, garden radish and red beet. In the rest of vegetable and fruit samples the excess of the nitrate level was not found. In vegetables grown under the conditions of agroecosystems of suburban settlements the excess nitrate content was fixed in 44.6 % of the samples selected. Most often the excess of the norm was observed in potatoes (75 % of the samples). The comparative analysis of vegetable products grown under different conditions showed that vegetables grown in settlements of the residential suburb were more polluted with nitrates than those grown in urban ecosystems.It has been established that in the selected samples of vegetables grown under the conditions of the city higher content of heavy metals, especially lead and cadmium, is observed. From the total amount of the samples the most dangerous for human consumption proved to be leaf parsley in which the excess of lead, cadmium and zinc level was on the average 5.1, 7.3 and 3.2 times respectively, and the safest vegetable was garden carrot. As a result of the investigations into the content of heavy metals in vegetables grown in the residential suburb, it has been established that absolutely safe for man are garden carrot, red beet, cucumbers, tomatoes and onion in which the level of heavy metals is substantially lower than the maximum permissible one. Lead content in white head cabbage and parsley was fixed at the level of 1.25 and 3.45 mg/kg. Slight increase in cuprum content was found in white head cabbage, and in potatoes the content of zinc exceeding the norm was fixed. It has been proved that crop products grown under the conditions of urban ecosystems contain higher amount of heavy metals as compared with the same crops grown in the residential suburb.When conducting the investigations into the content of nitrates and heavy metals in different vegetable parts we found that distribution of pollutants among organs of plants was first of all determined by their species and biological characteristics of organs themselves.
Published: 20 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 918-926; doi:10.15421/2018_294
Abstract:We studied the influence of antigibberellin compound chlormequatchloride on the morphogenesis, functioning of “source-sink” relation system, yield and quality of linseed oil. It was found that chlormequat chloride application led to enhance the thickening of stems which based on the changes in the anatomical structure: the thickness of bark, the diameter of bastfibres and the number of xylem elements in the row were increased. Formation of the more powerful stem significantly increased the lodging resistance of retardant treated linseed and created the technological advantages of mechanical harvesting. Chlormequat chloride treatment resulted the formation of powerful photosynthetic apparatus. The application of retardant increased the number of leaves per plant, as well as the period of their active functioning was prolonged. We also noted that the application of plant growth regulators led to increase the cells size and volume of palisade chlorenchyma, the chloroplast number and size in palisade and spongy parenchyma. Such changes in the mesostructure measurement of leaves lead to increase the net photosynthetic productivity and more intense accretation of linseed dry weight matter.Consequantly, retardant treatment improved the gross photosynthetic productivity of linseed, that was the important prerequisite for enhancement of crop production. Application of chlormequat chloride resulted on the formation of higher amount of carbohydrates in the leaves, which formed a significant reserve of assimilates for the strong stem growth, formation of fruits and seeds ripening. At the period of fruit formation, the processes of morphogenesis and vegetative growth slowed down so carpogenesis was a powerful acceptor of organic compounds. The flow of assimilates was directed to the development of generative organs – fruits, the number of which increased by the drug as a result of intensive branching of the stem. The number of seeds per fruit, the weight of a single seed and seed weight of linseed increased under the influence of growth regulator. Application of retardant stimulated a more intense synthesis of reserve compounds in the seeds that increased the yield of linseed oil. The analysis of iodine number, qualitative composition and quantitative content of fatty acids indicates that the growth regulator improved the qualitative parameters and degree of unsaturation of linseed oil. It was established that chlormequat chloride did not accumulated in excessive amounts in linseed plants. The amount of residual drugs substance in the seeds was significantly lower than the permissible concentrations, which made it possible to use seeds and linseed oil in the food and pharmaceutical industries. We concluded that the application of chlormequat chloride on the linseed during the budding period with standard cultivation technology leads to morphological restructuring of plants, improve the development of leaf apparatus and formation of fruits, which...
Published: 16 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 910-917; doi:10.15421/2018_293
Abstract:The challenge of environmental pollution by various chemicals occurs during assessment of pollutants accumulation in agricultural plants and influenceof soil factors on this process and identification of fundamental mechanisms of heavy metals migration in the soil-plant system; heavy metals hold a special place among such pollutants. Danger of heavy metals entering in environment is determined by the fact that heavy metals do not degrade unlike organic pollutants, but can transform from one form to another. Contamination assessment of soil and agricultural plants by heavy metals (Cd) in the territory of Dnipropetrovsk region was conducted on 29 monitoring sites located on two soil types: ordinary chernozem and south ordinary chernozem. Cadmium intake from soil was studied on the main crops: grains and straw of wheat; and sunflower seed. Cadmium content was determined by the technique of atomic absorption spectrometry. Density of probability distribution on cadmium concentrations in soils and crop production was obtained by statistical modeling according to logarithmically normal distribution.It was established that only 3 components are distinguished within integral curve of probability distribution density on cadmium distribution in soil with the following sequence: ordinary chernozem, southern ordinary chernozem, and areas influenced pollution exposures of various degree. It has been established within the region that 23% of wheat grain crop have excess cadmium content. Secondary products (straw) have similar characteristics, but with higher average values and higher variability. It was established that 4 components are distinguished within integral curve of probability distribution density on sunflower seed with adequate mean values:Root system of the investigated plants performs a protective function, which inhibit cadmium transport in aboveground part of plants and its accumulation in generative and reproductive organs. Biological features of plants, along with the agrochemical properties of soil, can be attributed to the main factors that influence Cd transition from soil to agricultural plants.
Published: 16 March 2018
Ukrainian Journal of Ecology, Volume 8, pp 898-905; doi:10.15421/2018_291
Abstract:The taxonomic composition and quantitative characteristics of macrozoobenthos of the Danube Lake Kugurlui have been studied. In 2006-2012 on the littoral and sublittoral of the lake, 278 macrozoobenthos samples were collected. There are 172 species of Spongia, Hydrozoa, Turbellaria, Annelida, Crustacea, Insecta, Acarina, Gastropoda, Bivalvia. All species are found on the littoral, in the sublittoral - 48 species. There are 36 species new to the lake. Ponto-Caspian faunal complex is represented by 19 species. The number of species on the littoral decreased from 129 in the upper reaches to 98 in the lower reaches, in the sublittoral was within 35-37 species. On the littoral, the abundance and biomass of macrozoobenthos increased on average throughout the lake from winter to summer, in the sublittoral biomass increased from winter to autumn, the maximum number was recorded in the spring. The number was dominated by oligochaetes and chironomids, and by mollusks by biomass.