Journal Scientific Reports-
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35631-w
Abstract:The development of Bretschneider’s histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) cardioplegia solution represented a major advancement in cardiac surgery, offering significant myocardial protection. However, metabolic changes induced by this additive in the whole body have not been systematically investigated. Using an untargeted mass spectrometry-based method to deeply explore the urine metabolome, we sought to provide a holistic and systematic view of metabolic perturbations occurred in patients receiving HTK. Prospective urine samples were collected from 100 patients who had undergone cardiac surgery, and metabolomic changes were profiled using a high-performance chemical isotope labeling liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. A total of 14,642 peak pairs or metabolites were quantified using differential 13C-/12C-dansyl labeling LC-MS, which targets the amine/phenol submetabolome from urine specimens. We identified 223 metabolites that showed significant concentration change (fold change > 5) and assembled several potential metabolic pathway maps derived from these dysregulated metabolites. Our data indicated upregulated histidine metabolism with subsequently increased glutamine/glutamate metabolism, altered purine and pyrimidine metabolism, and enhanced vitamin B6 metabolism in patients receiving HTK. Our findings provide solid evidence that HTK solution causes significant perturbations in several metabolic pathways and establish a basis for further study of key mechanisms underlying its organ-protective or potential harmful effects.
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35998-w
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35898-z
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35675-y
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-36108-6
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-36091-y
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35728-2
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35824-3
Abstract:The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of the ultrasonography (US) on detecting osteoarthritis of the knee, and compare US and radiographic findings to intraoperative total knee arthroplasty (TKA) findings. Fifty-seven late-stage osteoarthritic knees undergoing TKA were evaluated with US and radiography. Standard knee US assessing femoral cartilage damage, osteophytes, effusion, synovitis, and meniscal extrusion was performed. On radiographs, osteophytes, joint space narrowing, and Kellgren-Lawrence grade were evaluated. Corresponding intra-operative findings were assessed during TKA as the gold standard. On the damage of the medial femoral condyle cartilage, the sensitivity of US was high (92%), whereas on the lateral condyle and sulcus area, sensitivities were 58% and 46%, respectively. On osteophytes, the detection rate of the US was remarkable especially on the medial side yielding sensitivities of 90–95%. The sensitivities for detecting effusion and synovitis were also excellent (97%). US detection rate of femoral cartilage damage was in concordance with the radiographic joint space narrowing. For the detection of osteophytes, US provided superior results to radiography particularly on the medial side. In conclusion, US can reliably assess the late-stage OA changes of the knee especially on the medial side of the knee joint.
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-35480-7
Abstract:A low-cost compact planar leaky-wave antenna (LWA) is proposed offering directive broadside radiation over a significantly wide bandwidth. The design is based on an annular metallic strip grating (MSG) configuration, placed on top of a dual-layer grounded dielectric substrate. This defines a new two-layer parallel-plate open waveguide, whose operational principles are accurately investigated. To assist in our antenna design, a method-of-moments dispersion analysis has been developed to characterize the relevant TM and TE modes of the perturbed guiding structure. By proper selection of the MSG for a fabricated prototype and its supporting dielectric layers as well as the practical TM antenna feed embedded in the bottom ground plane, far-field pencil-beam patterns are observed at broadside and over a wide frequency range, i.e., from 21.9 GHz to 23.9 GHz, defining a radiating percentage bandwidth of more than 8.5%. This can be explained by a dominantly excited TM mode, with low dispersion, employed to generate a two-sided far-field beam pattern which combines to produce a single beam at broadside over frequency. Some applications of this planar antenna include radar and satellite communications at microwave and millimeter-wave frequencies as well as future 5G communication devices and wireless power transmission systems.
Scientific Reports, Volume 8; doi:10.1038/s41598-018-36240-3
Abstract:Utilization of biodegradable metals in biomedical fields is emerging because it avoids high-risk and uneconomic secondary surgeries for removing implantable devices. Mg and its alloys are considered optimum materials for biodegradable implantable devices because of their high biocompatibility; however, their excessive and uncontrollable biodegradation is a difficult challenge to overcome. Here, we present a novel method of inhibiting Mg biodegradation by utilizing reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), an endogenous cofactor present in all living cells. Incorporating NADH significantly increases Mg corrosion resistance by promoting the formation of thick and dense protective layers. The unique mechanism by which NADH enables corrosion inhibition was discovered by combined microscopic and spectroscopic analyses. NADH is initially self-adsorbed onto the surface of Mg oxide layers, preventing Cl− ions from dissolving Mg oxides, and later recruits Ca2+ ions to form stable Ca-P protective layers. Furthermore, stability of NADH as a corrosion inhibitor of Mg under physiological conditions were confirmed using cell tests. Moreover, excellent cell adhesion and viability to Mg treated with NADH shows the feasibility of introduction of NADH to Mg-based implantable system. Our strategy using NADH suggests an interesting new way of delaying the degradation of Mg and demonstrates potential roles for biomolecules in the engineering the biodegradability of metals.