Journal Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar-
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 77-86; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p77-86
Abstract:Knowing the genetic diversity in the tea germplasms collection is one of important conditions for assembling new superior varieties. Information of genetic diversity can be obtained through analysis using RAPD molecular markers. The study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of 21 tea genotypes based on RAPD markers. The research was conducted in Integrated Laboratory, Seameo Biotrop, Bogor, from July to September 2013. Genomic DNA was isolated from 21 tea genotypes leaf samples, then amplified with primer OPA 03, OPA 05, OPB 04, OPB 06, OPC 06, and OPD 08. Electrophoresis result was converted into binary data. The genetic similarity and cluster analysis calculation was done using NTSYS-pc version 2.10. In this research, 50 polymorphic bands (94,34%) and 3 monomorphic band (5,66%) were obtained. Cluster analysis based on Nei's genetic distance using the unweighted pair-group method with arithmatic (UPGMA) divided 21 tea genotypes into two groups at a genetic similarity value of 0,48. Group 1 consisted of 20 tea genotypes, while the second group comprised only a one genotype (Sin 27). The range of genetic similarity matrix was between 28%–92%, the lowest genetic similarity (28%) was found between GMB 4 and Sin 27 genotypes, while the highest (92%) was found between AS 2 and AS 1 genotypes. The information obtained can be utilized in breeding programs with the support of agronomic characters as well as in the conservation of tea germplasm.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 49-58; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p49-58
Abstract:Biological agents Trichoderma virens and T. amazonicum have been developed and examined for their effectiveness through in vitro and in vivo approaches against Rigidoporus microporus, the cause of white root disease (WRD) in rubber. The effectiveness of these bio-agents can be determined by testing the dosage and frequency of Trichoderma spp. biofungicide application. The research aimed to investigate the effective dose and application frequency of Trichoderma spp. biofungicide on R. microporus infection in rubber seedling. The experiment was conducted in laboratory and screen house of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from June to December 2014. A randomized block design was used with 14 treatments and 3 replications, i.e biofungicide combination (T. virens and T. amazonicum), dosage (25, 50, and 75 g), application frequencies (1 and 2 times application), and two controls (positive and negative). Rubber seedlings used were propellegitiem seeds of GT1 clone planted in polybags. Trichoderma spp. was multiplied using fermentation method in liquid medium, whereas biofungicide was formulated using talc as carrier. Observed variables including Trichoderma spp. population number, incubation period, attack intensity, and WRD attack suppression. The results showed that T. virens and T. amazonicum biofungicides with 50 g/plant dose at one application was the most effective and efficient in suppressing R. microporus development on rubber seedlings. The type, dosage, and frequencies of application increased Trichoderma spp. population in soil, prolonged the pathogen’s incubation period, decreased WRD attack intensity, and suppress the attack of WRD disease.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 67-76; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p67-76
Abstract:Rust disease caused by fungus Hemileia vastatrix is a major disease of Arabica coffee, which reduces yield by 20%–70%. Botanical fungicide is a potential alternative because environmentally friendly and safe to humans health. The research aimed to analyze the effect of oils and extracts of fungicidal plants on uredospore germination and attack intensity of H. vastatrix. The research was conducted in laboratory and greenhouse of Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January to December 2016. The plant oils were of cloves, citronella, Reutealis trisperma, and neem, while the plant extracts used were mahogany, Ageratum conyzoides, and wood vinegar. Those oils and extracts were assessed on uredospores germination of H. vastatrix, both in vitro and on coffee seedlings in the greenhouse. A complete randomized block design was used with 9 treatments and 5 replications. The oils and extracts at 5% concentration were applied on coffee leaves of 6 months old plants then inoculated with H. vastratrix uredospora simultaneously. Attack symptoms, incubation period, attack percentage and intensity were observed. The results showed that plant oils and extracts used in present study effectively reduced the uredospora germination of H. vastatrix. However, oils of neem and R. trisperma as well as A. conizoides extract are more potential to suppress H. vastatrix infection in coffee leaves in greenhouse and reduced attack intensity from 22.2% to 3.6%; 5.2%; and 7.6% with inhibitory level at 83.8%; 76.6%; and 65.8%, respectively. Therefore, they are considered as potential biocontrols for rust disease.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 59-66; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p59-66
Abstract:Farmyard manure and biofertilizer is able to substitute chemical fertilizers in improving the plants growth and production. The manure acts as the energy source for soil microbes, while biofertilizer with phosphate solubilizing microbes (PSM) can increase phosphate (P) availability for plants. The research aimed to investigate the effect of farmyard manure added with PSM on growth and yield of 5 Robusta coffee clones, conducted at Pakuwon Experimental Station, Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi, from January 2014 to June 2017. A split plot design was used with 3 replications. The main plot factors were 5 Robusta coffee clones (BP 308, SA 237, BP 42, BP 358, and BGN 371), whereas the subplot factors were types of fertilizers (chicken, sheep, and cow manure added with PMS), and NPK fertilizers as control. Variables observed were components of vegetative growth, percentage of flowering plants, and weight of fresh berries. The results showed that 5 Robusta coffee clones used exhibited similar responses to the PMS-added farmyard manure application. Chicken manure added with PMS enhanced P-available and improved vegetative growth of coffee plants better than other farmyard manure, similar with the effect of NPK fertilizers. Up to 4 years old plants, the PM-added farmyard manure application did not affect the weight of fresh berries.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 87-94; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n2.2018.p87-94
Abstract:Zinc deficiency (Zn) in tea [Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze] may inhibit growth and decreases shoots production. To overcome the deficiency, zinc is generally given in the form of zinc sulphate fertilizer (Zn 22.75%) through foliar application. Today there is a micro-fertilizer with a higher zinc consentration (Zn-30%). The research aimed to determine the effect of dosage and application interval of Zn-30% micro fertilizer on production and yield component of tea shoot. The experiment was conducted in Pasirmalang Estate, Afdeling Wetan Block Pakurendeng II, PT Perkebunan Nusantara VIII Pangalengan Bandung, West Java, altitude ±1,600 m asl, from November 2016 to June 2017. The tea clone used was productive GMB 7. Experiments were designed by randomized block design with 2 factors and 4 replications. The first factor is Zn-30% that consisted of 4 levels i.e. Zn-30% with a dose of 300, 250, and 200 g/ha respectively, and ZnSO4 with a dose of 2 kg as control. The second factor is interval of application that consisted of 2 levels, once and twice applications after plucking. Variables observed were production and yield components of tea shoot. The results showed that application of Zn-30% with a dose of 300 g/ha in one time interval of application after plucking effectively increased shoot production compared to other doses, but not significantly different with ZnSO4 in two time interval of application. Application of Zn, either in the form of oxide salt or zinc sulphate, increased the percentage of pecco shoots and reduces number of banji shoots.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 11-20; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p11-20
Abstract:Cacao genotype most cultivated in Indonesia divided into three main groups, namely Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitari. Beside genetical factor, the pod and beans qualities are also strongly influenced by the environment in which the plant grows. The research aimed to analyze the types and physical qualities of the pod and bean from Patuk, Gunungkidul at three elevations range (154.00–267.20, 302.00–401.00, and 469.20–657.90 m above sea level/asl). The research was conducted at smallholder plantations in Patuk District, Gunungkidul, Yogyakarta from September until Desember 2017. As many as 40–42 samples were randomly taken from each elevation range and analyzed by descriptive statistic and one-way anova. The parameters observed were cocoa types identification (Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario), pod’s physical quality (fresh weight of fruits, length to width ratio, fresh weight of beans, number of beans, and fresh weight of one bean), and bean’s physical quality (thickness, length/width ratio, dry weight of one bean, and number of beans in 100 g). The results showed that Trinitario cacao type dominates at elevation range of 154.00–267.20 m asl, while Forastero dominates at elevation range of 302.00–401.00 and 469.20–657.90 m asl. The pod physical qualities of Criollo, Forastero, and Trinitario showed highest fresh weight per bean at 469.20–657.90 m asl compared to those at lower elevation (increased 19.05%–31.94%). At elevation of 469.2–657.9 m asl, Forastero shown higher beans physical quality at all variables, whereas Criollo was significantly higher dry weight per bean and number of beans per 100 g, and Trinitario shown significantly higher bean thickness.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 39-48; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p39-48
Abstract:Phytophthora palmivora is a pathogenic fungus that causes pod rot and stem cancer in cacao plant. This pathogen was difficult to control because it survives in the form of mycelium and chlamydospores in infected plant parts or in soil. Trichoderma viride is expected to inhibit the growth and development of this pathogen. The study aimed to determine the effectiveness of T. viride in inhibiting P. palmivora infection on cacao, conducted at Plant Protection Laboratory and Greenhouse of Indonesian Industrial and Beverage Crops Research Institute (IIBCRI), Sukabumi from March to December 2014. The T. viride TNU isolates used was purified and propagated in the laboratory. The T. viride inhibition against P. palmivora growth and development was tested in vitro on potato dextrose agar medium (PDA) and in vivo on infected cacao pods and seedlings. The parameters observed were percentage of inhibition on PDA and the disease progression on infected pods and seedlings. The results showed that T. viride inhibited the growth of P. palmivora with inhibition percentage up to 68.60%, a strong antagonist for P. palmivora on PDA and reduced P. palmivora infection on seedlings in the greenhouse. Applications of T. viride 3 days before or after inoculation with P. palmivora was able to protect cacao seedlings in polybags, respectively by 60% and 45%. However, T. viride has not been able to hinder the development of pod rot disease on cacao.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 1-10; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p1-10
Abstract:Fluctuations in Indonesian Robusta coffee exports occurred along with a declining trend in coffee exports compared to major competitor countries over the past fifteen years. This research aimed to analyze the dynamics of the competitiveness of Indonesian Robusta coffee exports and the level of competition among the major competitor countries such as Vietnam and India. The methods used are Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA), Dynamic Revealed Comparative Advantage (DRCA), and Rank Spearman Correlation. These methods were selected to analyze changes in competition level within 15 years’ time dimension (2000–2015) as well as to analyze the relationships among competing countries, which may affect Robusta coffee market of each country. The analysis showed that Indonesia's coffee competitiveness tends to increase compared to the two major competitors of Robusta coffee exporter of the world such as Vietnam and India. However, Indonesia's coffee competitiveness is still a half below Vietnam. The Indonesian coffee rivalry against Vietnam and India is not significantly correlated due to the different markets of export destination countries. Increasing competitiveness and the strength of competition in export market can be done through quality improvement and continuity of domestic Robusta coffee in accordance to the demand of world consumers.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 31-38; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p31-38
Abstract:Tea (Camellia sinensis [L.] O. Kuntze) is one of priority commodities in West Java. Extensification of tea plantation in lowland and suboptimal areas is believed to contribute significantly in improving the farmers welfare. Temperature differences between the lowland and highland areas affects the metabolism of tea plants. In technical culture, centering (pruning) is required to form the shrub with ideal branching. This study aimed to determine cytokinin effects on the growth of tea plants after centering in the lowland areas. The experiment was conducted at the Experimental Station of Faculty of Agriculture, Padjadjaran University, Jatinangor, from November 2016 until June 2017 using 10 months old tea plant materials. The experiments used a randomized block design with 4 replications. The treatment used was cytokinin derived from coconut water with concentration of 25%, 50%, and 75%, cytokinin in the form of benzyl amino purin (BAP) with concentration of 60 ppm, 90 ppm, and 120 ppm, and control (without cytokinin). The results showed that cytokinin derived from coconut water or in the form of BAP applied in tea plants after centering, was only effective up to 3 months after application. At 1 and 3 months after application, 50% coconut water or BAP 60 ppm increased the length of stem diameter, number of leaves, shoot length, and number of shoots. Therefore, coconut water with 50% concentration or BAP 60 ppm can be used as source of cytokinins for tea plants in the lowlands after centering.
Jurnal Tanaman Industri dan Penyegar, Volume 5, pp 21-30; doi:10.21082/jtidp.v5n1.2018.p21-30
Abstract:The cup quality of Arabica coffee is influenced not only by its cultivar, but also the altitudes and bean processing techniques. However, the interaction between those three factors has not been widely reported. The research aimed to analyze the quality attributes of four Arabica coffee cultivars grown at different altitudes as well as processed by different methods. The study was conducted at coffee plantations in Kampung Legok Gede at 1,400 m above sea level (asl) and Pasir Geulis at 1,700 m asl, Margamulya Village, Cikajang District, Garut Regency; Indonesian Industrial and Beverages Crop Research Institute (Balittri), Sukabumi; and Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute, Jember, from April until November 2017. Data were analyzed by anova of completely randomized design in factorial three factors and two replications. The first factor is cultivars, the second factor is altitude, and the third factor is processing method. Correlation and path analysis were also used in this study. The result showed significant interaction between three tested treatments on aftertaste and body attributes. The cultivars factor significantly influenced the total score, balance, and overall attributes. The altitudes factor has significant effect on total score and flavor attribute, meanwhile processing methods exhibited significant effect on total score, aroma, and flavor attributes. All of the coffee quality attributes highly correlated with the total score, whereas the overall attribute has the strongest direct effect.