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Dharmawati F Djam'an, Balai Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Teknologi Perbenihan Tanaman Hutan, Dede Jajat Sudrajat
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 139-150; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.139-150

Abstract:Suren (Toona sinensis) is a potential multipurpose species that is more cultivated at upland community forests, especially in Java and Sumatra islands. This research was aimed to assess the variation of fruit and seed morpho-physiological characters and to investigate the contribution of geoclimate and genetic factors on the fruit and seed morpho-physiological characters of suren. Seeds were collected from seven populations in West Sumatera, Jambi and West Java on March – May 2015. Morphological parameters measured were size and weight of fruits and seeds, while the physiological parameters measured were seed germination and storability. Analysis of variance revealed significant morpho-physiological differences among populations for all the morpho-physiological parameters studied. Cimalaka population provided the better seed quality compared to seed quality from the other populations, mainly for seed physiological parameters. Most of the parameters was not correlated with geo-climate factors, except for number of empty seed that negatively correlated with mean annual temperature and seed wing width negatively correlated with altitude. Genotypic variance and genotypic coefficient of variance for all fruit and seed parameters were found to be higher than corresponding environment variance and environment coefficient of variance, indicating that the genotype explained most of the variance for these parameters. In particular, high heritability values coupled with high genetic gain were found for germination capacity and germination speed. Principal component analysis of various parameters of fruit and seed revealed that most of the geographically distant populations are genetically close.
Dwi Kartikaningtyas, Balai Besar Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi Dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Teguh Setyaji, Arif Nirsatmanto
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 113-122; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.113-122

Abstract:High initial stand density is commonly practiced in forest plantations subjected to produce high quality logs through successive thinnings. In this study, genetically improved seed of Acacia mangium was verified in genetic gain trial using high initial stand density. The trial was established in Jonggol, West Java and laid out in randomized complete block design with high initial stand density of 2500 trees/ha or in spacing of 2 x 2 m. The improved seeds tested in the trial were collected from four seedling seed orchards (SSOs). As a control, unimproved seeds from seed production area (SPA) were also planted together in the trial. The assessment of stand volume productivity was periodically conducted at two, three and four years of age. The results of study showed that the improved seeds from the four SSOs out performed the unimproved one. However, the significant difference among the seed sources was initially found at the four years of age. The average stand volumes of improved seed were 58.56m3/ha, 94.87m3/ha and 163.8m3/ha for two, three, and four years of age, respectively. The superiority of improved seed over the unimproved one ranged from 23%-36% (two years), 6%-30% (three years) and 2%-22% (four years). The four SSOs showed different behaviours in response to high stand density. Improved seed from SSOs with higher selection intensity was likely to be more tolerant to high stand density.
Liliana Baskorowati, Balai Besar Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi Dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 87-98; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.87-98

Abstract:Tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia) is known as an essential oil producer. This species is commercially important as a source of essential oil especially in Australia. To improve its oil quality, research on artificial pollination between plus trees were carried out. The information about self-incompatibility and inbreeding depression due to self-pollination should be ascertained to support the pollination success. This study was aimed at examining the self-incompatibility of tea tree by conducting controlled self-pollination and cross-pollination. Controlled cross and self-pollination were carried out at a seedling seed orchard of tea tree, using four mother trees as experimental samples. Natural self-pollination was undertaken by bagging un opened flowers, without emasculation and counting the number of capsule set. Open pollination was used as a control treatment, of which the number of unopened flowers and the number of capsule set were counted. Observations revealed that no capsule was found from controlled self pollination (with the index self-incompatibility = 0), even though natural self-pollination produced low number of capsules (with the index self-incompatibility = 0.24). Therefore, it can be assumed that high level of self-incompatibility was took place in tea tree. Inbreeding depression also existed in this species, revealed by the decreased number of capsul set, lower seed germination rate of self-pollinated seeds than cross pollinated seeds. The slower growth of self-pollinated seedlings than cross pollinated seedlings in the nursery also indicated that inbreeding depression occured.
Nur Hidayati, Balai Besar Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi Dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Rina Laksmi Hendrati, Arie Triani, Sudjino Sudjino, Universitas Gadjah Mada
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 99-111; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.99-111

Abstract:Nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum L.) and johar (Cassia florida Vahl.) are alternative plants that are resistant to drought. Global warming that occurred in the last few years caused extreme climate change, one of which is drought. The purpose of this research were to examine and determine the growth and development of plants and the response of morphology, physiology, and anatomy of these plants to drought condition, and adaptive species to drought. This research used drought stress treatment for 10 days, 20 days, 30 days, and 40 days, while control plants were watered every 2 days. Each treatment used 3 replications. Parameters observed were plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, proline levels, plant water content, total dry weight, root dry weight, stomata index, root anatomy, anatomy of stem, and leaf anatomy. Physiological data obtained were analyzed using T-test. The results showed that plants responded to drought stress by decreasing plant height, stem diameter, number of leaves, leaf area, root dry weight, total dry weight, water content of plants, transpiration rate, stomata lindex, root cortex thickness, leaf mesophyll thickness, leaf phloem thickness, other wise occurred increasing level of proline, root epidermis thickness, stem xylem diameter, stem cortical thickness and leaf xylem thickness. Johar plant was more adaptive plant to drought stress than nyamplung plant.
Toni Herawan, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Mohammad Na'iem, Sapto Indrioko, Ari Indrianto, Liliek Haryjanto, Titis Budi Widowati, Balai Besar Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi Dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 151-158; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.151-158

Abstract:Sandalwood (Santalum album Linn.) is a tree which has a high rate of natural sprouting ability. Eventhough the propagation by the conventional techniques (shoot and root cuttings) and by the tissue culture have been reported, the percentage of plants regeneration is still low. The propagation using somatic embryogenesis was reported as better result than using shoots multiplication technique or organogenesis. The objective of this research is to examine the effect of clones, type and concentration of plant growth regulator on the development embryogenic callus of sandalwood. The three tested clones are C1, C2, and C3. The plant growth regulators are 2.4-D, Dicamba, and Picloram with the three level of concentrations:1 mg/L, 3 mg/L, and 5 mg/L. The result of study showed that the clone of C3 performed best on embryogenic callus development. It was observed through morphological analysis that 58.12% of explants performed embryogenic callus with friable texture and white, yellowish in colours. However, there were not significant differences between the types of plant growth regulator, the level of concentrations and their interactions on embryogenic callus development of sandalwood
Asri Insiana Putri, Balai Besar Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Bioteknologi Dan Pemuliaan Tanaman Hutan, Toni Herawan, Prastyono Prastyono, Liliek Haryjanto
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 131-138; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.131-138

Abstract:Since 2005, ramin has been included in CITES Appendix II and according to IUCN red list, ramin is also regarded as vulnerable (VU A1cd). The Lack of information on explant sterilization techniques in ramin tissue culture is one reason why there has not been enough initiation to develop ramin micro propagation. Plant tissue culture contamination has economic impact due to its direct influence in losses during in vitro culture of plants. The aim of this study was to observe the influence of explants sterilisation technique on acquisition rate of ramin axenic tissue culture with the rate of contamination increase, acsenic culture acquisition and shoot elongation as parameters. Ramin seedlings as explants source were collected from Tumbang Nusa, Central Kalimantan. Fifty replicating explants of one nodule each in 3 techniques were used in this study based on in vitro incubation time: sterilization 1 (24 hours incubation), sterilization 2 (48 hours incubation) and sterilization 3 (72 hours incubation) with non metallic antimicrobial compounds namely detergent, ditiocarbamate with mankozeb active ingredient (compound A), a compound containing 5.25% NaOCl added sodium hypochlorite and hydrogen oxide (compound B), 70% alcohol (compound C) as explants surface sterilants. Murashige-Skoog was used as media for evaluation of sterilization technique and explants regeneration on one year incubation. The results of this study indicate that the lowest rate of contamination was found in sterilization 3 (28%) with the success number of axenic tissue culture at 46%. The average shoot elongation of the axenic culture was 5,91 cm after 12 months subcultured in every month.
Benyamin Dendang, Balai Penelitian Dan Pengembangan Teknologi Agroforestry, Endah Suhaendah
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 123-130; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.2.123-130

Abstract:Maruca testulalis is one of pest on leaves of Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre. leaf in nursery. The objective of this research was to compare the efficacy of insecticides on larvae population and degrees of damage intensity. The research used complete randomized design with five treatments and three replications. The treatments were control, azadirachtin 5 g/l, Bacillus thuringiensis 1 g/l, klorantraniliprol 1 g/l and monosultap 0.5 ml/l. The results showed that tested insecticides influence on the intensity of M. testulalis. Klorantraniliprol azadirachtin and monosultap insecticides were more effective to control the larvae of M. testulalis when compared to B. thuringiensis.
Purnamila Sulistyawati, Aypbc Widyatmoko
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 67-76; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.1.67-76

Abstract:Kayu merah ( Pterocarpus indicus Willd) which listed as one of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species in the category Vulnerable (VU A1D) is naturally distributed throughout Indonesia included Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, Bali, East Nusa Tenggara, West Nusa Tenggara and Papua. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) molecular markers have been used to analyze the genetic diversity of six (6) natural populations of kayu merah from Seram Island, Manggarai Timur-Flores, Ngada-Flores, Soe-Timor Tengah Selatan, Kefamenanu-Timor Tengah Utara and Kupang. Ninety-nine (99) polymorphic loci were obtained from twelve RAPD primers. The mean of genetic diversity was 0.2024. Population with the highest genetic diversity was Soe (0.2925) and the lowest genetic diversity was Ngada (0.1212). The highest genetic distance among the populations was between Ngada and Kefamenanu (0.376), while the nearest genetic distance was between Ngada and Manggarai Timur (0.060). The informations resulted from this study are important to support the tree improvement and conservation programme of kayu merah
Aziz Akbar M, Eny Faridah, Sapto Indrioko, Toni Herawan
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 1-13; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.1.1-13

Abstract:Gyrinops versteegii (Gilg.) Domke is including one of superior agarwood-producing plants and naturally growing in Eastern Indonesia as Nusa Tenggara and Papua. Indonesia has been trading agarwood products both domestically and overseas which one of them is agarwood produced by G. versteegii. The purpose of this study was to develop an in vitro culture method for mass propagation of G. versteegii. Shoot induction conducted on MS medium supplemented with Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) 0.7; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 mg/l. The multiplication of shoots conducted on MS medium supplemented with the best concentration of hormones Benzyl Amino Purine (BAP) from shoot induction phase. The rooting of shoots conducted on half strength MS medium supplemented with interaction of hormones Napthalene Acetic Acid (NAA) 0.01 mg/l with concentration of hormones Indole-3-Butyric Acid (IBA) 1.0; 2.0; 3.0; and 4.0 mg/l. Epicotyl explant with a given concentration level of the hormones BAP 0.7 mg/l produce the highest rates number of shoots and shoot length compared to other explant respectively 4.8 shoots and 0.41 cm within 6 weeks. The best explant developments in the best medium able to promote the growth of the length and number of shoots are 0.28 shoots and 0.3 cm within 4 weeks. Explants easiest, quickest and most high- sprouting ability as a factor of success in terms of multiplication is epicotyl. The combination treatment of material explant with concentration of BAP only affect to growth of shoots length. The combination treatment of hormone NAA with concentration of hormones IBA has no effect against root formation and growth root length.
Betty Rahma Handayani, Sri Sunarti, Arif Nirsatmanto
JURNAL PEMULIAAN TANAMAN HUTAN, Volume 11, pp 57-66; doi:10.20886/jpth.2017.11.1.57-66

Abstract:One of the purposes of seedling seed orchard (SSO) establishment is to produce genetically improved seeds. The amount of genetic gain in the SSO is determined from a series of selection involving within and between family selection in which the gain is generally achieved from the accumulated increases of gain in successive advanced generation breeding cycles. In present study, the amount of genetic gain was predicted in third-generation SSO of Acacia mangium after first within-plot selection using a retrospective selection index’s method. The SSO was established in Wonogiri, Central Java which was laid out in a randomized complete block design, 65 families, six replications, four trees-line plot and spacing of 2 m x 4 m. Actual within-plot selection was subjectively practiced in 40 months after planting. The observed traits for genetic gain prediction was height, diameter at breast height (dbh), and stem straightness using data collected at 24 months after planting. For calculating genetic gain based on multiple trait selection index, coefficient weight for each trait was then derived from the selection differential. The results of study showed that the first within plot selection was practiced mostly for imposing dbh rather than height or stem straightness with the relative gain was 6% for dbh, and 3% for both height and stem straightness. Using the derived coefficient weight, the expected genetic gain by family selection was found to be slightly lower than those predicted by within-plot selection at 3% for dbh, and 2% for both height and stem straightness.
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