Journal International Journal of Population Studies-
Published: 4 January 2019
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 4; doi:10.18063/ijps.v4i2.817
Abstract:Child trafficking has long been internationally recognized as a serious crime. However, due to data scarcity and inconsistent definitions, the scope and nature of such criminal activity are not well understood in China. To fill this gap, this study aims to provide new evidence by digitizing and analyzing sentencing documents on child trafficking in China during 2014-2016.Taking advantage of web scraping techniques, all child trafficking cases were downloaded from the China Judgments Online website. Through geographic mapping and network analysis, we identified four geographic hotspots for trafficking—the central region (Shandong, Henan, and Hebei provinces), the east (Jiangsu, and Zhejiang provinces), the southeast (Guangdong and Fujian provinces) and the southwest (Sichuan, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces)—and explored the connection between the hotspots and the gender of victims. We further examined the effect of provincial socioeconomic characteristics on the frequency of trafficking cases, and found that sex ratio at birth and the number of legal adoptions per thousand were positively correlated to the frequency of buying and selling children.
Published: 15 December 2018
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 4; doi:10.18063/ijps.v4i1.457
Abstract:We conducted a study to provide an overview of the situation of Syrian refugees and other non-citizens living in host countries, as well as to summarize a series of policies and legislation towards refugees. We explored the cases of: (1) Turkey, which is one of the main destinations for Syrians fleeing the crisis in their home country; (2) Germany and United Kingdom, high-income countries where the public sentiment about refugees has changed/shifted overtime; (3) Greece and Italy, countries that share a close border with countries from where there are large refugee influxes; and (4) Canada and Australia, which do not share borders with countries from which there is a significant refugee influx and have had some success with integrating migrants and refugees. Our review of refugee policies suggests that successful resettlement of Syrian refugees was mainly due to political commitment coupled with an incredible public support and community engagement, including private sponsorship of refugees. Successful social and economic policies to deal with the refugee crisis demand a combined effort in terms of planning, implementing, monitoring, and assessing initiatives. Most importantly, record keeping and sharing data with stakeholders need to be improved. This is a joint complaint by non-profit organizations and academic institutions.
Published: 10 December 2018
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 4; doi:10.18063/ijps.v4i1.420
Abstract:Exploiting China’s mandatory retirement policy, we used fuzzy regression discontinuity design (RDD) to estimate the effect of retirement on household alcohol expenditure among urban Chinese older adults ages 50-70. Drawing on data from the Urban Household Survey (UHS) of China Statistics Bureau for the period of 2002-2009, we found that having a retired male household head significantly reduced total household expenditure on alcohol by 32%, particularly liquor. We explored two potential mechanisms that may explain the retirement effect. The first mechanism relates to decreased disposable income after retirement and the second mechanism involves reduced demand for social drinking after retirement. Our finding suggests that the urban Chinese older adults experience substantial change in drinking as a result of retirement. This has important public policy implications as China is facing a severe challenge of rapid population aging.
Published: 10 December 2018
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 4; doi:10.18063/ijps.v4i1.669
Abstract:This study draws on three waves (2012; 2013; 2015) of pooled data from the China General Social Survey to examine two major dimensions of the transition to first marriage among four cohorts of youths, i.e. the transition tempos and the homogamy patterns. Key findings include: 1) there is no evidence of systematic delays in family formation among cohorts coming of age after reform, albeit moderate cross-cohort heterogeneity. Two cohorts are identified for their unique trajectories: The Cultural Revolution cohort with a relatively protracted transition process and the Late Reform cohort with a rather condensed marriage formation pattern; 2) respondents who belong to older cohorts, are men, have received higher education and hold urban hukou have low hazards in entering first marriage by a certain age; 3)I record steady growing strengths of homogamy over cohorts, with the Ф parameters rising from 0.42 for the Cultural Revolution cohort to 0.56 for the Late Reform cohort. The overall message is that four decades of rapid economic development in post-reform China has failed to weaken persisting marriage norms and practices among young people, contrary to well-documented empirical evidence from many other national contexts. I ruminate on potential institutional and cultural mechanisms underlying such an intriguing phenomenon.
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 4; doi:10.18063/ijps.v4i1.412
Abstract:Depression brings a great burden of disease to Brazil. This study investigates depression-free life expectancy (DFLE) between 1998 and 2013 in the country. We used data from Brazilian National Household Survey, National Health Survey and Life Tables provided by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics considering individuals 30 years and older. DFLE by race and sex was calculated using the Sullivan method. We observed improvements in DFLE over time, for all race/color groups. In general, men had a smaller share of years lived with depression when compared to women within the same race groups. Compared to whites, blacks/ browns and people of other races/colors had the highest DFLE for both men and women. White women had the lowest percentage of DFLE. Blacks displayed better estimates of DFLE and lower number of years living with depression than whites, despite the evidence of worse health outcomes depicted in the literature. Further research is needed to understand the lower depression prevalence found for blacks that reflects directly into a higher DFLE.
Published: 31 December 2017
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 3; doi:10.18063/ijps.v3i2.330
Abstract:The study analyzed infant mortality and its risk factors in South Africa. It aimed to examine infant mortality in the country by taking into account the hierarchical nature of the problem and investigate the with-in country variation in modeling. In addition to the usual individual level risk factors of infant mortality, living standard, mother’s education, and income inequality were defined at municipal level, while HIV prevalence was fixed at province level. A multilevel logistic regression model was then fitted with Bayesian MCMC parameter estimation procedure using the 2011 South African census data. Most of the demographic and socioeconomic variables identified at individual level were found significant. More remarkably, the result indicated that communities with better living standard and women's education were associated with lower infant mortality rates, while higher income inequality and HIV prevalence in the communities were associated higher levels of infant mortality. The changes in infants’ odds of death were estimated to be 26%, -21%, 13% and 8% respectively for HIV, women’s education, income inequality and level of the living standard. In addition, unobservable municipal and province level random effects significantly affected the level of infant mortality rates.
Published: 31 December 2017
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 3; doi:10.18063/ijps.v3i2.348
Abstract:Unlike its short-term impact on consumption and income, forced migration is expected to deliver a permanent shock to the overall well-being of households, specifically children in the stage of infancy. Studies on the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being are few in number. Therefore, the present study is intended to examine the consequences of forced migration during infancy on child cognition at later age. We hypothesized that the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being can be mitigated by social support. The study used longitudinal data from three waves of the Young Lives Study (YLS) conducted in 2002, 2006–2007, and 2009 in the state of Andhra Pradesh, India. We used bivariate and multivariate regression models to analyze the consequences of forced migration in early childhood on the cognitive well-being in later childhood. The information on forced migration was collected in Wave 1 (at age 1), whereas the information on the cognitive well-being of the children was collected in Wave 3 (at age 8). Child cognitive well-being was measured using scores obtained by the children on the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), math, Early Grade Reading Assessment (EGRA), and memory tests. The results of the bivariate analysis show that the mean PPVT, math, EGRA, and memory scores obtained by children from the migrated households were lower than those obtained by children from the non-migrated households. Results of the multivariate linear regression models also show that children from the migrated households were statistically less likely to achieve higher scores on math (coefficient: -2.008, 95% C.I.-3.108, -0.908), EGRA (coefficient: -0.746, 95% C.I.-1.366, -0.126), and memory (coefficient: -0.503, 95% C.I. -0.834, -0.173) as compared to children from the non-migrated households. Our findings also indicate that the effect of forced migration on child cognitive well-being was not mitigated by social support. Findings of this study conclude that forced migration during infancy has a significant effect on child cognitive well-being at later age. Therefore, interventions should be made, paying attention to the most vulnerable children who were displaced during critical development ages.
Published: 8 December 2017
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 3; doi:10.18063/ijps.v3i2.208
Abstract:Theoretical work relating economic effect of children suggests that labor market participation decreases for mothers with large number of young children and increases when children are adults. The majority of empirical studies find results consistent with this expectation, but there are some studies which fail to confirm this theoretical prediction for the developing countries. This paper used data from a household survey of rural and urban married women to test the theoretical prediction that labor market participation decreases for mothers with large number of young children and increases when children are adults. Results show that when all households are considered, children seem to have positive effects on the probability of the mother’s work participation. However, when household lifecycle and rural-urban location differences are considered, coefficients are negative (but not statistically insignificant) for urban households with large number of young children and positive (and statistically significant) for those households with more adult children; whereas for rural households, these coefficient signs are reversed. Results from the quantitative data combined with qualitative narratives suggest that large numbers of young children do not prohibit rural mothers from working.
Published: 4 December 2017
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 3; doi:10.18063/ijps.v3i2.309
Abstract:We analyze the effects of household structure on education in Cambodia. Consistent evidence documents that residence with both biological parents benefits children’s education in Western countries. Elsewhere, the issue is gaining more attention with the growing number of “left-behind children” due to adult migration and, possibly, changes in family behavior. The extant record is both thinner and more contrasted, however. Controlling for the presence of grandparents and some household characteristics, we find children residing with both biological parents are more likely to be enrolled in school, in the appropriate grade for their age, and literate than those living with only one parent. The effect sizes appear comparable to those in most Western countries, but the effects shrink or even disappear when grandparents are present. The results for children not residing with either parent are mixed, possibly resulting from negative effects for some children and positive selection for some others.
Published: 30 August 2017
International Journal of Population Studies, Volume 3; doi:10.18063/ijps.2017.01.008.
Abstract:This paper investigates the coverage of public pension programs in Latin America and discusses the relation between economic development, the existence of public pension programs, and elderly labor force participation. The paper presents stylized facts about the labor force by age and the connection between economic development and labor supply using aggregated data from 23 Latin American countries. The second part of the paper uses regression models to investigate the effects of economic development and social security system on the labor force participation of the older adults in 23 Latin American countries over the period 1990–2010. The results show that in lower income Latin American countries, most men remained in the labor force until age 65 or beyond and that with economic development and related changes, the labor force participation of older men, even those aged 55–59, starts to decline. Overall, the paper provides some insight on the evolution of labor supply patterns in less developed economies with rising income, changes in population age structure, shifts in occupational composition, and development in public pension programs.