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Journal Acta Biochimica Indonesiana

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10 articles
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Ayeshah A Rosdah, Evi Lusiana, Muhammad Reagan, Abdurrahman Akib, Fadhila Khairunnisa, AfkarA Husna
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 37-45; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i2.15

Abstract:Background: Centella asiatica (L.) Urb is a native herb from Asian countries such as India, China, and Indonesia. This herb has been widely used as a cure for various diseases. However, studies investigating the aqueous extract of Centella asiatica as a nootropic in healthy individuals are still very limited.Objective: This study aims to investigate the potential of aqueous extract of Centella asiatica in enhancing cognitive function of healthy male Wistar rats.Methods: Rats were randomly allocated to four treatment groups, i.e. without treatment and aqueous Centella asiatica extract at doses of 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg. To determine enhancement of cognitive function, novel object recognition (NOR) test was conducted after the course of treatment. Acetylcholine content was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.Results: There was a significantly high preference index towards the novel object in the NOR test in groups treated with 200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of the aqueous extract compared to control. This was further confirmed by a significant increase of brain acetylcholine content in rats treated with 200 mg/kg of the extract.Conclusion: Therefore, this study confirms that the aqueous extract is effective in enhancing cognitive performance of healthy Wistar rats.
Syarifah Dewi, Wawan Mulyawan, Septelia Inawati Wanandi, Mohamad Sadikin
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 46-51; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i2.16

Abstract:Background: High altitude can cause hypobaric hypoxia (HH), resulted from the lower barometric pressure and hence partial pressure of oxygen. Hypoxia can lead to a lot of deleterious molecular and cellular changes, such as generation of free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS). Increasing of ROS can cause oxidative stress if the antioxidant enzyme does not increase simultaneously. Oxidative damage in brain has toxic effect on cognitive functions.Objective: In this study, we investigate effect of acute intermittent HH on oxidative stress and antioxidant enzyme activity in rat brain.Method: Wistar rats divided into 5 groups, consisting control group and four experimental groups which treated to HH. Rats were exposed to simulated HH equivalent to 35.000 feet in hypobaric chamber for 1 minute, repeated once a week.Results: Level of malondialdehyde and carbonyl in rat brain under acute HH increased at HH exposure (group I) compare to control group. These levels decreased afterward at intermittent HH exposure (group II-IV). Specific activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) shows increasing level at intermittent HH exposure, especially group IV was increasing of SOD level significantly. The increasing pattern of specific activity of catalase was inversely from SOD pattern, but it still has higher activity in intermittent HH compare to control group.Conclusion: Brain tissue seems to be able to perform an adequate adaptive response to hypobaric hypoxia after the training, shown by its significantly decreased MDA and carbonyl level and also increased specific activity of SOD and catalase.
Muhamad Arif Budiman, Mohamad Sadikin, Ani Retno Prijanti
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 59-67; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i2.17

Abstract:Background: Folate is an important substance used for purine and pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis. One measurement of folate that already establishes is using ELISA (Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) method. Folate binding protein is a protein that can bind folate, therefore it considered can be used as a tool that can replace antibody dependent ELISA method.Objectives: The aim of this research was to create a method for folate measurement in serum called Enzyme-labeled protein ligand binding assay (ELPLBA) by replacing antibody as used in ELISA method with folate binding protein (FBP) that purified from the whey of milk.Methods: The method is tested using 20 serum samples and compared to ELISA. Folate binding protein was purified from bovine’s milk using ammonium sulfate up to 90% saturated, DEAE-cellulose anion exchange chromatography and affinity chromatography. SDS-PAGE and western blot were used to establish the protein band of FBP that has molecular weight of ~25-35 kDa. ELPLBA was arranged with stationary phase using aminohexyl-agarose, and folic acid linked on it using carbodiimide.Results: The result show there was no significant difference of folate concentration between ELPLBA (14.804 ± 2.795) and ELISA method (13.859 ± 3.638), p = 0.363.Conclusion: ELPLBA method show similarity for determination of folate in serum which was the same as standard folate measurement (ELISA).
H R Helmi, Frans Ferdinal, Ani Retno Prijanti, Sri Widia A Jusman, Frans D Suyatna
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 68-75; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i2.18

Abstract:Background: Chronic systemic hypoxia is severe environmental stress for the heart and might lead to the development of heart failure. Apelin is an endogenous peptide that has been shown to have various beneficial effects on cardiac function. Apelin appears to have a role to play in the ventricular dysfunction and maintaining the performance of the heart.Objectives: In the present study we want to investigate the adaptive response of heart tissue to chronic systemic hypoxia and the correlation with apelin expression and oxidative stress in rat. Methods: An experimental study was performed using 28 Sprague-Dawley male rats, 8 weeks of age. Rats were divided into 7 groups 4 each, namely control group; normoxia (O2 atmosphere) and the treatment group of hypoxia (8% O2) for 6 hours; 1;3;5;7 and 14 days respectively. Body weight and heart weight were measured at each treatment. Ventricular thickness was measured by caliper, Apelin mRNA was measured using real-time qRT-PCR with Livak formula and malondialdehyde (MDA) level was used to assess oxidative stress due to cardiac tissue hypoxia.Results: Macroscopic exams showed hypertrophy at day 7th. The relative expression of Apelin mRNA in hypoxic heart is decreased at the beginning and then increased, starting from day-7 to day-14. The MDA levels were significantly increased from day-7 and were strongly correlated with relative expression Apelin.Conclusion: It is concluded that the increase of Apelin expression is related to oxidative stress in heart tissue of rats during chronic systemic hypoxia.
Meiliza Indriani, Ya’Kub Rahadiyanto, Yusuf Effendi, Bayu Winata Putera, Zen Hafy
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 52-58; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i2.12

Abstract:Background: The stem cell transplantation successful influenced by the quality of the umbilical cord blood which includes the number of CD34 + and Total Nucleated Cells (TNC).Objectives: The study aims to determine the correlation between umbilical cord length and it’s diameter, with the number of CD34 + and TNC cells as indicators of the quality of cord blood storage feasibility. Several other factors as maternal age, gestation period, and infant birth weight also examined.Methods: Thirty four of umbilical cords from the delivered woman in Dr. Mohammad Hoesin Hospital (RSMH) Palembang were collected from May to June 2018. The length and diameter of the cord were immediately measured after delivery. The evaluated cells were counted with a flow cytometer at Klaster Stem Cell and Tissue Engineering Research Centre (SCTE) IMERI Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia (FKUI). Results: Spearman correlation test show that there was no correlation between the length and diameter of the umbilical cord, maternal age, gestational period and infant weight, with the number of CD34 + and TNC cells in the cord (p> 0.05). However, the profile analysis indicated that the longer and larger the diameter of the umbilical cord, the higher concentration of the CD34+ and TNC cells.Conclusion: This study suggested that the younger maternal age, older gestational age, and higher infant birth weight, also normal hemoglobin level, tend to increase the number of CD34+ and TNC cells in the cord blood.
Rahmawati Ridwan, Febriana Catur Iswanti, Mohamad Sadikin
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 1-6; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i1.1

Abstract:Background: Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) are metalloenzymes which catalyze the reversible hydration/dehydration reaction of CO2, in order to maintain the cell homeostasis. These enzymes are found in various tissues and involve in a number of different physiological processes, including ion transport, acid-base balance, bone formation, gluconeogenesis and so on.Objective: To examine the specific activity of CA and to observe the liver tissue respond to oxidative stress by measured the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, in rat liver tissue induced by chronic systemic hypoxia for 1, 3, 5, 7 and 14 days of hypoxia.Results: The study showed that the activity of CA which induced by chronic systemic hypoxia significantly increasing at early exposure to the hypoxic condition, at day 1 and days 3 of hypoxia (0.281 and 0.262 nmol/mg protein/minute compared to control 0.155 nmol/mg protein/minute) (p
David Limanan, No Christian, E Efrany, E Yulianti, Frans Ferdinal
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 24-30; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i1.4

Abstract:Background: Aging is a process that every living creature will pass through and involves various factors. Increased inflammatory factors can be caused by hypoxia which forms Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) and damages macromolecules and causes the acceleration of the aging process. Maja plants, empirically have long been used as medicinal plants, research on Maja leaves shows anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potential.Objective: The purpose of this study was to find out and understand the potential of Maja fruit in the presence of inflammatory markers of IL-6 and TNF-α which are involved in the aging process.Methods: This research was in vivo experimental, using male experimental animals Sprague Dawley rats divided into 8 groups (n = 4), and divided into 2 groups (fed with Maja ethanol extract (400 mg/ kg/day, 14 days) and not force-fed). Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (normoxia, hypoxia (O2 8%, N2 92%) for 3, 7 and 14 days). At the end of the trial period, animal blood was examined for IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations using the ELISA method.Results: The results showed an increase in levels of IL-6 and TNF-α both in the group fed and not fed in line with the duration of hypoxia when compared with controls. However, groups that are not force-fed show a higher pattern compared to those who are force-fed.Conclusion : The ethanol extract of Maja fruit can help slow down the aging process.
Ani Retno Prijanti, Aa Hawali
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 31-36; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i1.5

Abstract:Background: Clove is known as antioxidant spice that used in cigarettes, spice for food/soup, and traditional medicine. It is believed that clove could protect smokers from cigarette-free radicals. Otherwise, study on clove as an antioxidant was still confused.Objective: To reveal that clove can overcome carbon tetra chloride (CCl4) and its free radical derivesMethod: This study was an experimental research, using 20 Wistar rats that were divided into 4 groups, Group 1 (CCl4 + cloves 3), group 2 (CCl4 + cloves 1), group 3 (normal control, without being offered treatment), group 4 (positive control, induced by CCl4 and followed by 100 mg alpha-tocopherol), and group 5 (negative control, only induced by CCl4). Rat livers were homogenized and followed with CAT activity measurement using spectrophotometry method of Mates.Results: There was a significant difference in mean between the groups (p= 0,001). Further test, the Post Hoc showed that there is a significance different between group 1 and 4 (p=0.008), 1 and 5 (p=0.001), 2 and 5 (p=0.001), 3 and 5 (p=0.001), and 4 and 5 (p=0.007). Group 1 (CCl4+Clove3) has the highest catalase activity.Conclusion: Syzygium aromaticum (clove) oral administration with the dose of 200 mg/kg rat body weight against 0.55 mg/kgBW CCl4 show increased of catalase activity but did not overcome the oxidative stress.
Lindi G Haritsyah, Mohamad Sadikin, Sri Widia Jusman
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 14-23; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i1.3

Abstract:Background: There is now increasing evidence that HIF-1 is also responsive to a variety of non-hypoxic stimuli. However, the mechanisms by which these non-hypoxic stimuli induce HIF-1α are not completely known, yet, although some evidence points to a role of ROS as messengers regulating HIF activity.Objective: To determine the expression of HIF-1α in liver rat tissue induced by carbon tetrachloride under normoxic conditions, with or without N-acetylcysteine protection.Methods: Twenty five male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 group: normal control rats, normal rats orally administered with coconut oil (1 mL/200 g body weight) for 1 day, rats orally administered with CCl4 (0.55 mg/g body weight) for 1 day, rats injected i.v. with NAC (0.15 mg/g body weight) for 8 days and then orally administered with CCl4 (0.55 mg/g body weight) for 1 day, rats orally administered with CCl4 (0.55 mg/g body weight) for 1 day and then injected i.v. with NAC (0.15 mg/g body weight) for 2 days. The expression of HIF-1α mRNA was measured by real-time RT-PCR using the Livak method. The expression of HIF-1α protein was measured by ELISA assay. Results: The highest HIF-1α mRNA and protein expression found in the group treated by CCl4 and then was gradually lowered in the pre-NAC group, post-NAC group, control group, and last, in the oil group. Conclusion : Our study shows the effect of CCl4-treated rats under normoxic conditions increased the mRNA and protein HIF-1α. NAC post-treatment provide a better protective effect compared with NAC pre-treatment
Syazili Mustofa, W Bahagia, Evi Kurniawaty, Kholis A Audah
Acta Biochimica Indonesiana, Volume 1, pp 7-13; doi:10.32889/actabioina.v1i1.2

Abstract:Background: Cigarette smoke is free radical that causing some pathological conditions such as inflammation, proteolysis, and oxidative stress. In previous studies, mangrove (Rhizophora apiculata) bark extract showed the potential effect as an antioxidant. Mangrove and mangrove associates are abundant plants that grow throughout Indonesian shorelines that have high pharmaceutical and food values.Objective: The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of Rhizophora apiculata bark extract in protecting pancreas of male white rat (Rattus novergicus) Sprague Dawley strain exposed to cigarette smoke.Methods: This research was an experimental study using a posttest-only control group design. Mangrove bark was extracted by using the maceration method. Cigarette smoke exposure was performed using an electric cigarette. Liver inflammation is assessed histopathologically.Results: Significant results (p 0.05) between the control and the bark extract + cigarette.Conclusion : The administration of mangrove bark extract has a potential to protect the damage of pancreatic male white rats (Rattus norvegicus) Sprague Dawley strains exposed to cigarette smoke
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