Journal Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences

107 articles
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April Hari Wardhana
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 197-205; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1787

Abstract:Giardia intestinalis is a gastrointestinal parasite causing giardiasis that infects animals and humans. Giardiasis generates diarrhea, malabsorption, decreased body weight and milk production, dehydration, and mortality especially in young animals. This paper describes G. intestinalis assemblage E in humans and livestock, including molecular identification and disease distribution. The incidence of giardiasis in humans and livestock has been reported in some countries, particularly in young host living under poor sanitation and hygiene. Based on genotype, the parasite is divided into eight assemblages (A-H) and some infect specific hosts. At the moment, assemblage E is known as genotype that infects animal. This statement is controversial since assemblage E was also detected in humans who contacted with animals. This condition assumes that assemblage E is an emerging zoonosis that needs special attention.
Hasbi Hasbi, Sri Gustina
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, pp 13-22; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v28i1.1643

Abstract:Male fertility is affected by quantity and quality of sperm which controlled by androgens (testosterone and 5α-dihydrotestosterone) mediated by androgen receptors (AR). Androgen receptors belong to receptor group of steroid hormone and a group of ligand-activated nuclear receptor superfamily. This paper explains androgen hormone and its regulation in spermatogenesis to increase male fertility. Regulation of androgen hormone in spermatogenesis include initiation of spermatogenesis, proliferation and maturation of Sertoli cells, germ cell development, spermatogonia, meiosis, and spermiogenesis. The role of androgen hormone in regulation of spermatogenesis is influenced by AR, luteinizing hormone (LH), and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Disruption of spermatogenesis will cause low male fertility. However, low concentrations of AR, LH and FSH could be enhanced by exogenous gonadotrophine releasing hormone (GnRH), LH, FSH, and testosterone to increase male fertility.
Bayu Dewantoro Putro Soewandi
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 177-186; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1677

Abstract:Low productivity in local pigs is due to the absence of breeding plan with mating arrangements. The main productivity variables used in breeding are litter size (number of piglets), weaning litter, number of teats, sow productivity index, growth rate, slaughter weight, and carcass quality. Selection to produce a new breed in breeding scheme should be conducted within five generations requiring large numbers of livestock, length period, and costly. Biotechnology reproduction and genetic molecular can be used to increase the value of the variables, to shorten interval generation, and cost efficient. This paper provides information on the use of reproduction biotechnology and molecular genetic from various sources and utilization of both technologies to increase local pig productivity. Reproductive biotechnology is useful in mating arrangement and molecular genetic using marker assisted selection (MAS) is able to determine superior pig since early age.
Juniar Sirait
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 167-176; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1569

Abstract:Availability of good quality forage is limited during dry season. Dwarf elephant grass is one of alternatives in providing high productivity and quality of forage. This paper aims to inform morphologhy characteristics, feed quality, and post harvest of dwarf elephant grass. Dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott) has different morphology from common elephant grass (P. purpureum). It has several advantages compared to common elephant grass in term of faster growth and regrowth rates, high of leaf and stem ratio, protein content, and dry matter production. This grass is suitable for grazing and cut and carry system. This grass is also suitable for ruminant feed as silage or hay. Processing of dwarf elephant grass using fermentation technology is recommended during over production period, for further use during drought and limited forage availability.
Arie Febretrisiana, Fitra Aji Pamungkas
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 159-166; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1790

Abstract:Slaughtering productive cow is commonly practiced, eventhough it is not in accordance with government program to increase livestock population in Indonesia. Ovarium from slaughtered cow contains genetic materials that have not utilized properly. The purpose of this paper is to review ovarian utilization collected from abattoir through in vitro fertilization technology. The best procedure of ovary preservation from abbatoir to the laboratory, oocyte collection techniques are required to produce qualified embryo. Transportation of ovary to laboratory requires proper temperature and time. Slicing method obtains high quantity and good quality of oocyte. The quality of oocytes collected from abattoir as good as those taken from live animal. Ovaries that previously as waste product can be used for in vitro production of embryos and livestock genetic material resources.
Endang Sutedi, Iwan Herdiawan, Eko Handiwirawan
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 27, pp 187-196; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v27i4.1692

Abstract:Indonesia has about 17,506 islands consisting of large and small islands. Outermost small islands are direct boundary of Indonesia with neighboring countries. These outermost islands have the potency to be used as quarantine area and for livestock development, especially beef cattle in order to support the development of food security of meat. Some of outermost islands are Jemaja island in Riau Province, Singkil island in Aceh Province and Naduk island in Bangka Belitung Province. Criteria to determine quarantine area and livestock development are availability of natural resources (fresh water and forage), free of contagious diseases, human resources, market access, and transportation. This paper describes about the condition and forage availability in those three islands and their surrounding area. Those islands have potential variety of forage with different carrying capacities. Type of grass that has been adapted in the outermost islands are Paspalum conjugatum, Axonopus compressus, Cynodon dactylon, Cynodon plectostachyus, and Panicum repens.
Tati Ariyanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, pp 33-40; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v28i1.1791

Abstract:Bacteriophages are viruses that have ability to attack bacterial cells in specific receptors, infect, multiply in bacterial cells and eventually lyse bacterial cells. This unique bacteriophage character is highly beneficial because it is harmless to mammalian cells and does not interfere with natural microbes. Bacteriophages are easy to obtain because they are widespread in the environment such as soil, water, animal, and farm waste or food. This paper describes the potential use of bacteriophages to detect pathogen and foodborne pathogen biocontrol. Bacteriophages are very potential to control the growth of pathogenic bacteria both in food industry and environment. Bacteriophages act as antibiotics, detection tool for pathogenic bacteria in the food chain, food biopreservative from pathogen bacteria contamination, and foodborne disease prevention. Although research on bacteriophage in Indonesia has not been widely reported, research on bacteriophage utilization is being carried on.
Lisa Praharani, Riasari Gail Sianturi, Chalid Talib
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, pp 1-12; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v28i1.1744

Abstract:Buff and dairy buffaloes have an important role in farming system to produce meat, milk, and fertilizer. Their productivity and population have been decreasing due to several reasons such as inbreeding depression and lack of sires. This paper presents alternative efforts to improve genetics of buffaloes through outbreeding fascilitated by artificial insemination (AI) and estrus synchronization to decrease inbreeding rates. Effort to reduce inbreeding depression is conducted by introducing new buffalo genes from distant populations known as outbreeding. Indonesian Research Institute for Animal Production has initiated an outbreeding program in buffalo through AI. The pregnancy rate varies between 40-80% using estrus synchronization with prostaglandin and fixed time AI. Outbred offsprings have higher growth performance and selling price than offsprings of natural breeding. The outbreeding program through AI in buffaloes need to be carried out sustainability to increase availability of qualified breeding stocks.
Riza Zainuddin Ahmad
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, pp 41-50; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v28i1.1785

Abstract:The agriculture land including farmland is decreasing caused by conversion to industrial area and settlement, therefore post-mining area is used to be farmlands. The utilization of post-mining area causes serious health problem in animals and humans due to heavy metal waste pollution (Ag, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, and Pb). Efforts to overcome the pollution of heavy metals on farms can be carried out by preventing and controlling waste in post-mining and industry areas. There are several mycoremediation methods to recover heavy metal polluted land such as biosorption, bioaccumulation, bioprecipitation, bioreduction, and bioleaching. Mycoremediation is a process to remove pollutants or heavy metals from soil using potential fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium sp, Fusarium sp, Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Mycoremediation is chosen due to economical cost, efficient, and environmentally friendly.
Priyono Priyono, Atien Priyanti
Indonesian Bulletin of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, Volume 28, pp 23-32; doi:10.14334/wartazoa.v28i1.1410

Abstract:Human Development Index (HDI) is used to measure overall performance where Indonesia's HDI is ranked 110 out of 187 countries with an index value of 0.684 in 2015. Consumption of animal protein has a relationship with life expectancy and quality of life which determines by the HDI performance. The paper describes on perspective development of animal protein source from livestock in Indonesia. The production development of animal protein source in overall (meat, eggs, and milk) had a positive growth during the period of 1994-2015 with the range of 1-6%/year, except that for buffalo meat production that decreased by 1.77%/year. The animal protein availability of meat was dominated by broiler production, followed by beef, mutton and others. The broiler meat production has the highest growth rate of 6.67%/year. Meanwhile, the animal protein source of non-meat production was dominated by eggs and milk production that its growth rate were 5.98 and 4.29%/year, respectively. In the same period, the meat production share was dominated by poultry meat, the rest derived from large ruminant, small ruminant, and other meat sources. Egg and milk production share also increased significantly during the period and share availability of beef production was less than 25% where its consumer participation was decreased. This indicates that beef is not a primary consumption for the majority people of Indonesia. Development program is needed to encourage an increase of the protein source from poultry meat, large ruminants, small ruminants, and milk.
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