Journal International Journal of Nanomedicine-
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 2011-2027; doi:10.2147/ijn.s191627
Abstract:Osteochondral repair using scaffolds with gradient pore sizes constructed with silk fibroin, chitosan, and nano-hydroxyapatite
International Journal of Nanomedicine; doi:10.2147/ijn
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1937-1952; doi:10.2147/ijn.s198353
Abstract:Lipid-polymer hybrid nanoparticles as a next-generation drug delivery platform: state of the art, emerging technologies, and perspectives Anubhab Mukherjee,1,2 Ariana K Waters,1,2 Pranav Kalyan,3 Achal Singh Achrol,2 Santosh Kesari,2 Venkata Mahidhar Yenugonda1,2 1Drug Discovery and Nanomedicine Research Program, 2Department of Translational Neurosciences and Neurotherapeutics, John Wayne Cancer Institute, Pacific Neuroscience Institute, Providence Saint John’s Health Center, Santa Monica, CA, USA; 3Agoura High School, Agoura Hills, CA, USA Lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticles (LPHNPs) are next-generation core–shell nanostructures, conceptually derived from both liposome and polymeric nanoparticles (NPs), where a polymer core remains enveloped by a lipid layer. Although they have garnered significant interest, they remain not yet widely exploited or ubiquitous. Recently, a fundamental transformation has occurred in the preparation of LPHNPs, characterized by a transition from a two-step to a one-step strategy, involving synchronous self-assembly of polymers and lipids. Owing to its two-in-one structure, this approach is of particular interest as a combinatorial drug delivery platform in oncology. In particular, the outer surface can be decorated in multifarious ways for active targeting of anticancer therapy, delivery of DNA or RNA materials, and use as a diagnostic imaging agent. This review will provide an update on recent key advancements in design, synthesis, and bioactivity evaluation as well as discussion of future clinical possibilities of LPHNPs. Keywords: lipid–polymer hybrid nanoparticle, lipid-based nanoparticle, polymer-based nanoparticles, drug delivery, gene delivery
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1979-1991; doi:10.2147/ijn.s193965
Abstract:Intraperitoneal delivery of acetate-encapsulated liposomal nanoparticles for neuroprotection of the penumbra in a rat model of ischemic stroke
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1969-1978; doi:10.2147/ijn.s188235
Abstract:Biosynthesis, characterization, and anticancer effect of plant-mediated silver nanoparticles using Coptis chinensis Junwen Pei, Binfan Fu, Lifeng Jiang, Taizhen Sun Department of Integrated Traditional Chinese and Western Medicine, The Henan Cancer Hospital, Affiliated Cancer Hospital of Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou, Henan 450008, China Background: Tremendous growth in nanotechnology has opened up new frontiers in fundamental and applied aspects, including the synthesis of nanoscale matter and understanding/utilizing its exotic physicochemical and optoelectronic properties. Green-synthesis methods employing either biological microorganisms or plant extracts have emerged as a simple and alternative to chemical synthesis. Methods: In our present study, we aimed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in combination with an aqueous extract of Coptis chinensis (CC) using a suitable ecofriendly green-synthesis way. Results: In our results, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy revealed a near-absorbance peak at 450 nm, which confirmed the AgNP synthesis. The crystalline nature of the AgNPs was revealed with X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron-microscopy analysis showed spherically dispersed nanoparticles of 6–45 nm diameter. We analyzed the elementary mechanism across A549 lung carcinoma cells ahead of treatment with doses of CC-AgNPs (10 µg/mL and 25 µg/mL). The antiproliferative effect of CC-AgNPs revealed a significant decline in cell viability. Antibacterial assays with both Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) and Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria exhibited a higher zone of inhibition against S. aureus. Conclusion: Furthermore, CC-AgNPs regulated apoptosis using the intrinsic pathway to inhibit A549-cell proliferation. Proliferation migration and invasion were notably inhibited by CC-AgNPs, which promoted apoptosis in lung adenocarcinoma cells by regulating the apoptotic pathway. Keywords: Coptis chinensis, silver nanoparticles, antimicrobial, lung cancer, apoptosis, invasion
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1907-1918; doi:10.2147/ijn.s189730
Abstract:Culture of dental pulp stem cells on nanoporous alumina substrates modified by carbon nanotubes
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1865-1876; doi:10.2147/IJN.S191784
Abstract:Rotavirus is the representative cause of severe acute gastroenteritis in young children. A characteristic feature of rotavirus is low infectious dose and robustness of the virion, suggesting sanitation and hygiene will have little impact. Thus, development of a vaccine should be given priority. Efficient capture of infectious viruses is an important step in generating a vaccine. Previously, antibody-integrated magnetic nanobeads (MNBs) have been developed for virus capture. This study examines the applicability of this method for infectious rotavirus recovery and enrichment. Graphite-encapsulated MNBs were treated with radio frequency (RF) excited Ar/NH3 gas mixture plasma to introduce amino groups onto their surfaces. Rotavirus viral protein 7 (VP7) antibody was attached to the surface of MNBs via these amino groups using a coupling agent, N-succinimidyl 3-(2-pyridyldithio)propionate (SPDP). The antibody-integrated MNBs were incubated with rotavirus-infected cell lysate and then separated from the supernatant by applying a magnetic field. After thorough washing, rotavirus was recovered and enrichment analysis done by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), immunochromatography, and an infection analysis using MA104 cells. Immunochromatography and PCR indicate that anti-rotavirus antibody-integrated MNPs efficiently capture rotavirus with the capsid protein and viral RNA. The estimated recovery rate was 80.2% by PCR and 90.0% by infection analysis, while the concentrating factor was 7.9-fold by PCR and 6.7-fold by infection analysis. In addition, the absence of non-specific binding to the antibody-integrated MNPs was confirmed using anti-dengue virus antibody-integrated MNBs as a negative control. These results suggest that this capture procedure is a useful tool for recovery and enrichment of infectious rotavirus. Moreover, when combined with a suitable virus assay this capture procedure can increase the sensitivity of rotavirus detection. Therefore, this capture method is a valuable tool for generating vaccines as well as for developing sensitive detection systems for viruses.
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1633-1657; doi:10.2147/IJN.S184723
Abstract:Conventional cancer treatment techniques show several limitations including low or no specificity and consequently a low efficacy in discriminating between cancer cells and healthy cells. Recent nanotechnology developments have introduced smart and novel therapeutic nanomaterials that take advantage of various targeting approaches. The use of nanotechnology in medicine and, more specifically, drug delivery is set to spread even more rapidly than it has over the past two decades. Currently, many nanoparticles (NPs) are under investigation for drug delivery including those for cancer therapy. Targeted nanomaterials bind selectively to cancer cells and greatly affect them with only a minor effect on healthy cells. Gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs), specifically, have been identified as significant candidates for new cancer therapeutic modalities because of their biocompatibility, easy functionalization and fabrication, optical tunable characteristics, and chemophysical stability. In the last decade, there has been significant research on Au-NPs and their biomedical applications. Functionalized Au-NPs represent highly attractive and promising candidates for drug delivery, owing to their unique dimensions, tunable surface functionalities, and controllable drug release. Further, iron oxide NPs due to their “superparamagnetic” properties have been studied and have demonstrated successful employment in numerous applications. In targeted drug delivery systems, drug-loaded iron oxide NPs can accumulate at the tumor site with the aid of an external magnetic field. This can lead to incremental effectiveness in drug release to the tumor site and vanquish cancer cells without harming healthy cells. In order for the application of iron oxide NPs in the human body to be realized, they should be biodegradable and biocompatible to minimize toxicity. This review illustrates recent advances in the field drug and small molecule delivery such as fluorouracil, folic acid, doxorubicin, paclitaxel, and daunorubicin, specifically when using gold and iron oxide NPs as carriers of anticancer therapeutic agents.
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1835-1847; doi:10.2147/IJN.S183842
Abstract:These normal entheses are not reestablished after repair despite significant advances in surgical techniques. There is a significant need to develop integrative biomaterials, facilitating functional tendon-to-bone integration. We fabricated a highly interconnective graphene oxide-doped electrospun poly(lactide-co-glycolide acid) (GO-PLGA) nanofibrous membrane by electrospinning technique and evaluated them using in vitro cell assays. Then, we established rabbit models, the PLGA and GO-PLGA nanofibrous membranes were used to augment the rotator cuff repairs. The animals were killed postoperatively, which was followed by micro-computed tomography, histological and biomechanical evaluation. GO was easily mixed into PLGA filament without changing the three dimensional microstructure. An in vitro evaluation demonstrated that the PLGA membranes incorporated with GO accelerated the proliferation of BMSCs and furthered the Osteogenic differentiation of BMSCs. In addition, an in vivo assessment further revealed that the local application of GO-PLGA membrane to the gap between the tendon and the bone in a rabbit model promoted the healing enthesis, increased new bone and cartilage generation, and improved collagen arrangement and biomechanical properties in comparison with repair with PLGA only. The electrospun GO-PLGA fibrous membrane provides an effective approach for the regeneration of tendon to bone enthesis.
International Journal of Nanomedicine, Volume 14, pp 1849-1863; doi:10.2147/IJN.S190954
Abstract:Despite titanium (Ti) implants have been commonly used in the medical device field due to their superior biocompatibility, implant-associated bacterial infection remains a major clinical complication. Nanosilver, an effective antibacterial agent against a wide spectrum of bacterial strains, with a low-resistance potential, has attracted much interest too. Incorporation of nanosilver on Ti implants may be a promising approach to prevent biofilm formation. The objective of the study was to investigate the antibacterial effects and osteoinductive properties of nanosilver/poly (dl-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-coated titanium (NSPTi). Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and the Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PAO-1) were used to evaluate the antibacterial activity of NSPTi implants through the analysis of bacterial colonization in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we examined the osteoinductive potential of NSPTi implants by investigating the proliferation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 preosteoblast cells. In vivo, the osteoinductive properties of NSPTi implants were assessed by radiographic evaluation, H&E staining, and Masson’s trichrome staining. In vitro, bacterial adhesion to the 2% NSPTi was significantly inhibited and <1% of adhered bacteria survived after 24 hours. In vitro, the average colony-forming units (CFU)/g ratios in the 2% NSPTi with 103 CFU MRSA and PAO-1 were 1.50±0.68 and 1.75±0.6, respectively. In the uncoated Ti groups, the ratios were 1.03±0.82×103 and 0.94±0.49×103, respectively. These results demonstrated that NSPTi implants had prominent antibacterial properties. Proliferation of MC3T3-E1 cells on the 2% NSPTi sample was 1.51, 1.78, and 2.22 times that on the uncoated Ti control after 3, 5, and 7 days’ incubation, respectively. Furthermore, NSPTi implants promoted the maturation and differentiation of MC3T3-E1 cells. In vivo, NSPTi accelerated the formation of new bone while suppressing bacterial survival. NSPTi implants have simultaneous antibacterial and osteoinductive activities and therefore have the potential in clinical applications.