Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar-
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 39-48; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p39-48
Abstract:Phytophthora palmivora is a pathogenic fungus that causes pod rot and stem cancer in cacao plant. This pathogen was difficult to control because it survives in the form of mycelium and chlamydospores in infected plant parts or in soil. Trichoderma viride is expected to inhibit the growth and development of this pathogen. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of T. viride in inhibiting P. palmivora infection on cacao, conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory and Greenhouse of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi from March to December 2014. The T. viride TNU isolates used was purified and propagated in the laboratory. The T. viride inhibition against P. palmivora growth and development was tested in vitro on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and in vivo on infected cacao pods and seedlings. The parameters observed were percentage of inhibition on PDA and the disease progression on infected pods and seedlings. The results showed that T. viride inhibited the growth of P. palmivora with inhibition percentage up to 68.60%, a strong antagonist for P. palmivora on PDA and reduced P. palmivora infection on seedlings in the greenhouse. Applications of T. viride 3 days before or after inoculation with P. palmivora was able to protect cacao seedlings in polybags, respectively by 60% and 45%. However, T. viride has not been able to hinder the development of pod rot disease on cacao.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 11-20; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p11-20
Abstract:Cacao genotype most cultivated in Indonesia divided into three main groups, namely Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitari. Beside genetical factor, the pod and beans qualities are also strongly influenced by the environment in which the plant grows. The research aimed to analyze the types and physical qualities of the pod and bean from Patuk, Gunungkidul at three elevations range (154.00–267.20, 302.00–401.00, and 469.20–657.90 m above sea level/asl). The research was conducted at smallholder plantations in Patuk District, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta from September until Desember 2017. As many as 40–42 samples were randomly taken from each elevation range and analyzed by descriptive statistic and one-way anova. The parameters observed were cocoa types identification (Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario), pod’s physical quality (fresh weight of fruits, length to width ratio, fresh weight of beans, number of beans, and fresh weight of one bean), and bean’s physical quality (thickness, length/width ratio, dry weight of one bean, and number of beans in 100 g). The results showed that Trinitario cacao type dominates at elevation range of 154.00–267.20 m asl, while Forastero dominates at elevation range of 302.00–401.00 and 469.20–657.90 m asl. The pod physical qualities of Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario showed highest fresh weight per bean at 469.20–657.90 m asl compared to those at lower elevation (increased 19.05%–31.94%). At elevation of 469.2–657.9 m asl, Forastero shown higher beans physical quality at all variables, whereas Criollo was significantly higher dry weight per bean and number of beans per 100 g, and Trinitario shown significantly higher bean thickness.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 31-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p31-38
Abstract:Tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) is one of priority commodities in West Java. Extensification of tea plantation in lowland and suboptimal areas is believed to contribute significantly in improving the farmers welfare. Temperature differences between the lowland and highland areas affects the metabolism of tea plants. In technical culture, centering (pruning) is required to form the shrub with ideal branching. This study aimed to determine cytokinin effects on the growth of tea plants after centering in the lowland areas. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, from November 2016 until June 2017 using 10 months old tea plant materials. The experiments used a randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatment used was cytokinin derived from coconut water with concentration of 25%, 50%, and 75%, cytokinin in the form of benzyl amino purin (BAP) with concentration of 60 ppm, 90 ppm, and 120 ppm, and control (without cytokinin). The results showed that cytokinin derived from coconut water or in the form of BAP applied in tea plants after centering, was only effective up to 3 months after application. At 1 and 3 months after application, 50% coconut water or BAP 60 ppm increased the length of stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, and number of shoots. Therefore, coconut water with 50% concentration or BAP 60 ppm can be used as source of cytokinins for tea plants in the lowlands after centering.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 1-10; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p1-10
Abstract:Fluctuations in Indonesian Robusta coffee exports occurred along with a declining trend in coffee exports compared to major competitor countries over the past fifteen years. This research aimed to analyze the dynamics of the competitiveness of Indonesian Robusta coffee exports and the level of competition among the major competitor countries such as Vietnam and India. The methods used are Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA), and Rank Spearman Correlation. These methods were selected to analyze changes in competition level within 15 years’ time dimension (2000–2015) as well as to analyze the relationships among competing countries, which may affect Robusta coffee market of each country. The analysis showed that Indonesia's coffee competitiveness tends to increase compared to the two major competitors of Robusta coffee exporter of the world such as Vietnam and India. However, Indonesia's coffee competitiveness is still a half below Vietnam. The Indonesian coffee rivalry against Vietnam and India is not significantly correlated due to the different markets of export destination countries. Increasing competitiveness and the strength of competition in export market can be done through quality improvement and continuity of domestic Robusta coffee in accordance to the demand of world consumers.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 21-30; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p21-30
Abstract:The cup quality of Arabica coffee is influenced not only by its cultivar, but also the altitudes and bean processing techniques. However, the interaction between those three factors has not been widely reported. The research aimed to analyze the quality attributes of four Arabica coffee cultivars grown at different altitudes as well as processed by different methods. The study was conducted at coffee plantations in Kampung Legok Gede at 1,400 m above sea level (asl) and Pasir Geulis at 1,700 m asl, Margamulya Village, Cikajang District, Garut Regency; Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crop Research Institute (Balittri), Sukabumi; and Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, from April until November 2017. Data were analyzed by anova of completely randomized design in factorial three factors and two replications. The first factor is cultivars, the second factor is altitude, and the third factor is processing method. Correlation and path analysis were also used in this study. The result showed significant interaction between three tested treatments on aftertaste and body attributes. The cultivars factor significantly influenced the total score, balance, and overall attributes. The altitudes factor has significant effect on total score and flavor attribute, meanwhile processing methods exhibited significant effect on total score, aroma, and flavor attributes. All of the coffee quality attributes highly correlated with the total score, whereas the overall attribute has the strongest direct effect.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 67-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p67-78
Abstract:Identification and grouping of diverse cacao accessions based on morphological character of pod components is important in breeding activities to generate superior varieties. This study aimed to grouping 33 cocoa accessions based on morphological characters of pod components, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 asl with Latosol soil and B type climate (Schmidt and Fergusson), from January until December 2015. Observation was taken on 33 cacao accessions of Kaliwining (KW), planted in 2012 with 3 m x 3 m spacing under 26 years old Genjah Salak coconut trees as shading. Ten mature pods were randomly harvested from 10 cocoa plants of each accession at respective two seasons (February and December 2015). The variables observed were 7 characters of pod components i.e.: (1) fresh weight of pod, (2) number of beans, (3) fresh weight of beans, (4) dry weight of beans, (5) fresh weight of pod husk, (6) number of pod furrow, and (7) fresh weight of pulp. Data were analyzed by factor analysis followed by hierarchical cluster analysis in Ward's method and discriminant analysis. The result showed that 19 accessions were classified as high in bean and pod husk component characters, 9 accessions were classified as high in pulp characters, and 5 accessions i.e. KW 162, KW 528, KW 570, KW 571, and KW 720 were classified as high in all characters of pod components, and potential as parents in generating superior cacao varieties.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 57-66; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p57-66
Abstract:Trichoderma spp. is a beneficial microbe that produces bioactive molecules (secondary metabolites) containing antibiotics, enzymes, hormones, as well as toxins, which play an important role in plant diseases biocontrol. The research aimed to determine the potential of secondary metabolite Trichoderma spp. to control vascular streak dieback disease in cacao seedlings. The research was conducted in Plant Protection Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) and farmers' garden in Balubus village, Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatera, from April to August 2016. The research used a complete randomized design of 7 treatments using 5 replications, each treatment with 5 plants. The treatment was a secondary metabolite of T. virens LP1, T. hamatum LP2, T. amazonicum LP3, T. atroviride JB2, and T. viride PRD, control (no secondary metabolite), and chemical fungicide as comparison. The 3 months old cacao seedlings were treated with secondary metabolite of Trichoderma spp. by spraying the metabolite suspension throughout the leaf surface. The secondary metabolite applied once a week for 6 times. C. theobromae inoculation was conducted naturally by placing cacao seedlings under a cacao tree infected with VSD. Observations were incubation period, VSD intensity, and growth of cacao seedlings. The results showed that secondary metabolites potentially utilized for controlling VSD in cacao seedlings. The most potential secondary metabolites are T. amazonicum LP3 and T. virens LP1 with respective disease suppression up to 81.8% and 63.2% or higher than and equivalent chemical fungicide (63.6%), and can increase plants height, number of leaves, and girth diameter.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 121-132; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p121-132
Abstract:Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora) is a cross-pollinated plant, therefore vegetative propagation is necessary to ensure identical traits with parents, such as tissue culture techniques through somatic embryo. The study aimed to find the effect of plant growth regulator 2.4-D and thidiazuron in inducing embryogenic callus, by adding incision area on leaf explant, and to evaluate addition of GA3 in increasing somatic embryo conversion. The study was conducted from December 2014 to June 2016 in the Tissue Culture Laboratory, IAARD, Bogor. The research consisted of 2 stages. Stage 1 used a complete randomized design of 2 factors; the first factor was a combination of plant growth regulator 2.4-D (1.0 and 2.0 mg/l) and thidiazuron (1.0; 3.0; and 5.0 mg/l), the second factor was leaf incision (slashed and unslashed). Stage 2 used a complete randomized design, with GA3 treatment at different concentrations (0.0; 0.5; and 1.0 mg/l). Observed variables were percentage of callus formation, fresh weight of callus, number of torpedoes, number of somatic embryos at cotyledon stage, and number of germinated embryo. The results showed growth regulatory treatments influenced the percentage of embryogenic callus formation and fresh weight of callus. Extra incision on leaf showed no effect in embryogenic callus induction. Embryogenic callus inducted using 2.4-D 1.0 mg/l + thidiazuron 5.0 mg/l medium which then regenerated in ½ MS medium added with kinetin 2 mg/l exhibited the highest number of germination. Adding GA3 0.1 mg/l in regeneration medium is recommended to increase somatic embryos of Robusta coffee BP 308 clone.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 133-144; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p133-144
Abstract:Robusta coffee (Coffea canephora var. robusta) is the most extensive developed in Indonesia, including Pagar Alam, South Sumatra. In the last few decades, many farmers in Pagar Alam conducted clonal selection and rehabilitation of Robusta coffee trees that generated indigenous clonal populations. This pattern in the long period can damage important alleles and reduce the genetic diversity of indigenous Robusta coffee in farmland. The research aimed to know the genetic diversity among indigenous Robusta coffee clones developed in Pagar Alam based on SSR markers. The study was conducted at Molecular Biology Laboratory, Cereals Research Institute, Maros, from February to April 2017. Molecular characterization of 19 indigenous Robusta coffee clones was conducted using 33 polymorphic SSR markers. The resulting binary data was then analyzed using PowerMarker program to determine polymorphism value (PIC), number and diversity of alleles, and heterozygosity values. The results showed that 33 polymorphic SSR loci produced 134 alleles with an average of 4.06 alleles/locus, whereas PIC values ranged from 0.09–0.77 with an average of 0.48. Of the 33 SSR loci, 19 loci (57.58%) exhibited very informative PIC value (> 0.55). Dendrogram generated using NTSYS program divided 19 indigenous Robusta coffee clones into 4 clusters at 0.53 similarity coefficient. KPA41clone was separated in its own cluster, potentially crossed with other clones. Based on genetic distance values >0.55, could arrange 14 combinations of interclonal crosses that potentially increase the genetic variability of indigenous Robusta coffee from Pagar Alam.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 145-152; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n3.2017.p145-152
Abstract:Coffee farming is economically important for farmers in Bengkulu and the demand/consumption is also increasing which prompted the government to promote its development to improve the community economy. This research aimed to find the economic contributions of coffee farming and a general overview of its marketing by survey method, conducted from May to August 2014 in Rejang Lebong, Bengkulu. Data were collected from 40 respondents (farmers, traders at village and district level, wholesalers, and exporters), analyzed by cross tabulations, which then explained descriptively. The result showed that coffee farming in Bengkulu provides reasonable revenue for farmers, which can reach up to IDR8,417,600.00/ha with a value of R/C ratio of 1.87 for Robusta coffee farmers. The coffee chain marketing of Robusta coffee involving farmers as producers, traders at village or subdistrict level as initial gatherers who sell to wholesalers. Coffee marketing in Bengkulu is fairly efficient with relatively low market margin and the producers receive more than 50%.