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Journal Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology

206 articles
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Junita Indarti, Utomo Budidarmo
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 3-9; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i1.663

Abstract:Objective: To investigate the efficacy of oral proboiotics and prove the high proportion of cure and satisfaction levels of post-treatment patients with a combination of antimicrobial-probiotic oral Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 and Lactobacillus reuteri RC-14 compared to a combination of antimicrobial-placebo in the treatment of reproductive aged patients with vaginal discharge in the outpatient obstetrics and gynecologic clinic in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia and Arifin Achmad Regional Hospital Pekanbaru, Riau, Indonesia. Methods:This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial involving50 subjects consisting of reproductive aged women. Data were collected using syndromic approach, probiotics were given as an adjuvant for standard antimicrobial therapy versus placebo as control, response was recorded 4 weeks later, for cure proportion and satisfaction level. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the variables. Interim analysis with conditional power assesment and futility testing were performed at midway due to insufficient sample size. Research was approved by Ethics Commitee for Health Researches Faculty of Medicine University of Indonesia-Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital in March 2016. Results: A total of 50 subjects participated in this study. and analyzed (25 subjects in each group), cure proportion 56%(14) of the treatment and 60%(15)on the control group, with relative risk of 1.1, Chi-square test p value (0.77, 95% CI; 0.57 to 2 , 11). High satisfaction level (score ≥67) was higher in the placebo (52,6%, 10 subjects) compared to probiotic group (47,4%, 9 subjects), p value 0,65 (≥0,05). Conditional power and futility testing curve, revealed Z = -0.2865, conditional power 0.11 to 0.13, and futility index of 0.87 to 0.88, equals to low possibility of statistical significance with full sample size (84). Conclusion: There was no clinical and statistical difference in the proportion of cure rate and the level of satisfaction in patients of probiotics vs placebo groups after treatment for 4 weeks. The initial hypothesis of higher proportion of the cure ratein the treatment group still cannot be excluded, due to insufficient samples. Keywords: bacterial vaginosis, , lactobacillus reuteri RC-14, lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1, randomized double blind controlled trial, trichomoniasis , vaginal discharge, vulvovaginal candidiasis.
Ervan J Randabunga, Efendi Lukas, Josephine L Tumedia, St. Maisuri T. Chalid
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 239-242; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.848

Abstract:Objective : To determine the effect of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) the levels of prostaglandins and intensity of pain in primary dysmenorrheal. Methods : The levels of prostaglandin (PGF2α) in plasma measured by ELISA and pain intensity by verbal rating scales conducted on 35 women with primary dysmenorrheal (n=35) supplemented with vitamin B6 100mg for 4 days and controls with placebo (n=35). Results : Prostaglandin levels decreased significantly after vitamin B6 supplementation (2212.9+1374.2 vs 1490.3+1119.0; p
Ivan Limy, Eddy Suparman, Hermie M. M. Tendean
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 243-247; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.849

Abstract:Objective : To determine the relationship of elevated serum retinol binding protein 4 with abnormal uterine bleeding Methods : This study was an observational quantitative with cross sectional methods, with all women who had abnormal uterine bleeding caused either by endometrial carcinoma or endometrial hyperplasia at RSUP Prof.DR.RD Kandou, and affiliation hospitals from November 2016 until April 2017. Data were analyzed With SPSS version 2.0 to see the significancy level. Results: Of 26 research subjects, 23 subjects with endomtrial hyperplasia and 3 subjects with endometrial carcinoma. From the total of 26 malignancy and hyperplasia diagnoses, 21 had IMT> 25 and 23 were diagnosed with Endometrial Hyperplasia and 3 Carcinoma Endometrium. 18 subjects had elevated serum RBP4 levels, with 15 people with endometrial hyperplasia and 3 with endometrial carcinoma. With the Fischer Exact test statistic, serum retinol binding protein 4 levels were found in both endometrial hyperplasia and endometrial carcinoma p = 1.00, meaning no significant difference for the occurrence of abnormal uterine bleeding. Conclusion: There was no significant association between serum retinol binding protein 4 between endomterium carcinoma and endometrial hyperplasia. Keywords: abnormal uterine bleeding, endometrial carcinoma, endometrial hyperplasia, serum retinol binding protein 4 Abstrak Tujuan : Mengetahui adanya hubungan peningkatan kadar serum retinol binding protein 4 pada hyperplasia endomterium dengan carcinoma endometrium Metode : Penelitian ini adalah jenis kuantitatif observasional secara potong lintang, dengan semua perempuan yang mengalami perdarahan uterus abnormal yang disebabkan oleh hiperplasia endometrium atau carcinoma endometrium di Bagian Kebidanan dan Kandungan Rumah Sakit Umum Pusat (RSUP) Prof.DR.R.D Kandou, dan RS jejaring mulai November 2016 sampai April 2017.Data dianalisa dengan SPSS versi 2.0 untuk melihat tingkat kemaknaannya. Hasil : Dari 26 subjek penelitian, 23 subjek dengan hyperplasia endomtrium dan 3 subjek dengan carcinoma endometrium. Didapatkan data penelitian dari total keganasan diagnosa dan hiperplasia sejumlah 26 orang, sebanyak 21 orang memiliki IM T>25 dan sebanyak 23 orang didiagnosa dengan Hiperplasia Endometrium dan 3 orang karsinoma Endometrium. Didapatkan sebanyak 18 subyek penelitian mengalami peningkatan kadar serum RBP 4, dengan 15 orang yang mengalami hiperplasia endometrium dan 3 orang dengan karsinoma endometrium. Dengan uji statistik Fischer Exact test, didapatkan kadar serum retinol binding protein 4 baik pada hiperplasia endometrium dengan karsinoma endometrium p=1.00, mengartikan tidak mempunyai perbedaan bermakna untuk terjadinya perdarahan uterus abnormal. Kesimpulan : Tidak terdapat hubungan bermakna kadar serum retinol binding protein 4 antara karsinoma endomterium dengan hiperplasia endometrium. Kata kunci : hiperplasia endometrium , kadar serum retinol binding protein 4, karsinoma endometrium, perdarahan...
Rahmawaty Anwar, Syahrul Rauf, Eddy R. Moeljono
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 253-256; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.851

Abstract:Objective: To determine the conformity of human papillomavirus between self-examination of vaginal specimen and cervical specimen with fluid-based cytology in precancerous lesions. Methods: A cross-sectional study performed on cervical and vaginal fluid from 90 pre-cancerous lesions patients from April to September 2016. Cytological examination performed with self-examination and liquid-based cytology technique. HPV genotyping performed with PCR technique. Data were analyzed with SPSS. Results: Most of the women aged >35 years (89%), 78% (71/90) multiparity and 74.4% (67/90) do not know about HPV screening. High risk type found in both vaginal and cervical fluid was type 16, 18, 33 and 45 whereas type 35 found only in vaginal fluid. The most prevalent high-risk HPV for both specimens were type 16 and 18. HPV type 42 and 53 were the low risk HPV found in the vaginal and cervical specimens (table 2). Cohen’s kappa for inter-test agreement shows a strong correlation (r=0.864). Conclusion: The HPV self-examination method can be used as a primary examination of cervical cancer lesions detection in addition to fluid-based cytology with the similar results. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, self-examination, fluid-based cytology, cervical cancer Abstrak Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui tingkat kesesuaian antara pemeriksaan HPV mandiri dari spesimen vagina dan hasil pemeriksaan sitologi berbasis cairan dari spesimen serviks. Metode: Penelitian cross-sectional dilakukan pada cairan serviks dan vagina dari 90 pasien lesi pra-kanker pada April sampai September 2016. Pemeriksaan sitologi dilakukan dengan pemeriksaan diri dan teknik sitologi berbasis cairan. Pemeriksaan genotip HPV dilakukan dengan teknik PCR. Data dianalisis dengan SPSS. Hasil: Sebagian besar wanita dalam penelitian iniaberusia >35 tahun (89%), 78% (71/90) multiparitas dan 74,4% (67/90) tidak mengetahui tentang skrining HPV. Tipe HPV risiko tinggi yang ditemukan pada cairan vagina dan serviks adalah tipe 16, 18, 33 dan 45 sedangkan tipe 35 hanya ditemukan pada cairan vagina. Tipe HPV risiko tinggi yang dominan untuk kedua spesimen adalah tipe 16 dan 18. HPV tipe 42 dan 53 adalah HPV risiko rendah yang ditemukan pada baik spesimen vagina maupun serviks. Kappa Cohen untuk tingkat kesesuaian antara pemeriksaan mandiri dan sitologi berbasis cairan menunjukkan korelasi kuat (r = 0,864). Kesimpulan: Metode pemeriksaan HPV secara mandiri sendiri dapat digunakan sebagai pemeriksaan primer deteksi lesi kanker serviks selain sitologi berbasis cairan dengan hasil yang sama.
Laila Nuranna, Sang A F Adi Kusuma
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 257-260; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.852

Abstract:Objectives: To assess the length of recovery phase in urinary tract dysfunction following radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer patients in Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital. Methods: This survey study was conducted in Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital from September 2016 to May 2017. Subjects were cervical cancer patients from stage IA2 to IIA2 underwent radical hysterectomy. Suprapubic catheter (SPC) was inserted to observe the urine production after procedure. Patients were then directed for bladder training protocol involving clamping and opening SPC. Sensation of bladder fullness followed by spontaneous micturition were recorded. Measurement of post voiding residual (PVR) urine volume after spontaneous micturition until less than 100 mL was considered as resolution of urinary tract dysfunction. The average days of every achieved phase were then calculated. Results: Twenty-nine subjects underwent radical hysterectomy during observation period. But only 21 subjects continued the bladder training protocol and recorded for the recovery phases. The average time needed to obtain sensation of bladder fullness and spontaneous micturition were 7.57 ± 4.78 days (median 5 days, minimum 3 days, maximum 22 days)and 8 ± 5.21 days (median 6 days, minimum 3 days, maximum 23 days). The objective PVR urine became less than 100mL was obtained after 21.42 ± 18 days (median 18 days, minimum 7 days, maximum 74 days). Conslusion: Following radical hysterectomy, recording the recovery phase of urinary tract dysfuction is essential to ensure complete resolution. Complete resolution of the urinary dysfunction is achieved after 21.42±18 days in average (median 18 days, minimum 7 days, maximum 74 days). Keywords: cervical cancer, radical hysterectomy, urinary tract dysfunction, post voiding residual volume. Abstrak Tujuan: Menilai masa pemulihan disfungsi saluran kemih setelah histerektomi radikal pada pasien kanker serviks di RSUPN Ciptomangunkusumo. Metode: Studi survei dilakukan di RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo dari September 2016 hingga Mei 2017. Subjek penelitian terdiri dari pasien kanker serviks stadium IA2 hingga IIA2 yang menjalani histerektomi radikal. Kateter suprapubik (SPC) digunakan sebagai alat untuk memantau produksi urin pasca operasi. Pasien diinstruksikan untuk mengikuti protokol bladder training yaitu melalui prosedur menutup dan membuka kateter. Rasa sensasi ingin berkemih dan berkemih spontan. Pengukuran residu volume urin pasca berkemih dibawah 100mL dianggap merupakan indikator pemulihan disfungsi saluran kemih. Rata-rata hari dari setiap fase kemudian dihitung. Hasil: Dua puluh sembilan subjek didapatkan selama penelitian. Namun, hanya 21 subjek yang dapat mengikuti protocol bladder traning dan dicatat perkembangan pemulihannya. Rata-rata hari yang diperlukan untuk merasakan sensasi berkemih dan berkemih spontan adalah 7,57 ± 4.78 hari (median 5 hari, minimum 3 hari, dan maksimum 22 hari) dan 8 ± 5.21 hari. (median 6 hari, minimum 3 hari dan...
Rahmawati Rahmawati, David Lotisna, Nusratuddin Abdullah, Maisuri T Chalid, Telly Tessy
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 228-231; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.846

Abstract:Objective : To compare the effectiveness of topically applied lidocaine-prilocaine cream with lidocaine-HCl injection in the reduction of pain during second degree of perineal tear suturing after vaginal delivery. Methods : One hundred and twenty-four of women with second degree of perineal tear after vaginal delivery were enrolled in this randomized clinical trial. Women were assigned randomly to have either application of lidocaine-prilocaine cream (n=62) or local injection of lidocaine-HCl (n=62) for anesthetic during perineal suturing. Pain measured with viasual analog scale (VAS) for the first 5 minutes during the perineal suturing. Statistical analysis was performed by comparative analytic numerical unpaired with independent t test between the two groups and significance was assessed at p
Intje S Dahlan, Mardiah Tahir, Efendi Lukas, St. Maisuri T Chalid
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 218-221; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.844

Abstract:Objective: to find out the correlation between lipid profille at trimester II of pregnancy and the incidence.of preeclampsia Method : The research was conducted in the Polyclinic of Hasanuddin University Teaching Hospital, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology of the Faculty of Medicine, and it network in Makassar city from March, 2015 through March, 2016. The research used was the prospective cohort design. Results : The examination of the lipid levels of 115 pregnant mothers, aged 24-28 weeks. The mothers were then observed whether they experienced preeclampsia up to the time they gave birth or not. In the end, 8 subjects (6.9%) experienced preeclampsia and 107 subjects (93.1%) have no preeclampsia. The statistical analyses used Fisher’s Exact test and Mann Whitney test. The research results indicated that the mean value of the total cholesterol and Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) was higher in the preeclampsia group compared to the non-preeclampsia group: 267.37 ± 64.12 : 238 ± 37.98; 177.38 ± 55.38 : 157.24 ± 35.08 (p>0.05). The mean value of High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) was lower in the preeclampsia group compared to the non-preeclampsia group: 64.75 ± 14.64 : 67.86 ± 16.72 (p>0,05). The mean value of trigliserida in preeclampsia group was significantly higher (19,5%) compared thanin the non-preeclampsia group: 260.12 ± 58.86 vs 209.14 ± 65.10 (p=0,027). Conclusion : The hypertrigliseridemia was correlated with the preeclampsia incidence. Keywords:preeclampsia, lipid profile, trimester II of pregnancy Abstrak Tujuan: mengetahui hubungan antara profil lipid kehamilan trimester II dengan kejadian preeklamsia. Metode : Penelitian dilaksanakan di Poliklinik RS jejaring pendidikan Departemen Obstetri dan Ginekologi Fakulltas Kedokteran Universitas Hasanuddin dan Poliklinik Kesehatan Ibu dan Anak di beberapa Puskesmas Kota Makassar selama Maret 2015 sampai dengan Maret 2016. Rancangan penelitian yang digunakan adalah prospektif kohort. Hasil: dari 115 ibu hamil dilakukan pemeriksaan kadar lipid, 115 ibu hamil pada usia kehamilan 24 – 28 minggu, kemudian diamati apakah subyek mengalami preeklamsia hingga proses persalinan. Terdapat delapan subyek (6,9%) berkembang menjadi preeklampsia dan 107 subyek tidak preeklamsia. Data dianalisis secara statistik dengan menggunakan uji Fisher’s Exact dan uji Mann Whitney. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai mean kolesterol total dan Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) lebih tinggi pada kelompok preeklampsia dibandingkan kelompok tidak preeklamsia, yaitu 267,37 ± 64,12 : 238,01 ± 37,98; 177,38 ± 55,38 : 157,24 ± 35,08 (p>0,05). Nilai mean High Density Lipoprotein (HDL) lebih rendah pada kelompok preeklamsia dibandingkan tidak preeklamsia yaitu 64,75 ± 14,64 : 67,86 ± 16,72 (p>0,05). Nilai mean trigli seri daripada kelompok preeklamsia secara signifikan lebih tinggi 19,5 % dibandingkan kelompok tidak preeklamsia, yaitu 260,12 ± 58,86 : 209,14 ± 65,10 (p=0,027). Kesimpulan : Hiper...
Jesslyn M Sanusi, Hermie M. M. Tendean, Juneke J. Kaeng
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 213-217; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.843

Abstract:Objective: Determine thecorrelation between creatinine clearance relationship with preeclampsia incidence. Method: Cross sectional research. Result: Creatinine clearance examination conducted on 60 sample of pregnant women > 20 weeks,30 normotensive samples and 30 preeclampsia samples. The obtained data analyzed using SPSS software version 22.0 and discussed using the existing literature theory. Creatinine clearance average level in normotensive pregnancy 124.650 ± 14.3699ml/minutes/1,73m2and preeclampsia 74.003 ± 23.169ml/minutes/1,73m2. After Mann-Whitney statistical test obtained p value = 0,000. From ROC curve analysis for creatinine clearance obtained sensitivityvalue 100% and specificity 99,53%. Conclusion:There is a significant correlation between the creatinine clearance levels with preeclampsia. Keywords: creatinine clearance, normotensive, preeclampsia. Abstrak Tujuan: Menentukan hubungan antara creatinine clearance dengan kejadian preeklamsia. Metode: Penelitian potong lintang. Hasil:Dilakukan pemeriksaan creatinine clearance pada 60 sampel ibuhamil > 20 minggu, 30 sampel darah normal dan 30 sampel preeklamsia. Data yang diperoleh dianalisa dengan menggunakan software SPSS versi 22.0 dan dibahas dengan menggunakan teori literatur yang ada. Kadar rerata creatinine clearance pada kehamilan normotensi 124,650 ± 14,3699 ml / menit / 1,73m2 dan preeklampsia 74,003 ± 23,169 ml / menit / 1,73m2. Setelah uji statistik Mann-Whitney diperoleh nilai p = 0,000. Dari analisis kurva ROC untuk creatinine clearance diperoleh nilai sensitivitas 100% dan spesifisitas 99,53%. Kesimpulan: Ada hubungan yang signifikan antara creatinine clearance dengan kejadian preeklamsia. Kata kunci: creatinine clearance, normotensi, preeklampsia.
Cepi T Pramayadi, Erliana Fani
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 261-266; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.896

Abstract:Objective: to highlight the needs of awareness on recognizing, prevent and address complications in laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.Method: Literature reviewDiscussion: The complications of laparoscopic gynecologic surgery mainly can be classified as complications related to anesthesia, entry technique, electrosurgical, postoperative and visceral due to surgical procedure itself. Lam proposed a 6 phase-based classification of laparoscopic surgery complications; patient identification, anesthesia and positioning, abdominal entry and port placement, surgery, postoperative recovery and counselling. The aim of this classification is to promote a culture risk management to improve patient safety and outcome. Each and every phase above should be able to assessed, analyzed and executed properly to prevent complications. Conclusion: Complication in operative laparoscopy is generally minor and can be handled successfully. However, although very rare, major complications are detrimental to the patient. It also becomes heavy burden for the surgeons. Preventive measures should be implemented not only by the operator but also the anesthesiologist, and theatre practitioners. Systematic drills, which regularly re rehearsed is important in order to maintain team proficiencies. Keywords: complications, gynecologic laparoscopy, operative Laparoscopy Abstrak Tujuan: Untuk menekankan pentingnya mengenali, mencegah dan mengatasi secara dini komplikasi operasi laparoskopi ginekologi. Metode: Kajian pustaka Diskusi : Komplikasi operasi ginekologi laparoskopi dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi komplikasi yang berhubungan dengan anestesi, teknik masuknya trokar utama, terkait elektro surgikal, komplikasi pascaoperasi dan komplikasi visera (pembuluh darah, usus, cedera traktus urinarius) terkait tindakan operasi itu sendiri. Lam mengusulkan suatu klasifikasi berbasis fase, antara lain, identifikasi pasien, anestesi dan posisi pasien, akses masuk abdomen dan penempatan trokar, terkait operasi, pemulihan pascaoperasi dan konseling. Tujuan dari klasifikasi ini adalah untuk meningkatkan budaya sadar risiko,guna meningkatkan keselamatan pasien. Setiap tahap harus dapat dilaksanakan, dinilai dan dianalisis dengan baik untuk mencegah terjadinya komplikasi. Kesimpulan: Komplikasi pada operasi ginekologi laparoskopi umumnya ringan dan dapat ditangani dengan baik. Walaupun jarang terjadi, komplikasi berat umumnya sangat merugikan pasien dan menjadi beban operator. Langkah-langkah pencegahan ini harus dilaksanakan oleh operator, tim anestesi serta seluruh tim kamar operasi. Simulasi harus dilaksanakan, guna mempertahankan kecakapan tim Kata kunci : komplikasi, laparoskopi ginekologi, laparoskopi operatif
I Putu G Kayika, Farrah Lidyasna
Indonesian Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology pp 209-212; doi:10.32771/inajog.v6i4.842

Abstract:Objectives: To examine the prevalence as well as maternal and perinatal outcome of teenage pregnancies. Methods: For analyzing the prevalence of the teenage mothers, we used cross-sectional study design by evaluating the medical records of all pregnant mothers who went to the obstetric clinic of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia, during January 2014 until December 2016. For the outcome of the teenage mothers, we used retrospective study design by analyzing medical records of teenage mothers who had delivery at the delivery ward of Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital during January 2014 until December 2016. We compared their outcomes to outcomes of pregnant women aged 20 to 30 years old delivered at the same hospital in the same period. Maternal outcomes that were measured include preeclampsia, methods of delivery, anemia, and postpartum hemorrhage, as well as perinatal outcomes including preterm delivery, and low birthweight. Results: Among 3.578 outpatients at Obstetric Clinic, RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo, we got 503 pregnant subjects, 16 (3.2%) were teenagers. Among 520 subjects who had delivery, 78 (15%) subjects were ≤ 19 years old. Teenage pregnancy was significantly associated with anemia (p < 0.05, adjusted OR = 2,08) and low birthweight (p < 0.05, adjusted OR = 1.83). Teenage pregnancy was not significantly associated with preeclampsia, methods of delivery, postpartum hemorrhage, and preterm delivery. Conclusion: The prevalence of teenage pregnancy at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital is 3.2% and teenage mothers who had delivery is 15%. Teenage mothers are at increased risk of anemia and delivering low birth weight babies. Keywords: maternal outcome, perinatal outcome, prevalence,teenage pregnancies Abstrak Tujuan: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi kehamilan remaja serta luarannya. Metode: Untuk menganalisis prevalensi ibu remaja, kami menggunakan desain studi potong lintang dengan mengeavaluasi rekam medis dari seluruh ibu hamil yang berobat ke klinik obstetri RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo pada periode Januari 2014 sampai Desember 2016. Pada luaran ibu hamil, kami menggunakan desain studi retrospektif dengan menganalisis rekam medis ibu remaja yang bersalin di RSUPN Cipto Mangunkusumo pada periode yang sama. Luaran ibu remaja dibandingkan dengan ibu yang bersalin yang berusia 20-30 tahun. Luaran ibu yang kami ukur meliputi preeklampsia, metode persalinan, anemia, perdarahan pasca persalinan, sedangkan luaran perinatal yang kami ukur meliputi kelahiran prematur dan BBLR. Hasil: Dari seluruh 3.578 pasien di Poliklinik Obstetri RSUPN Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo, diperoleh 503 subjek yang hamil,sebanyak 16 (3.2%) subjek adalah remaja. Dari seluruh 520 subjek yang bersalin, 78 (15%) subjek adalah remaja. Kehamilan remaja berhubungan signifikan dengan anemia (p < 0.05, adjusted OR = 2.08) dam BBLR (p < 0.05, adjusted OR = 1.83). Kehamilan remaja tidak berhubungan signifikan dengan preeklamsia, metode persalinan, perdarahan...
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