Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar-
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 67-78; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p67-78
Abstract:Identification and grouping of diverse cacao accessions based on morphological character of pod components is important in breeding activities to generate superior varieties. This study aimed to grouping 33 cocoa accessions based on morphological characters of pod components, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Sukabumi, West Java, at an altitude of 450 asl with Latosol soil and B type climate (Schmidt and Fergusson), from January until December 2015. Observation was taken on 33 cacao accessions of Kaliwining (KW), planted in 2012 with 3 m x 3 m spacing under 26 years old Genjah Salak coconut trees as shading. Ten mature pods were randomly harvested from 10 cocoa plants of each accession at respective two seasons (February and December 2015). The variables observed were 7 characters of pod components i.e.: (1) fresh weight of pod, (2) number of beans, (3) fresh weight of beans, (4) dry weight of beans, (5) fresh weight of pod husk, (6) number of pod furrow, and (7) fresh weight of pulp. Data were analyzed by factor analysis followed by hierarchical cluster analysis in Ward's method and discriminant analysis. The result showed that 19 accessions were classified as high in bean and pod husk component characters, 9 accessions were classified as high in pulp characters, and 5 accessions i.e. KW 162, KW 528, KW 570, KW 571, and KW 720 were classified as high in all characters of pod components, and potential as parents in generating superior cacao varieties.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 57-66; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p57-66
Abstract:Trichoderma spp. is a beneficial microbe that produces bioactive molecules (secondary metabolites) containing antibiotics, enzymes, hormones, as well as toxins, which play an important role in plant diseases biocontrol. The research aimed to determine the potential of secondary metabolite Trichoderma spp. to control vascular streak dieback disease in cacao seedlings. The research was conducted in Plant Protection Laboratory of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI) and farmers' garden in Balubus village, Lima Puluh Kota, West Sumatera, from April to August 2016. The research used a complete randomized design of 7 treatments using 5 replications, each treatment with 5 plants. The treatment was a secondary metabolite of T. virens LP1, T. hamatum LP2, T. amazonicum LP3, T. atroviride JB2, and T. viride PRD, control (no secondary metabolite), and chemical fungicide as comparison. The 3 months old cacao seedlings were treated with secondary metabolite of Trichoderma spp. by spraying the metabolite suspension throughout the leaf surface. The secondary metabolite applied once a week for 6 times. C. theobromae inoculation was conducted naturally by placing cacao seedlings under a cacao tree infected with VSD. Observations were incubation period, VSD intensity, and growth of cacao seedlings. The results showed that secondary metabolites potentially utilized for controlling VSD in cacao seedlings. The most potential secondary metabolites are T. amazonicum LP3 and T. virens LP1 with respective disease suppression up to 81.8% and 63.2% or higher than and equivalent chemical fungicide (63.6%), and can increase plants height, number of leaves, and girth diameter.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 79-88; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p79-88
Abstract:Indonesia is the third largest cacao producing-country in the world and known having many superior local clones, such as that found in Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatra. However, there is lack of information about genetic background of those local cacao clones. This study aimed to assess genetic variability of 11 local cacao clones collected from Lima Puluh Kota Regency, West Sumatra using SSR markers. The research was conducted in the Integrated Laboratory, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from August to November 2016. The genetic variabilities of local cacao studied were compared with 9 national varieties as reference genomes. Total genomic DNA of the plants was isolated using CTAB method. Cacao DNA was amplified using 18 SSR markers to determine their genetic variability. Afterward, the amplified DNA was separated using 6% non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The result exhibited that 12 markers were polymorphic. Further analysis of these polymorphic markers using PowerMarker program revealed a total of 83 alleles were obtained from all cacao clones analyzed. Meanwhile, PIC values ranged from 0.55 to 0.86 with an average of 0.70. A genetic similarity matrix based on UPGMA revealed three main groups at 68% similarity coefficients. Interestingly, all of the 11 local cacao clones were clearly distinguished each other and also from the national varieties. The result demonstrated the usefulness of SSR markers for discriminating local cacao clones. Further study is required to use these local clones in cacao breeding programs.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 107-120; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p107-120
Abstract:Using acid soil as a cacao seedling medium limits the seedling growth due to low fertility, thus necessitating soil ameliorant treatment to improve its chemical, physical, and biological quality. This study aimed to investigate the effect of cacao husks as organic fertilizer and biochar on chemical and biological properties of seedling media and cacao seedling growth, was conducted in Soil Biotechnology Laboratory and Soil Fertility Laboratory, Bogor Agricultural University and Pakuwon Experimental Station at Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from June 2014 until February 2015. Completely randomized design (CRD) was used in the factorial treatment with three factors: (1) organic fertilizer treatment (without organic fertilizer and with organic fertilizer 10% of the weight of seedling media), (2) the types of biochar (rice husk and white albizia wood), and (3) the doses of biochar (0%, 1%, 2%, 4%, 6% of the weight of seedling media), with three replications respectively. Observation was on chemical and biological properties of the soil and seedling growth. The results showed that organic fertilizer or albizia wood biochar application significantly improved C-organic and C/N ratio. Increasing the dose of biochar or organic fertilizer application raised the pH, total N, and microbes respiration, whereas without organic fertilizer was linearly able to improve total population of microbes but not the dry weight of cacao seedling. The combination of biochar and organic fertilizers increased the stem diameter and dry weight of cacao seedling.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 89-98; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p89-98
Abstract:In Indonesia, Helopeltis antonii Signoret is one damaging pest in cacao plant which may cause 60% production loss. Farmers have been using synthetic insecticides to control it. However, insecticides use with inappropriate dose can lead to resistance. The research aimed to determine the resistance level of H. antonii against three types of insecticides. The research was conducted at Green House of Indonesian Spice and Medicinal Crops Research Institute, Bogor. Collection of field population and interview of insecticides use was conducted at cacao plantation in Bogor, Ciamis, and Sukabumi, West Java from August 2016 to June 2017. The insect used was 3rd instar which divided into two groups, laboratory and field populations. Insecticides used contained active ingredients of chlorpyrifos (organophosphate), lambda-cyhalothrin (pyrethroid), and thiamethoxam (neonicotinoid). Cucumber was used as feed substitute for the multiplication of H. antonii test. The experiment was performed using five insecticide concentrations determined by preliminary test result. The relationships between insecticide concentration and insect mortality was analyzed by probit program. The interviews indicated that the insecticides widely used by farmers are pyrethroid type. The result demonstrated that field population of H. antonii from Bogor and Ciamis were resistant to lambda-cyhalothrin with resistance ratio (RR) of 4.2 and 10.8, respectively, whereas population from Sukabumi had RR value of 1.2. All field population of H. antonii showed resistance indication against thiamethoxam with RR ranged from 1.8 to 3.1. Resistance indication to chlorpyrifos was only shown by population from Bogor (RR 1.5).
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4, pp 99-106; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n2.2017.p99-106
Abstract:Xylosandrus compactus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) is one main pest in coffee plant which damages the branches. Each Robusta coffee clones has unique genetical, physiological, and morphological characteristics, thus presumably has different resistance levels to X. Compactus. This study aimed to determine the attack intensity of X. compactus on four Robusta coffee clones (SA 237, BP 308, BP 358 and RBGN 371) in the field. The research was conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station and Integrated Laboratory of the Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from September to Desember 2016. Three years old Robusta coffee plants of SA 237, BP 308, BP 358, and RBGN 371 clones were used, with 2.5 m x 2.5 m spacing and Gliricidia sepium, Musa paradisiaca, and Aleurites trisperma as shading plants. Variables observed were the attack symptoms in the hole, the insects stadia, the hole diameter, number and length of eggs, number and length of larvae, length and width of X. compactus imago, the attack symptoms and intensity. Moreover, sunlight intensity and water content of coffee branch was also observed as supportiing data. Data were analyzed by anova of completely randomized design (CRD) with 4 treatments of coffee clones and 6 replications. The results showed that attack of X. compactus was occurred at the branch of coffee plant, which potentially causing crops damage. Of the four Robusta coffee clones observed showed that the highest attack intensity and number of holes occurred in SA 237 clone, and the lowest in RBGN 371 clone.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p1-12
Abstract:One of the factors that affect the productivity of cacao plants is water availability. Water deficit will negatively affect the development of cacao flowers and beans. Water stress is reported as one of the causes of low productivity on plantation crops in Lampung Province. The study was aimed to analyze the characteristics of agroecology and supplemental irrigation required for growth and production of cacao in Lampung. The research was carried out in the District of Pesawaran, Tanggamus, East Lampung, and South Lampung, Lampung Province, from 2012 to 2015. The study was conducted with the survey method and literature study for the collection of the primary and secondary data, related to the characteristics of the land agroecology. Geographically, the main cacao growing areas in this region is divided into two regions, western region consist of Pesawaran and Tanggamus District and east region comprise of East Lampung and South Lampung District. Based on agroecological zones, the planting of cacao in both regions is in accordance with the recommendations of land use. However, land suitability analysis showed that some of the agroecological characteristics of land becomes a limiting factor for the growth and production of cacao, including soil pH < 5.5, low cations exchange capacity (CEC) (< 16 cmol(+)/kg), air humidity > 75%, and in some areas there is an erosion hazard. Another obstacle is the water deficit that occurs during 140 days within 1 year of cacao growth cycle that occurred in July until mid-November. There are two factors that can be applied to increase cacao productivity in Lampung province, i.e. (1) an improvement of cacao cultivation technology that can address the characteristics of agroecology as a limiting factor of growth, and (2) an application of a supplemental irrigation technology to avoid cacao from water stress. The requirement of supplemental irrigation is 340.5 mm in western region and 209.7 mm in eastern region of Lampung.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p41-48
Abstract:In cacao crossing process, the genetic symptoms of direct effect of male parent as a pollen source on pod and beans performances generated from their crossing are called as the xenia effect. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of male parents on characters of pod and bean components generated from the crossing of several genotypes of fine cacao. The research was conducted at Kalikempit Afdeling of PTPN XII, Tulungrejo Village, Glenmore District, Banyuwangi Regency, East Java Province, at an altitude of 340 m asl, Latosol type of soil, and C type of climate, from May until December 2014. Crossing combinations were (1) DR 38 x DR 1, (2) DR 38 x DR 38, (3) DR 2 x DR 1, (4) DR 2 x DR 2, (5) DRC 16 x DR 38, and (6) DRC 16 x DRC 16. Variables observed were the quantitative and qualitative characters of pod and bean component. The results showed that male parent DR 1 crossed with female parent DR 2 contributed in increasing fresh bean weight (34.70%), fresh bean/pod weight (44.32%), fresh single bean weight (31.00%), pod apex and base constriction shapes. Meanwhile DR 38 crossed with DRC 16 showed xenia effect on fresh bean weight (47.01%), bean (31.22%), and qualitative characters i.e. the colour of mature pod and the availability of bottle neck. All of crossing combinations produced white colour beans above 85% thus qualified as good. DR 2 and DR 38 are potential male parents to enhance the number of white bean.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p23-30
Abstract:West Sumatra is one of the cacao plantation development areas in the western region of Indonesia coverages 150,319 ha. However, its productivity and quality are low due to a little adoption of cacao culture techniques and quality by farmers. One of the strategies to accelerate and expand the adoption technology is utilization of multi-channel dissemination spectrum (MCDS). This research aimed to improve the adoption of cacao technology innovations and cacao quality by cacao farmers in West Sumatra. The research was conducted at two centre cocoa areas, i.e. Padang Pariaman and Pasaman, from March until December 2013. The research activities consisted of (1) a base line survey to determine the adoption level of innovation and the need for cacao cultivation and post-harvest technology, (2) the dissemination of technology based on the MCDS model, initiated with advocacy, field school, distribution of printed media, setting up of demonstration plots of technology innovation, and a field day; and (3) the final survey to determine the effect of technology adoption on improvement of cacao quality. The results showed that a low technology adoption was associated with farmers’s education levels and experiences. The technology needed by cocoa farmers at both locations were pruning, fertilizing, side-grafting technology, developing small canals for plantation sanitation and water conservation, pest and disease control technology, fermentation and drying of cocoa beans. The average increase in the adoption of technology innovations in Padang Pariaman and Pasaman districts was 45.54% and 53.31%, respectively. The adoption of fermented cocoa beans technology increased cocoa quality tobecome a class III-A and complied with the Indonesian National Standard.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 4; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v4n1.2017.p31-40
Abstract:Low productivity is the main problem in smallholder cacao plantation. One effort to overcome the problem is through rehabilitation. The research aimed to (1) analyze the factors affecting cocoa bean production, (2) analyze technical efficiency level, and (3) analyze the factors affecting technical efficiency of smallholder cacao plantation in Lampung Province. The research was conducted in Tanggamus and Pringsewu Regency, Lampung, from September to November 2015. A purposive sampling was used which obtained 32 samples of farmers as respondents from rehabilitated plantation with side-grafting technique and non-rehabilitated plantation, respectively. Data were analyzed using stochastic frontier analysis. The results indicated 4 factors affecting smallholders cacao production in Lampung Province, namely land, chemical fertilizer, family-labour, and rent-labour. Smallholder cacao plantation in Lampung Province was technically efficient (0.82) which affected by farmers’ age, farmers’ dependents, farmers group membership, and side-grafting application. Rehabilitated smallholder cacao plantation also showed higher level (ET=0.92) than non-rehabilitated one (ET=0.73). The research implicates on increasing smallholder cacao productivity in Lampung Province, especially the local government, to put more priorities in those factors significantly affecting smallholder cacao production, as well as to give support and facilitate plant rehabilitation program using side-grafting methods.