Journal Scripta Biologica-
Published: 26 March 2018
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 1-5; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.667
Abstract:Nematodes present in all substrates and sediment types with an enormous number of species. The studies on free-living marine nematodes are still limited in Malaysia. The present study provides general information on genus checklist of free-living marine nematodes in the northern part of Peninsular Malaysia in a different ecosystem which are intertidal zones of estuarine, sandy beach and mangrove ecosystems. Samples were randomly collected at three stations in each ecosystem. A total of 34 genera (22 families and ten suborders) were recorded in three ecosystems. Each ecosystem had common genera which also commonly found worldwide. Viscosia genus was observed in all three ecosystems. The nematode genera of Estuary and mangrove ecosystems had greater similarities than those in the sandy beach.
Published: 26 March 2018
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 7-11; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.668
Abstract:This study describes the morphological structure of Thalassiosira spp. found in coastal water and intertidal area of Teluk Bahang, Penang. Examination of the samples collected from January 2015 to June 2016 showed that these species were the common genera in both benthic and surface seawater at Teluk Bahang. To obtain phytoplankton samples, five liters of seawater were filtered through the plankton net (35 µm). While for benthic samples, the samples were collected at sediment surface of 1 mm depth. Samples of Thalassiosira spp. were obtained from both phytoplankton and benthic samples. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to study the morphology of Thalassiosira spp. Results from the SEM showed distinct differences in areolae pattern, sizes, position and number of processes among Thalassiosira spp. (Thalassiosira nanolineata, Thalassiosira densannula, and Thalassiosira gravida). Thalassiosira densannula and Thalassiosira nanolineata were found in both habitats, coastal and benthic area while Thalassiosira gravida was found only in coastal water. Thalassiosira spp. contribute approximately 15% of the total benthic community and approximately 35% of the total phytoplankton community.
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 55-60; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.660
Abstract:The ability of eel (Anguilla bicolor McClelland) to digest feed protein is highly dependent on the alkaline proteases in the intestine which are trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like. Information on the trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities is needed to understand the digestive capacity of eels to ingest feed proteins. However, the information on this subject is insufficient. This research aimed to determine the activity of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like of eel on the different body weight and incubation temperature. Three groups of eel stadia were selected to represent different body weight, i.e., elver, yellow eel, and pre-silver stadia, and three different enzyme incubation temperatures of 30, 40, and 50°C was applied. The trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activity were measured using a spectrophotometry method. The results showed the activities of trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like were significantly different between the body size and the intestine segment (P < 0.05). The highest trypsin-like and chymotrypsin-like activities were found in the elver stadia approximately 41.25 ± 0.898 g, in the anterior part of the intestine (P < 0.05). The incubation temperatures were not differed significantly (P > 0.05). This study showed the eel had a higher digestive capacity of protein at elver stadium, mainly occur in the anterior part of the intestine, whereas, the temperature ranges from 30 to 50°C had no significant effect on the enzyme activities.
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 19-25; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.751
Abstract:PCR-based markers and evaluation of physicochemical properties should be addressed for the improvement of rice varieties with good eating dan eating quality (EQ). This study aimed to examine the genetic diversity of rice varieties based on DNA markers related to physicochemical properties determining EQ. A total of 46 rice varieties consisting of 22 japonica varieties and 24 indica varieties were examined using 43 PCR-based markers. The results showed that polymorphic information content (PIC) ranged from 0.04 to 0.38, in support of genetic diversity indices which ranged from 0.04 to 0.50 across total markers. Pairwise genetic similarity matrix ranged from 0.40 to 0.98 with the closest genetic distance was observed between two japonica varieties (Dongjin and Hwaseong) and the most distant one was between japonica and indica (Onnuri/Manmi with Cigeulis/Fatmawati). The unweighted neighbor-joining tree clustered the rice varieties into two major clades, indica and japonica, and subsequent subclades were differentiating according to the individual genetic background. The genetic diversity of rice from different subspecies and DNA markers for EQ can effectively be utilized for basic information and marker-assisted selection (MAS) for the development of improved varieties with good EQ in rice breeding program.
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 13-18; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.416
Abstract:Coral reefs, the habitat of tens of thousands of marine species, are an ecosystem with the highest biodiversity. Several threats, however, have impaired coral reefs. One having a potentially catastrophic effect is the increasing temperature of the ocean that leads to a coral bleaching event. This study aimed to determine the diversity of stony coral based on their lifeform, to assess the condition of reefs by measuring percent cover of live coral, and to determine the bleaching occurrence based on the stony coral lifeform in the Tengah patch-reef of Karimunjawa National (Marine) Park. The research was a visual survey with line intercept transects (LIT) used to collect data. The data were presented as percent cover of living coral and their lifeforms. The result showed the diversity of coral in the Tengah patch-reef was very high as indicated by the presence of all coral lifeforms in the study site. The most diverse lifeform was found at 10 m depth with 13 lifeforms, while the lowest lifeform was found at 3 m depth with ten lifeforms. The most extensive live coral cover was found at 3 m depth estimated around 73.71%, and the the lowest coverage was found at 10 m depth, no more than 50.42%. The bleaching event was found in Acropora branching and Acropora digitate at the 3 m depth
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 37-40; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.639
Abstract:Karst area is a well-developed porosity landscape with a specific condition as a result of soluble rock development through a process of karstification. The karst soil has low nutrients, but high calcium and magnesium content. Due to its unique environmental characteristics, karst vegetation differs from other areas. This study aimed to determine the community structure and species composition of vegetation in the karst area of Gombong Selatan and to compare the environmental factors affecting the plant of the karst area. This study was conducted in the border of Watukelir and Pakuran Villages. The method was a survey with sampling quadrat sizes used of 10 x 10 m for trees, 5 x 5 m for saplings, and 2 x 2 m for understorey vegetation. The variables observed were plant species and number of trees, saplings, and understorey. The environmental factors measured were air temperature, humidity, soil pH, and soil moisture. Data were analyzed using Importance Value Index (IVI), Shannon-Wienner Diversity Index (H’), Evenness Index (E), and Similarity Index (IS). The results showed there were 22 species of understoreys, five species of saplings, and seven species of trees. The understoreys were found dominated by Axonopus compressus dan Cyperus rotundus, in the other category, Tectona grandis and Albizia chinensis were dominated saplings and trees. Humidity and soil moisture were suggested the important environmental factors for plant diversity in karst area of Gombong Selatan
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 27-30; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.760
Abstract:Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a prime horticultural commodity. One of the varieties of potato that widely cultivated in Indonesia is Granola. This study characterized the variety Granola based on the 18S sequences of rRNA gene fragment. The 18S sequences were used to distinguish the Granola and determine the differentiating characters from other Solanum based on those sequences data. The characterization was completed in three main steps including DNA isolation from potato leaf using Doyle & Doyle method, amplification of the 18S gene fragment, and DNA sequencing. The amplification of 18S gene fragment by a PCR method obtained 528 bp sequences. The BLAST search using NCBI web service confirmed that Granola potato has 99% matching sequence with S. tuberosum. The phylogenetic reconstruction further indicates the S. tuberosum var. Granola used in this study deeply nested with the reference sequence X67238.1, a potato from Europe.
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 41-46; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.798
Abstract:The purpose of this study to determine the effect of the Portulaca oleracea purslane growth time on the growing and production of Topo local cultivar of red onions Allium ascalonicum which is originally from Tidore island. We used Randomized Block Design (RBD) to run six treatments in three blocks which consisted of P0 (without purslane weed as the control), P1 (purslane growth in the beginning of onion planting), P2 (growing of purslane after 10 days planting of onion), P3 (growing of purslane after 20 days planting of onion), P4 (growing of purslane after 30 days planting of onion), and P5 (growing of purslane after 40 days planting of onion), so there were 18 experimental units. Then, data were analysed by ANOVA, if there any significant effect which was continued by Least Significance Different test (ɑ=0,05). The results showed that the longer purslane weeds associated with Topo red onion could suppress the growth of this red onion and finally decrease the production. Finally, we found that production of P2 (103.33 g/plot) as the lowest production, which differed significantly with P0 (483.33 g/plot). Therefore, we suggested if weed control of purslane could be done at the age seven until forty days after planting and this information could be used as an essential strategy to controlling purslane weed.
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 31-36; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.718
Abstract:Indonesia is the center of origin of bananas, and also the center of diversity with approximately more than 325 banana cultivars were found in Indonesia. The anatomical feature is essential as a basis for classification as well as the morphological feature. This research aimed to describe the morphological and anatomical characteristics of diploid Musa balbisiana and triploid Musa paradisiaca 'Kepok' bananas. Morphological characterizations were conducted according to the IPGRI descriptors for bananas (Musa spp.). Musa paradisiaca 'Kepok' was collected from Pontianak West Kalimantan and Musa balbisiana was collected from Nipah Panjang village Kubu Raya district West Kalimantan. The root, petiole, and leaf were dissected from banana samples for anatomical preparation. The microscope slide was prepared using paraffin method, stained with 1% safranine and 1% alcian blue. The anatomical characteristics of root and petiole of diploid Musa balbisiana and triploid Musa paradisiaca 'Kepok' were considerably similar. The difference between diploid and triploid banana leaf anatomy was the number of hypodermal layers. These sort of anatomical characterization could be applied as a reference for banana cultivars breeding.
Published: 23 February 2018
Scripta Biologica, Volume 5, pp 47-50; doi:10.20884/1.sb.2018.5.1.762
Abstract:Orchidaceae is a valuable ornamental plant in Indonesia’s export commodities. The growth of orchid in nature is prolonged due to its microscopic size of the seed and has no endosperm. In the mass-production, an inducer is required to accelerate the growth in an in-vitro culture, one of which is peptone. The embryos used in this study is Merapi endemic orchid, the Vanda tricolor Lindley var. Suavis. This study aimed to determine the effect of peptone on the growth of eight weeks old of Vanda tricolor Lindley var. Suavis embryos and to determine the optimal peptone concentration to induce the growth of the orchid embryo. This experiment was conducted in the Biotechnology Laboratory of the Faculty of Biology Universitas Gadjah Mada from September to October 2016. The treatments applied in this study was a variety of peptone concentrations (0–3 g/L) in growth media to induce eight weeks old protocorm subcultures. The study measured the morphological development of protocorm to determine the effect. The results showed a positive effect of peptone on the growth of orchid embryos at the NP1 treatment concentration of 1 g/L. The growth reached the phase 6 with the rate measured about 6.85±0.001% in the fourth week. This value was higher than the protocorm growth rate when it reached the phase 6 in the fourth week on the NP0 medium measured at 5.22±0.003%, on the medium NP2 at 1.15±0.002%, and on the medium NP3 at 1.02±0.001%. This result showed the effect of peptone concentration to induce the growth of Vanda tricolor Lindley var. Suavis embryo, but the excess concentration of peptone inhibited the growth of protocorm.