Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale

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ISSN / EISSN : 1196-1961 / 1878-7290
Total articles ≅ 1,031
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Jacqueline Cummine, Angela Cullum, , Tyson Sereda, Cassidy Fleming, Alesha Reed, Amberley Ostevik, Sienna Cashion-Dextrase, ,
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, Volume 75, pp 279-298; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000257

Abstract:
There is a strong relationship between reading and articulation (Lervåg & Hulme, 2009; Pan et al., 2011). Given the tight coupling of these processes, innovative approaches are needed to understand the intricacies associated with print-speech connections. Here we ran a series of tightly controlled experiments to examine the impact of mouth perturbations on silent reading. We altered the mouth, via somatosensory feedback, in several ways: (a) a large lollipop in the mouth (E1), (b) a candy stick (bite bar) held horizontally between the teeth (E2), and (c) lidocaine that served to numb the mouth (E3). Three tasks were completed: (a) picture categorization, (b) "spell" lexical decision (Spell-LDT; "does the letter string spell a real word, yes or no?"), and (c) "sound" lexical decision (Sound-LDT; "does the letter string sound like a real word, yes or no?"). Participants (N = 97; E1 = 27; E2 = 32; E3 = 38) completed each of the tasks two times: once with a somatosensory perturbation (lollipop, bite bar, or lidocaine) and once without. For each experiment, a linear mixed effects analysis was run. Overall, we found that the lollipop (E1) and lidocaine (E3) had some specific effects on word recognition (e.g., for "no" responses), particularly in the Spell-LDT, whereas the bite bar (E2) had no effect on word recognition. The picture categorization task was not impacted by any perturbations. These findings provide evidence that sensorimotor information is connected to reading. We discuss how these findings advance our understanding of a print-to-speech framework. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, Volume 75, pp 307-325; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000238

Abstract:
The self is a crucial component of the psychic life and plays a central role for the adaptation to the environment. In daily life, this adaptative function is ensured, inter alia, by numerous biases filtering information and favoring those which are self-related. After succinctly reviewing the most documented among them which are affective and mnesic biases, the current paper provides a critical review of literature about a bias which is supposed to be perceptive, the self-prioritization effect (SPE). That has been revealed by Sui et al. (2012, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38(5), 1105) with an astute matching task and consists in the fact that arbitrarily tagging shapes to a word referring to the participant (e.g., you-square) leads to faster and more accurate responses as compared to shapes tagged to a word referring to another identity (e.g., strange-circle). The methodological variations of this task and the SPE's both extension and putative origins will be presented, as well as the restrictions which border it, related to the individuals, to the experimental situation and to some more general properties of the self. Finally, some avenues for future research will be proposed, drawing some promising paths: beyond being a robust and intriguing phenomenon, SPE can indeed be considered as a convenient tool to assess some mechanisms underlying social cognition, in various fields using an experimental approach such as developmental psychology and social psychology. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Dominic Guitard, Jean Saint-Aubin
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, Volume 75, pp 245-260; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000248

Abstract:
In backward immediate serial recall, participants recall lists of items immediately after their presentation by beginning with the last presented item and ending with the first presented one. Despite the similarities with forward recall in which participants recall the items from the first to the last presented, benchmark memory phenomena reliably found in forward recall are not constantly observed in backward recall. Here, we proposed a new framework called the encoding-retrieval matching (ERM) hypothesis to account for backward recall. The ERM retains the main features of the visuospatial hypothesis and the item-order trade-off hypothesis, the two dominant accounts of backward recall. According to the ERM, output modality and foreknowledge of recall direction influence the availability of visuospatial representations and the weight devoted to item and order processing. We tested the ERM with irrelevant speech, a well-known working memory factor disrupting forward recall. In two experiments, we manipulated recall direction (forward vs. backward), irrelevant speech (control vs. irrelevant speech), and response modality (manual vs. oral). As predicted by the ERM, when recall direction was unpredictable in Experiment 1, the magnitude of the irrelevant speech effect was larger in backward manual recall than in backward oral recall. In Experiment 2, recall direction was predictable. As predicted by the ERM, in backward recall, the irrelevant speech effect was reduced with a manual response and absent with an oral response. We concluded that ERM effectively accounts for the complex interplay between response modality, foreknowledge of recall direction, and benchmark memory effects in backward recall. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
, Linda Truong, Lingqian Li
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, Volume 75, pp 299-306; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000210

Abstract:
Past research demonstrated enhanced memory for information encoded with relevance to a survival scenario compared to a control scenario, an effect referred to as the survival processing effect in memory. This effect has been explained by a proximate mechanism hypothesis (i.e., survival processing enables deep elaborative processing that promotes memory). In support of this hypothesis, past research found that, during encoding, the survival processing effect was largely intact under a perceptual or low-load secondary task condition but eliminated under a high-load secondary task condition. To test semantic encoding as a possible proximate mechanism, the current study assesses the impact of high-load and low-load divided attention tasks that require semantic processing of digits on the survival processing effect. Seventy-two young adults rated words for their relevance to two survival scenarios (i.e., grassland and mountain) and one non-survival control scenario (i.e., cruise), while completing a concurrent high-load or low-load semantic digit-monitoring task. No survival processing effect was found in either condition. The results suggest that semantic encoding probably serves as a proximate mechanism for the survival processing effect in memory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Derek Besner, David McLean, Torin Young
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale, Volume 75, pp 261-278; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000261

Abstract:
It is a widely held view that the determination of eye gaze direction is "automatic" in various senses (e.g., innate; informationally encapsulated; triggered without intent). The determination of arrow direction is also held to be automatic (following a certain amount of learning) despite not being innate. The present experiments evaluate the automaticity assumption of both eyes and arrows in terms of an interference criterion. The results of 10 experiments support the inference that explicit judgements of eye gaze direction, when participants respond with a lateralized key press, are (a) neither automatic in the strong sense (they are interfered with by an uninformative, incongruent arrow in the display) and (b) nor are they are automatic in a weaker sense (uninformative, incongruent arrows interfere more strongly with the determination of eye gaze direction than uninformative, incongruent eyes interfere with the arrow direction task). However, the determination of arrow direction is also not strongly automatic, given that it is interfered with by irrelevant eyes. At least with respect to an interference criterion, the determination of eye gaze direction appears less prepotent than the determination of arrow direction, which itself is only weakly automatic. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
Lina Guerrero, Michel Isingrini, Lucie Angel, Séverine Fay, Laurence Taconnat, Badiâa Bouazzaoui
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000240

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Ian Neath
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000263

The publisher has not yet granted permission to display this abstract.
Ge Xu, Jiexuan Lin,
Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue canadienne de psychologie expérimentale; https://doi.org/10.1037/cep0000262

Abstract:
The issue of bilingual phonological access remains unclear for bilinguals with cross-script language systems, which is especially true when the time course of phonological activation is involved. To investigate the time course of cross-script phonological activation, the present study asked Chinese-English bilinguals to complete a word naming task that was conducted in a forward-masked phonological priming paradigm in three stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) conditions. By comparing the interlingual and intralingual phonological priming effects in a within-subjects design, we found that (a) target naming in Chinese and English was facilitated by a phonologically similar English or Chinese prime in the three SOA conditions (43 ms, 75 ms, and 150 ms) and the facilitation effect of the prime reached the peak when the pronunciation of the prime-target pair most resembled each other and (b) manipulation of the SOAs affected both the naming latencies of target words and the sizes of the phonological priming effect. In particular, naming latencies in each prime-target type displayed an increasing tendency as the SOA prolonged. Moreover, despite the varied sizes of the priming effect in the three SOA conditions, we found a consistent pattern that the priming effects in two interlingual conditions resembled their respective intralingual conditions along the time course. Taken together, these findings provide strong support for an integrated phonological representation of bilinguals and further extend the language nonselective access hypothesis to language pairs with very different orthographic systems. Implications for the manipulation of the SOAs in the masked priming paradigm are also discussed. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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