Journal The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents

114 articles
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Imad Al Kassaa, Mazen ZAYLAA, Samah Hussein, Khaled el Omari, Nour-Eddin Chihib, Monzer Hamze, Hoda Yusef, Fouad Dabboussi
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 8; doi:10.3823/817

Abstract:Introduction: The raw goat milk is considered as a good source of novel bacteriocinogenic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains. Method: The bacteriocin, which named enterocin CMUL20-2 was secreted by Enterococcus faecium CMUL20-2. This bacterial strain was originally isolated from raw goat’s milk, was extracted by using a modified adsorption-desorption method and purified via RP-HPLC. antimicrobial activity was tested against several pathogenic and spoilage microbes. Results: The enterocin CMUL20-2 showed a strong adsorption on cell wall of producer strain even in acidic environment which facilitate its extraction in only two simple steps. The recovered purified enterocin has decreased procedure time and diminished the number of undesirable molecules present in Rogosa and Sharpe (MRS) broth. The recovered enterocin showed antimicrobial activity against several foodborne pathogenic and spoilage microbes. Conclusion: The recovered enterocin was able to tolerate a variety of food chain conditions such as high temperature, pH and storage stability, and it can be a good candidate to protect food from spoilage microbes
Baraa M. Al-Taha, Jamal Wadi, Asem A. Shehabi
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 8; doi:10.3823/816

Abstract:The term probiotic (prolife) is utilized to describe useful living microorganisms, intended to colonize the large bowel, when consumed in adequate amounts, they confer physiological health benefits to the host. In the last decade, probiotics have been widely used as a nutritional supplement and became a rapidly developing research topic that gained importance in medicine. Recent clinical trials have found that consumption of beneficial bacterial species can manipulate gut flora and reduce or prevent the development of certain serious diseases. This brief review article is intended to discuss the status of research on probiotics, and the value of their consumption in human health.
Mouna Mohamad Alsaad
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 7; doi:10.3823/813

Abstract:Bacterial keratitis can lead to severe vision loss and corneal scarring, and possibly perforation. Early and appropriate management is a key factor in decreasing and preventing complication. Pubmed and Medline were searched for articles related to Pseudomonas keratitis between year 2000 and 2017 to get current guidelines about the management of Pseudomonas keratitis. These articles are reviewed in this review article and information related to management is summarized. The most used agents to treat Pseudomonas are either aminoglycosides (usually gentamicin) fortified with a cephalosporin or mono therapy with a fluoroquinolones usually ciprofloxacin. In most areas, most strains of Pseudomonasare sensitive to ciprofloxacin. The role of topical steroids is discussed, as well as, available options for treatment of multi drug resistant Pseudomonas.
Zahraa Jaafar Jameel, Anaam Fuad Hussain, Muthana Abdulkhader Al-Mahdawi, Nuha F. Abed Alkerim, Eman Sabah Abd Alrahman
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 7; doi:10.3823/812

Abstract:Pyocyanin is blue pigment redox active, secondary metabolites produced by P. aeruginosa. The present study investigated the bioactivity of pyocyanin against certain types of bacteria and fungi causing human infections Objectives: Pyocyanin is blue pigment redox active, secondary metabolites produced by P. aeruginosa. The current study deals with biosynthesis, purification and bioactivity of pyocyanin produced by P. aeruginosa. Design: Pyocyanin extraction was done by chloroform method and concentration was determined by multiplying the optical density at 520 nm by 17.072 expressed as µg/ml. Biological activity of pyocyanin was determined by well diffusion procedure. Results: According to the source of infection, results showed that P. aeruginosa were most common in ear infection (30%) followed by wounds (22%), burns (17%), urine (13%) and each in stool and diabetes (9%). In this study the high resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to antibiotics were 19 (82.6 %) to piperacillin followed by 10(43.5%) to aztreonem, 8(34.8%) to meropenem, 6(26.1%) to amikacin, 5(21.7%) to ciprofloxacin then 2(8.7%) to cefotaxime. the urine isolate produced the largest amount of pyocyanin (15.894 µg/ml). pyaocyanin have antimicrobial activity against Pathogenic bacteria: Shigella, Staphyllococcus aureus and Staphyllococcus epidermedis. and pathogenic fungi and yeast: Aspergillus niger, Penicillium spp., Rhizopus spp, Trichophyton mentagrophyte, Rhodotorula spp., Alternaria alternate , Trichophyton rubrum and Candida spp Conclusions: cefotaxime is the best antibiotic for P. aeruginosa. Antimicrobial activity of pyocyanin against gram positive more than gram negative bacteria but less than that observed against fungi (molds and yeast).
Sanem Karadag Gecgel, Canan Demir
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 7; doi:10.3823/815

Abstract:Background: The aim of our study was to evaluate the antimicrobial resistance rates among pathogen microorganisms especially colistin resistant rates of Acinetobacter baumannii in intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired infections and to determine infection-specific correct treatment strategies. Methods: The data of adult and newborn infant patients diagnosed with ICU-acquired infection in a tertiary education and research hospital in Bursa in 2014 and 2016 were analyzed, retrospectively. Results: Acinetobacter baumannii was the most frequent pathogen of ICU-acquired infections in 2014 and 2016. There was a significant increase in colistin (CO) resistance rates in A. baumanii (0.0%-6.8%). A significant increase in CO, cefepime (FEP), ciprofloxacin (CIP) resistance rates was established in all gram negative bacteria (0.0%-7.9%, 50.0%-91.9%, 54.7%-74.6%), respectively. A significant increase in the rate of detection of A. baumanii as the pathogen microorganism in respiratory tract infection (RTI) was established (53.9% -79.5%). In addition, the average ventilator-associated pneumonia (VIP) infection rate also increased in 2016 compared to 2014 (VIP rate 2014: 7.12, 2016: 7.45, per 1000 ventilator days). A significant decrease in the rate of detection of all gram negative microorganisms in the surgical site infection (SSI), and a significant increase in the rate of detection of all gram positive microorganisms in the SSI was determined. Conclusion: Increased antimicrobial resistance, especially increased colistin resistance rates in ICU-acquired infections, necessitates the creation of new strategies in empirical therapy. Detection of antimicrobial resistance profiles of local and infectious pathogen microorganisms in ICUs is a good guide for correct antimicrobial management.
Dr. Nahed Ali Al Laham, Emad Abou Elkhair, Abdallah Bashir, Nahed Abdelateef
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 7; doi:10.3823/814

Abstract:Background: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) represent one of the major resistant nosocomial pathogens where its biofilm-related infections often fail to respond to antibiotic chemotherapy. Here, we studied the resistance profiles and biofilm formation in CoNS isolates from clinical specimens at Al Shifa hospital in Gaza, Palestine. Methods: This study was carried out from March to July 2016 and included 81 clinical isolates. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were performed using VITEK-2 system. The presence of nuc and mecA genes was performed using multiplex PCR. Qualitative and quantitative biofilm assays were performed using standard methods. Results: Of the 81 clinical CoNS isolates, S. haemolyticus was the most common species (34, 42%), followed by S. epidermidis (26, 32.1%) and S. saprophyticus (13, 16%). The majority of isolates (83.9%) were from surgery, ICUs, pediatrics and medicine wards and the most common source was pus (28, 34.6%). Antibiotic resistance was highest against aminoglycosides, β-lactams, carbapenems, cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones, fosfomycin and macrolides. Though, no resistance was detected against rifampicin, vancomycin, teicoplanin, nitrofurantoin, linezolid and mupirocin. The antibiotic resistance among MR-CoNS was significantly higher than that among MS-CoNS. Nearly 88.9% of isolates were multidrug resistant with higher percentage among MR-CoNS. Most S. epidermidis (76.9%) isolates were biofilm producer, with statistically significant association between methicillin resistance and biofilm production. Conclusions: High rates of antibiotic resistance were found among CoNS to commonly used antibiotics and the majority were methicillin and multidrug resistance. Most S. epidermidis isolates were biofilm producer. These results justified the necessity for national programs and measures to monitor and manage the usage of antibiotics in the Palestinian hospitals and community.
Ikbel Kooli, Mariem Ajroudi, Abir Aouam, Hajer Ben Brahim, Adnene Toumi, Chawki Loussaief, Mohamed Chakroun
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, Volume 7; doi:10.3823/811

Abstract:Background: Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is a nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI). TDF is generally well tolerated. It is eliminated by the combination of glomerular filtration and active renal tubular secretion. Thus, it can be responsible, in the medium and long term, of renal toxicity. The aim of our study is to assess the prevalence of TDF nephrotoxicity and its factors risk in PLHIV treated in the Infectious Diseases Department at the University Hospital of Monastir, Tunisia.. Methods: An observational cross-sectional single-centre prospective study included 62 cases of HIV-infected patients taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) containing TDF was conducted between 1st August 2016 and 31 December 2016 at Fattouma Bourguiba University Hospital of Monastir, in Tunisia. During this period, patients were screened for renal dysfunction to detect renal toxicity, Tubular dysfunction or Fanconi syndrome. Results: 62 patients were included with female/male ratio at 1,52. The mean age was 39 years ± 8,5 years. Half of the patients were treated with TDF as first-line therapy. The average duration of TDF was 25 months, the duration was greater than 12 months in 40 (65%) patients. There was a decrease in creatinine clearance in 21 (33.8%) patients, the average of the decrease was 128,6 ±35,8 ml/min Proximal tubulopathy was noted in 1 patient (1.6%) and no patient had Fanconi syndrome. No risk factors for renal impairment under TDF were found. This finding could be explained by the small sample size Conclusion: TDF-related renal toxicity is often asymptomatic, it require early detection. In ours patient cases, TD is rare, but creatinine clearance decrease is frequent and may inform of possible TD in these patient. In order to reduce TDFtoxicity, a new pro-drug, tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), is now available.
Jameela AlSalaman, khadija AlShehabi, Sara Salah, Fatima Ahmed, Hasanin Khudhair, Sajeda Sabt, Hussain Redha, Muneer Mahdi, Ali Madan, Noor AlBalooshi, Hawra Kamal
The International Arabic Journal of Antimicrobial Agents; doi:10.3823/808

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