Journal Environmental Economics-
Environmental Economics, Volume 10, pp 1-11; doi:10.21511/ee.10(1).2019.01
Abstract:Littering has been a subject of inquiry by environmental economists, as well as social and environmental psychologists, each using a different theoretical and analytical toolkit. While economists see littering as an externality problem or a market failure, psychologists see it as a social behavior problem. Regardless of the discipline, both theories have a common goal: What factors affect littering behavior and how can it be curtailed? This paper, therefore, adopts theory-triangulation approach to review theories concerning littering. It concisely reviews the economist’s and the psychologist’s approaches to littering and their respective solutions. The finding from this review is that the psychological approaches to litter control are narrower in coverage than the economic approaches in that the former are applicable to smaller environmental settings or areas, such as school premises, office places, factories, and market places, as opposed to such lager settings as cities, states or the country at large to which economic instruments are usually applied. Despite the plethora of research extolling the virtues of economic approaches to litter control, their real-world application has not caught on. One of the factors responsible for this is the implementation costs and difficulty involved. The economic instruments are costlier than the psychological instruments, because the former cover a larger setting and entail a lot of bureaucracies. To better understand littering and find appropriate solutions to it, studies on littering should consider looking at littering holistically from this interdisciplinary perspective. Both the economist’s and the psychologist’s approaches to litter control should be synthesized for sustainable waste management. However, policymakers need to consider the available financial resources and the multifarious views of litter in policies relating to litter. An option for policymakers is to minimize those costs associated with implementing economic instruments.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 50-59; doi:10.21511/ee.09(4).2018.05
Abstract:Realization of agricultural production complying with the sustainable development principles has resulted in a separate direction – organic farming. Its big difference from all other economy sectors is in its dependence on the natural and climatic conditions. Therefore, agricultural production has a dual nature, namely it depends on the environment health on the one hand, and, on the other hand, directly affects this health through the use of technologies that can both improve and substantially worsen the environmental situation. The institutional support for the organic farming is of great importance. This issue is relevant for scientists from countries, where organic farming is actively developing. In Ukraine, this is also a topical issue. The paper presents a conceptual framework of institutional support for the organic farming development, which includes elements such as state regulation, self-regulation, objects and subjects of organic farming, as well as an organic product market. Legal, informational, infrastructure and financial directions of ensuring the development of organic farming are also defined. The essence of each element is revealed. The main indicators of the organic farming development in Ukraine are analyzed, i.e. the organic farming areas, their proportion in agricultural lands, the number of producers, the volume of the organic market, the volume of organic consumption per capita, as well as the share of domestic organic land in the world's territory. A correlation analysis based on data from the largest world market of the USA made it possible to determine the factors that have the greatest impact on the development of the organic agricultural sector. The number of organic producers is statistically significant, and the share of land in the organic farming does not have a significant impact on the organic product consumption. At the same time, this can be seen from the point of view that the more producers will offer their products, the more saturated the market will be, and therefore the level of the organic products coverage can be greater.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 44-49; doi:10.21511/ee.09(4).2018.04
Abstract:In the context of sustainable development, the need to improve the models of functioning and development of society, as well as the scientific knowledge underlying them is urgent. In particular, an ecologically oriented improvement of logistics science is needed to ensure the full use of its tools to resolve the modern socio-ecological and economic problems of resource use. In this regard, it is important to identify the directions and content of the ecologically related transformation of theoretical and methodological foundations of logistics, which is the purpose of this article. The paper outlines the main directions of logistic theory change in the context of the sustainable development paradigm. These changes embrace the improvement of the methodological basis of logistic science on the ground of provisions of ecological economics, environmental ethics, and principles of industrial ecology, etc. As a result, modern logistic management goals and objectives include environmental and social targets, and wider interpretation of material flow allows to manage the waste, emissions, secondary materials, and flaw components. The improvement of a methodical framework of logistic decision-making is associated with the environmentally adjusted calculation and analysis of total costs, proceeding from the assessment of environmental aspects of flow processes through the use of material flows analysis and life cycle assessment tools. Thus, the conceptual provisions of logistics may be used to solve various tasks in the context of sustainable development, in particular: to minimize the negative environmental impact of certain production process, enterprise, network (supply chain), as well as to form the regulatory framework for the promotion of ecoindustrial parks.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 22-43; doi:10.21511/ee.09(4).2018.03
Abstract:This study used both quasi-experiment and contingent valuation survey to explore the applicability of deposit-refund system (DRS) to water-sachet litter management in Nigeria. In the experiment, a DRS was established to incentivize the participants to return emptied sachets of water. A contingent valuation survey of 454 sachet-water consumers selected using quasi-systematic sampling technique was conducted. Experimental results showed that the number of sachets returned by the experimental group – those subjected to DRS – was significantly greater than that of the comparison group – those not subjected to DRS. Logit regression results showed that refund size increased the odds of returning sachets by 42.0%. Increasing the redemption time decreased the odds of turning in sachets by about 16.0%. A one-minute increase in the time spent on redemption would result in about 2.4% decrease in the probability that participants would comply. Income decreased the odds of compliance by about 31.0%, while age reduced the odds of compliance by about 2.2%. These results imply that the DRS reduced water-sachet littering in the study area, and that income, refund amount, redemption time, age and perceived effectiveness of DRS influenced consumers’ compliance with DRS. Hence, an appropriate motivating DRS would reduce litter and its attendant problems, such as hygiene, plastic pollution, flooding, aesthetic loss, non-naturally degradable toxic compounds, degradation of natural habitat ant its endangered species. The government should, therefore, implement a DRS and set up recycling plants, or encourage private recycling firms, in order to accommodate used sachets that would end up piling up.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 8-21; doi:10.21511/ee.09(4).2018.02
Abstract:This paper reviews the literature on energy consumption behavior for both domestic and migrated/displaced population and aims to recommend crucial policy measures for creating awareness on the energy efficiency. Consumers’ adoption to the efficient usage of energy varies depending on demographic, behavioral and situational dynamics in their households and societies. The regional or national strategies to implement efficient technologies for the consumer engagement are crucial to change their behaviors. Migrants affect the energy usage patterns in the host country due to their different usage behaviors. Any type of measures for migrated population should include available, acceptable, accessible and affordable energy efficiency applications to engage them with the domestic population.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 1-7; doi:10.21511/ee.09(4).2018.01
Abstract:The aim of this paper is to shed light on the challenges that microfinance and the sustainability of its institutions (MFIs) can face when dealing with financial crisis and the alleviation of global poverty. Apart from its economic and social effects, microfinance has come to respond to increasing demands and take the environmental aspect into account, hence, the appearance of green microfinance. The pivotal role of the latter is to foster economic growth and investment through increasing the quality of the environment and the social inclusion. In this context, Tunisia has shown interest in the introduction of a new regulation that facilitates the allocation of green micro-credits. In order to combat poverty and reduce unemployment, ecological credits have been granted by the ENDA Tamweel microfinance institution. The ultimate goal of this study is to present the tendency of this new financing mechanism in Tunisia to achieve sustainable environmental development.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 42-50; doi:10.21511/ee.09(3).2018.05
Abstract:Sustainable society development distinctly entails the issues of sustainable use of land and especially soils, which are the place and condition of human activity, the means of production that provide absolute value, and a unique natural resource. Ukraine possesses nine percent of the world’s black soil (chernozem) resources, which necessitates the development of sufficient economic and legal mechanisms for their effective use in ensuring food security within the country and worldwide, increasing the export potential of Ukraine subject to the soil quality restoration, and determines the scope of this work. The land reform in Ukraine as a component of economic reform has led to a significant deterioration of agricultural land, loss of humus from soils, their degradation, and other negative consequences threatening the country’s economic security and generating socio-economic and demographic crisis phenomena, especially in rural areas. Therefore, the study has identified priorities and has proposed the use of contractual mechanisms in the field of sustainable socio-economic use of land resources. The authors applied an integrated approach to the analysis of sustainable land use issues to achieve the study objective. This led to the use of a wide range of methodological tools, in particular, the dialectical method, the formal logical method, the logical legal method and the methods of analysis, synthesis and comparison. Defined provisions that determine the economic and legal mechanism of land use and should be ensured in the process of sustainable development: meeting the needs of landowners and other persons, including the priority needs – environmental and food security; an increase in the area of land not involved in the economic turnover, the adoption of measures aimed at the preservation and restoration of agricultural land, in particular compliance with the requirements for crop rotation, and, in some cases, their conservation; introduction of contractual relations in the field of land use.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 28-41; doi:10.21511/ee.09(3).2018.04
Abstract:Environmental responsibility mechanism in the public sector of the economy has an important sense in UN Sustainability Development Goals achievement, as well as in ensuring the competitiveness of the state-owned companies and the state as a whole. Sustainability concept, concept of “smart cities and smart communities” and the implementation of public administration reform, the necessity to increase the transparency of state-owned companies and the responsibility of municipalities to communities determine the reasonability and urgency in environmental responsibility mechanism development. Systematization and comparative analysis of world and national experience of environmental responsibility mechanism development in the public sector of the economy were made. The author’s approach to the structuring of the mechanism of environmental responsibility in the public sector was developed. Public policy peculiarities implementation in the field of environmental responsibility were investigated considering the levels of regulation of such liability: in state-owned companies as models for other sectors of the economy; in public authorities and municipalities.
Environmental Economics, Volume 9, pp 29-32; doi:10.21511/ee.09(3).2018.03
Abstract:This article summarizes the information on raw materials in the Czech Republic. Although mining was significantly reduced not long ago, there are still rich deposits of ores, non-metallic raw materials, as well as energetic and construction ones. Many of them are potentially utilizable in future, especially those which are economically favorable, and their mining is not in any conflict with environmental interests. Deposits are distributed irregularly, and their raw materials are different in both the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians. In order to be complete, the text also comprises deposits, which are restricted by environmental limits or their mining promises a low-cost effectiveness. The article is amended with actual statistical data.