Journal Advanced Journal of Graduate Research-
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 5, pp 61-70; doi:10.21467/ajgr.5.1.61-70
Abstract:The Genetic Algorithm is one of the advanced optimization techniques frequently used for solving complex problems in the research field, and there are plenty of parameters which affect the outcome of the GA. In this study, a 25-bar truss with the nonlinear constraint is chosen with the objective to minimize the mass and variables being the discrete area. For the same, GA parameter like Selection Function, Population Size, Crossover Function, and Creation Function are varied to find the best combination with minimum function evaluation. It is found that the Uniform selection gives the best result irrespective of the creation function, population size or crossover functions. But this is at the cost of a large number of function evaluations, and the other selection function fails to reach the global optimum and has a smaller number of function evaluation count. If the analysis of selection function is done one at a time, it is seen that all Cases performs better in Roulette but, Case A which is non-integer type with 200 population size being computationally cheaper than Case B and C of population size 300. In the Tournament selection, Case A, B with smaller population size and Case C with higher population size performs better. Case C performs better at Remainder selection with smaller population size, and Case A and B for Stochastic Uniform with higher population size. And, it is clear that the function evaluation count increases with the population size in every Case from this study.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 5, pp 43-54; doi:10.21467/ajgr.5.1.43-54
Abstract:Corrosion is a severe matter regarding the most of metal using industries such as the crude oil refining. The formation of the oxides, sulfides or hydroxides on the surface of metal due to the chemical reaction between metals and surrounding is the corrosion that highly depended on the corrosive properties of crude oil as well as the chemical composition of ferrous metals since it was expected to investigate the effect of Murban and Das blend crude oils on the rate of corrosion of seven different ferrous metals which are used in the crude oil refining industry and investigate the change in hardness of metals. The sulfur content, acidity and salt content of each crude oil were determined. A series of similar pieces of seven different types of ferrous metals were immersed in each crude oil separately and their rates of corrosion were determined by using their relative weight loss after 15, 30 and 45 days. The corroded metal surfaces were observed under the microscope. The hardness of each metal piece was tested before the immersion in crude oil and after the corrosion with the aid of Vicker’s hardness tester. The metallic concentrations of each crude oil sample were tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The Das blend crude oil contained higher sulfur content and acidity than Murban crude oil. Carbon steel metal pieces showed the highest corrosion rates whereas the stainless steel metal pieces showed the least corrosion rates in both crude oils since that found significant Fe and Cu concentrations from some of crude oil samples. The mild steel and the Monel showed relatively intermediate corrosion rates compared to the other types of ferrous metal pieces in both crude oils. There was a slight decrease in the initial hardness of all the ferrous metal pieces due to corrosion.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 5, pp 1-7; doi:10.21467/ajgr.5.1.1-7
Abstract:Optimization is the basic tools to study the behaviour of many complicated mechanical systems by having the knowledge of differential equations which determine the system. The basis of this paper was to present a method to estimate the parameters such as spring constant and damping coefficient of the spring damped system by unconstrained optimization using derivative methods Such as quasi-newton method by Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno and davidon-Fletcher-Powell hessian updating method by using backtracking line search methods along with Armijo’s condition.it uses the output error approximation procedure. It shows the convergence of different methods which are used to estimate the parameters and how accurately they are measured.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 59-67; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.59-67
Abstract:The model of quantum computation has advanced very quickly in the last years. This model brings with it an efficient algorithm for factoring, namely the Shor algorithm. This means that the public key infrastructure will soon be obsolete. In this paper we propose a new quantum cryptographic scheme which aims to replace the RSA algorithm from current public key infrastructures. We analyze the security of our scheme and also, we describe the implementation of the scheme using IBM Q SDK, qiskit. We run a number of experiments in order to build a proof of concept application that uses the proposed scheme.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 15-33; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.15-33
Abstract:Since extensions of the standard model have been developed that predict violations of local Lorentz invariance (LLI), precision measurement groups have been working to reduce experimental bounds of the associated matrix element. Using an analogue of the Michelson-Morley test with trapped Ca+ ions, the current bound has been set at one part in 1018. However, by instead using Yb+ ions, which have highly stable electronic states for storing quantum information compared to their counterparts and exhibit enhanced effects of LLI breaking asymmetries, we can push the bounds to one part in 1023. In this article, we outline a configuration for such an experiment and offer solutions to experimental concerns. We develop an algorithm for state creation, manipulation, and measurement that minimizes measurement time and transition uncertainty. We also discuss necessary hardware for trapping and manipulating ions including a vacuum system, a Paul trap and the associated electrode voltage supplies, and an optics system for generating and applying transition pulses. The experiment is specifically designed to utilize the existing ion trap hardware in place at the Richerme lab at Indiana University Bloomington.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 1-14; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.1-14
Abstract:The objectives of this work are to optimize the process parameters on the mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and ductility) of dissimilar joints between AA5454 and AA7075 produced by friction stir welding and to determine which of them is significant by using Taguchi L16 optimization method. Seven parameters at two levels were selected in this study. The selected parameters are tool rotational speed, traverse speed, pin profile (based on taper angle), D/d ratio, tool tilt angle, plunge depth, and base metal location. Then, mathematical models are built as function of significant parameters/ interactions using Response Surface Methodology. The results of this work showed that the rotational speed, traverse speed, D/d ratio and plunge depth are significant parameters in determining UTS (Mean, Signal to noise ratio (S/N)) at different confidence levels, but pin profile, location of base metal and tool tilt angle are insignificant parameters at any confidence levels. The traverse speed has the highest contribution to the process for UTS about 18.577 % and 16.943 % for S/N ratio and mean, respectively. The accuracy of the models according to the UTS is 97.678 % and 99.56 %for mean and S/N ratio, respectively. The maximum joint efficiency, compared to the strength of the AA5454, is 85.3%.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 47-58; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.47-58
Abstract:The purpose of this research is to use friction stir welding (FSW) to join dissimilar metals, annealed low carbon steel and A1050 pure aluminum. A butt joint with a similar sheet thickness of 1.9 mm was applied. The novelties of the research are relatively using high generated heat produced by a combination of low traverse speed and high rotational speed to perform the dissimilar joints and using a tool material (K107cold work tool steel) which has not been used in FSW with tool cooling. The present work studied the effect of FSW variables such as tilt angle, tool cooling, base metal location on mechanical properties. Tensile tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the dissimilar joints. The microstructure specimens were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Sound dissimilar joints were successfully produced. The maximum joint efficiency obtained in this study is 51.7% of the aluminum tensile strength. The microstructure images showed that many steel fragments were sheared off from the steel surface by the tool action and scattered in the weld nugget, a continuous intermetallic compound (IMC) layer formed at the interface, the thickness of the IMC layer at the interface decreased in the thickness direction of the weld. FeAl3 IMC phase was only observed at the interface.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 34-40; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.34-40
Abstract:Vermicompost and compost of leaf litter of Eucalyptus was studied in plastic bins in duplicate sets with two different proportions (100 % and 50 %). For vermicompost experiments, epigeic earthworm species Eisenia foetida and Eudrilus eugeniae were employed at 10-10 numbers each per vermicompost bins. Cattle dung was taken as control. During the entire process physical factors viz. temperature, pH, moisture content and biomass were measured and compaired. The results were reveal that initial temperature was 35°C ± 2°C in both vermicompost and compost leaf litter and after several weeks, it was set at minimum level. In 50 % leaf litter temperature was 2-3°C higher than 100 % leaf litter. pH of both vermicompost and compost mixtures were acidic in beginning phase while set at alkaline at final stage. Vermicompost had lower pH than compost. Moisture content of leaf litter also decreased in initial phase due to generation of metabolic heat but at later phase it was increased due to decreasing of metabolic heat. More changed was seen in 100 % leaf litter followed by 50 % and then cattle dung. Biomass of leaf litter was more decreased in 100 % waste then 50 % and cattle dung.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 4, pp 41-46; doi:10.21467/ajgr.4.1.41-46
Abstract:Rhinitis has been found to have profound direct and indirect negative effects on business including costs attributed to loss of productivity and the amount of over the counter medications consumed. Several other studies have examined the immune system’s response in immunocompromised patients by using nasal cytology. This study focused on nasal cytology for a common illness such as acute rhinosinusitis (ARS), in otherwise healthy individuals. Most studies have used nasal cytology to analyze immunocompromised patients, however, this study considers otherwise healthy patients in order to better understand the basic immune response. This study aimed to examine the relationship between neutrophil frequencies found over the course of ARS and symptom severity experienced by subjects. Nasal smears were obtained from subjects at days five, nine, and fourteen of their ARS symptoms. A published symptom survey for ARS was given to participants to provide a qualifying score, signifying a high enough level of symptoms for this study. This survey monitored both emotional and physical symptoms throughout the fourteen-day illness period. Nasal smears were obtained on each visit and stained to observe the different cells present. Wilcoxon Sum Rank Tests were found to be significant between all symptom score visits 1,2, and 3 (p0.05). Less than ten percent of eosinophils were present in 88.89 percent of subjects. 55.5 percent of subjects did follow an increased amount of neutrophils over the course of their illness. This study reinforces the use of nasal cytology by obtaining nasal smears to demonstrate how neutrophil frequencies change with symptom severity.
Advanced Journal of Graduate Research, Volume 3, pp 47-61; doi:10.21467/ajgr.3.1.47-61
Abstract:The article gives a concise overview of solar dynamical processes and their impacts on the space weather. This article is based on the observational and theoretical developments made during last few decades. The article begins with a brief discussion of the Sun and the solar interior, from the core to the solar corona. We discuss the solar magnetic field and provide some basic understanding of the solar dynamo model. The solar dynamical processes, the transient as well as the gradual, are the manifestations of the Sun’s magnetic field. Magnetic reconnection, as well as submergence and emergence of magnetic flux tubes, plays an important role in the solar activities. This article tries to cover a range of dynamical processes, including sunspots, solar prominences and bright points. We also discussed various models of the dynamical processes along with their properties and effect on other activities occurring on the Sun.