Journal Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman-
Published: 10 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.457-480
Abstract:Conflict between Muslims and Christians in Moluccas (1999-2002) is one of the worst conflicts in Indonesia which brings great damage in all fields of human life. The significant result of reconciliation can be found in Central Government’s effort called as Malino Declaration II. This paper aims to find a positive contribution on formulating the key for facing the fact of religious plurality in Indonesia by revisiting the Malino Declaration II. By critically analyzing the discourse of the Malino Declaration contents, it concludes that Malino Declaration is shaky for several reason, (1). The role of Government is so dominant, thus Government is in the safe position. Therefore, it isunderstandable why many people view Government aims to “clean” its mistakes in the conflict. (2). Military as a tool was not only ineffective and bias, but also it caused mass killings under the banner of national stability. (3) Malino Declaration indicates obviously and strongly that the conflict is pure between Muslim and Christian communities in Moluccas, as the result the blame is theirs, (4) contain of declaration gives an impression that the participants who are representative of each community do not have enough room in expressing and waging in dialogue. In other words, Malino Declaration is still far from genuine dialogue.Konflik antara Muslim dan Kristiani di Maluku (1999-2002) adalah salah satu konflik terburuk di Indonesia yang menyebabkan kerusakan luar biasa di segala bidang kehidupan manusia. Hasil rekonsiliasi yang signifikan adalah usaha pemerintah pusat terkait perumusan Deklarasi Malino II. Dengan meninjau kembali Deklarasi Malino II, tulisan ini bertujuan untuk menemukan kontribusi positif dalam merumuskan kunci dalam menghadapi fakta pluralitas agama di Indonesia. Dengan menganalisis secara kritis isi Deklarasi Malino, dapat disimpulkan bahwa Deklarasi Malino lemah dengan alasan: pertama, peran pemerintah sangat dominan sehingga pemerintah ada di posisi aman. Karenanya, dapat dipahami mengapa banyak orang melihat pemerintah bermaksud “membersihkan” kesalahannya dalam konflik tersebut; kedua, militer sebagai alat tidak efektif dan bias serta menyebabkan pembunuhan massa di bawah bendera kestabilan nasional; ketiga, deklarasi Malino mengindikasikan secara jelas dan tegas bahwa konflik tersebut antara komunitas Muslim dan Kristen di Maluku sehingga kesalahan adalah pada kedua kelompok ini; keempat, isi deklarasi memberikan kesan bahwa para partisipan yang mewakili masing-masing komunitas tidak mendapatkan ruang yang cukup dalam mengekspresikan dan melaksanakan dialog. Dengan kata lain, Deklarasi Malino masih jauh dari makna dialog yang sebenarnya.
Published: 8 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.481-505
Abstract:This paper discusses about radical Islam and the strategy of deradicalization according to Abdurrahman Wahid thought. The rapid development of radical Islam in post-New Order Era has emerged the worriedness among people. A number of efforts to discontinue the development of radical have been done; one of the efforts is through the deradicalization strategy. The data presented in this paper originated from the thoughts of Abdurrahman Wahid spread in many books, magazines and internet. The set of the thoughts was then analyzed to observe the perspectives of Abdurrahman Wahid about radical Islam and the of deradicalization strategy. Abdurrahman Wahid viewed that radical Islam has destroyed Islam. Such strategy of deradicalization has presented through the indigenization of Islam, the role of Islamic boarding school, maintaining the tradition and building the interaction and through the Islamic spirituality.
Published: 7 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.507-532
Abstract:Indonesia’s current education emphasizes the scientific approach, from elementary school, junior high school and college. It is clearly visible in the curriculum documents applied by the current government of Indonesia which is known as the 2013 Curriculum. By conducting philosophical studies, a scientific approach that emphasizes rationality can be a knife to seek and solve the causes of events in science. In Marx’s terms, science and technology infrastructures, both of which will determine the superstructure of the international world including culture, morals, law, and even religion. Science can also eliminate unfounded (magical) trust in traditional societies. In the context of Indonesia scientific approach to form a nation-based character rational science.In other words, the more dominant the critical scientific awareness than the mystic. According to Agus Comte and more clearly on Freire, divides human consciousness into three levels: magical awareness, native awareness, and critical awareness. The civilization of the Indonesian nation seems to be in a great deal of this magical awareness. With a scientific approach, it is not impossible for Indonesian civilization to move to the level of critical awareness. Critical awareness is an asset to a more civilized civilization in the future.
Published: 7 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.311-346
Abstract:This article examines the integration of the Gulen Movement into the neoliberal economy. In spite of the Gulen Movement currently undergoes a severe persecution under President Erdogan and charged as FETO (FethullahTerrorist Organization), Gulen’s success story in the economy is of interest for any Islamic movements to emulate. In contrast to those belong to the revivalist Islam that rejects the neo-liberal economy, Gulen does accept the neoliberal economy. He integrates neoliberalism into Islam, and vice versa. Gulenacceptance of the neo-liberal economy, in turn, encouraged his movement to adopt for further neoliberal principles such as human rights, multiculturalism, cosmopolitanism, etc. Since Gulen willingly immerses in the neo-liberalist system, he could be categorized into a progressive Islam. Nevertheless, Galen shows his critical attitude toward the capitalist economy despite his acceptance of the system. This article argues that Gulen’s adoption of the neo-liberal economy is a method of da’wah. This article calls it as ‘da’wah in the economic field’.As it is the case, Gulen’s adoption of neo-liberal economics does not appear simultaneously once, rather through gradual processes in which it goes through three stages of his da’wah: individual transformation, social transformation, and the state.
Published: 6 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.435-456
Abstract:This paper aims to seek the effect of the development and practice of Islam towards the happiness in Indonesia. Development is represented by the GrossDomestic Product (GDP) per capita variable, poverty and IPM (Human Development Index). Meanwhile, Islamic religious practice is approached from the pillars of Islam and muamalah. This study uses secondary data which provided by BPS, as well as other institutions. The 33 provinces in Indonesia had been analyzed using path analysis. The study has found that religious practice in Islam directly influences the happiness in Indonesia, whileIPM has an indirect effect on happiness, because it should be the variable of Islamic religious practice. The GDP per capita proved no effect on happiness either directly or indirectly. While poverty through religious practice on Islam has proved no effect on happiness in Indonesia. The study recommends that the principles of Islam to Indonesia’s development must be applied in order to really be able to achieve welfare and the balance between spiritual and physical. The values of Islamic religious practice that can be used as the basic capital development because it is universal, and ensures the benefit of all (rahmatanlila’alamin.)
Published: 5 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.411-433
Abstract:Textbooks Ta‘lîm al-muta‘allim can be an alternative solution to the problems of character education in Indonesia. Inside the book there are methods that specifically leads to holistic learning code like the concept of learning objectives, choose a teacher or school, choosing friends, even mastered a learning method such as learning itself, deliberation, mutharahah, and mudzakarah. This study aimed to analyze the text book Ta‘lîm al-muta‘allim works of Sheikh Az-Zarnuji then compare it with several books of Plato’s philosophy idealism. The method used is the analysis of documents by grouping clauses-clauses in the textbook Ta‘lîm al-muta‘allim in category: metaphysics, epistemology, axiology, the purpose of education, curriculum, method, the position of the students and teachers. Then compare it with documents from various sources about the Platoidealism. The study shows that there are some similarities between SheikhAz-Zarnuji thought with Plato. For example, the similarity between the two is the concept of metaphysics in Ta‘lîm al-muta‘allim called ma’rifatullah, while the concepts included in the Plato called the idealistic concept of macrocosm and microcosm. The similarity was impacted on shared educational goals from SheikhAz-Zarnuji, students and revitalize direction, into individual for himself, to achieve goodness and union with God. The difference mainly stated in the concept of metaphysics specific aspects in their respective reviews. For example, Sheikh Az-Zarnuji said that reality comes from God, while idealism states that the reality can be dug in God through contemplation or idea or reason.
Published: 4 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.347-379
Abstract:Applied Islamology is a Mohammed Arkoun’s thought and the critical notion of the weaknesses of Islamology. The weakness of Islamology because of its study of Islam and Islamic discourse is textual, ahistorical and only moves Islamic studies from certain texts and certain figures that are considered to represent,without relating to various phenomena of Islam and religious social reality,so that it reduces and forgets various elements, such as oral culture, unwritten experiences, both spoken and discourse or unspoken. Applied Islamology as an analogue of Islamic studies can also be explored, developed and will become an important Islamic study when it is always associated with various religious phenomena and social realities in society. Therefore, the dialectical relationship between the textual factor (language) - History and Islamic Studies is a unity and linkage in Islamic studies. Their absence of dialectical relationships will lead to gaps in both methodological and epistemological plots in the praxis of Islamic studies. This dialectical relationship that the writer wants to emphasize in studying Islamic studies. I think this dialectical relationship is the dynamics of the substance and function of religious studies with the existing Islamic discourse from time to time. In such a context, various social, methodological theories that are in line with our locality are indispensable for understanding the existing empirical social and religious realities. In this “introduction” paper, the writer will examine the dynamics of the dialectical relations of these three domains for the development of Islamic studies.
Published: 4 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.381-409
Abstract:This paper seeks to explore the model of negotiating the five families of Nahdliyyin-Muhammadiyah to the Ponorogo community over the traditional dispute over the prohibitions of Javanese marriage. The traditions of the Javanese marriage that is “weton”, “ngalon-ngulon”, “Golan-Mirah”, marriage of “lusan” and “madep-ngarep” marriage. Excavation model of the negotiation result is divided into three models. First, the model of negotiating within the frame of kalam (theology) and adat (tradition) connections the nappears to be incompatibility and inconsistency between the two. This is due to the emergence of different assumptions due to syirik (belief in more than of God) stereotype, because it is more holding the tradition than the existing of religious rules. Second, the model of negotiating within the framework of the Jurisprudence and adat connections that gave birth to the relationship of proximity and flexibility in responding to Javanese marriage customs or traditions so that it can be an alternative pattern of settlement. Third, the model negotiates within the framework of wisdom and diversity of customs/traditions. In the category of this meaning, the problem of the tradition of the prohibitions on Javanese marriage can be resolved by returning to the wisdom and diversity of tradition. Let the tradition solve itself. It seems that with this category the negotiation process goes fluently.
Published: 3 December 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.2.287-310
Abstract:Two years ago, a Qur’anic translation and interpretation work was published in English which was initiated by Seyyed Hossein Nasr and his team: CanerK. Dagli, Maria Massi Dakake, Joseph E. B. Lumbard, and Mohammed Rustom. The work that they named as the Study Quran A New Translation and Commentary covers both translation and interpretation of the Qur’an in fully 30 chapters, and was added by some essays written by scholars from various academic and country backgrounds. In other side, this work represents Nasr and his team’s thought on “tradition”. For them, tradition is not like was understood by several people who consider it as something old-fashioned, but rather as a set of principles that revealed from God. In some places, this traditionalist insight emerges in their interpretation. This paper attempts to study on the methodology used in the work and to see its position in hermeneutics typology. From that study, it could be seen some interpretation principles held by its authors, such as emphasizing the sacred nature of the Qur’an, explaining that the Qur’an contains all doctrines about reality natures in all of its levels, using universalist perspective in comprehending Qur’anic verses that related to religious traditions, and presenting traditional Qur’anic interpretation.From hermeneutics typology, this work could be categorized in obyektivis-cum-subjektivis interpretation.
Published: 29 June 2017
Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman, Volume 12; doi:10.21274/epis.2017.12.1.261-286
Abstract:Artikel ini ingin melacak aspek historisitas dan kontinuitas tasawuf yang tumbuh dan berkembang di Nusantara. Hamzah Fansuri adalah sufi pertama yang mengajarkan tasawuf berpaham wujudiyah (panteisme) di Nusantara. Tasawuf paham wujudiyah diperoleh Hamzah Fansuri dari Ibnu ‘Arabi, Abu Yazid al-Bisthami, al-Hallaj, al-Rumi, al-Attar, al-Jami, dan lain-lain. Karya Hamzah Fansuri yang dianggap monumental yang hingga kini memiliki pengaruh besar di Nusantara adalah Asrar al-‘Arifin, al-Muntahi, dan Syarab al-‘Asyiqin. Tidak sedikit kajian yang muncul tentang tasawuf Hamzah Fansuri ini baik dari pengkaji Barat maupun Timur. Pengaruhnya pun tidak hanya di wilayah Jawa, namun juga hingga ke Negeri Perak, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu, dan lain-lain. Adapun struktur artikel ini terdiri dari pendahuluan, biografi singkat Hamzah Fansuri berikut karya-karyanya, ajaran tasawuf wujudiyah-nya, pengaruhnya di Nusantara dan dunia, dan Kontribusi Hamzah Fansuri terhadap perkembangan studi Islam di Nusantara. Akhirnya ditemukan bahwa tasawuf wujudiyah Hamzah Fansuri telah memberikan pengaruh luas, tidak hanya dalam lanskap kajian tasawuf, namun juga pada kajian Islam pada umumnya. Pengaruh kuat dalam kajian tasawuf setelahnya adalah munculnya dua kelompok yang berbeda. Satu kelompok mengapresiasi dan mengembangkan ajarannya hingga kini, dan kelompok lainnya justru menentang dan menganggapnya sebagai ajaran tasawuf sesat (heterodoks).This article is trying to trace the aspect of tasawuf historicity and continuity that has grown and developed in Nusantara. Hamzah Fansuri is the first Sufi who teaches tasawuf referred to wujudiyah (panteism) in Nusantara. Tasawuf wujudiyah was gained by Hamzah Fansuri from Ibn ‘Arabi, Abu Yazid al-Bisthami, al-Hallaj, al-Rumi, al-Attar, al-Jami, and others. The monumental Hamzah Fansuri works that have a big influence in Nusantara are Asrar al-’Arifin, al-Muntahi, and Syarah al-’Asyiqin. There are some studies that discuss about his tasawuf, either from Western or Eastern scholars. His influence is not only in Java, but also in Perak, Perlis, Kelantan, Terengganu, and others. The structure of this article consists of an introduction, a brief biography of Hamzah Fansuri and his works, the teachings of his tasawuf wujudiyah, the contribution of Hamzah Fansuri for Islamic studies development in Nusantara, and his influence in Nusantara and the world. It is found that his tasawuf wujudiyah has given wide spread influence, not only in the tasawuf field, but also on Islamic studies in general. The strong influence in the study of tasawuf there after is the emergence of two distinct groups. One group appreciates and develops his teachings up to now, and the other opposes and regards his tasawuf as the doctrine of heretical heresy.