#### Nanomaterials

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ISSN / EISSN : 2079-4991 / 2079-4991
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Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162789

Abstract:
Excessive antibiotic residues in food can cause detrimental effects on human health. The establishment of rapid, sensitive, selective, and reliable methods for the detection of antibiotics is highly in demand. With the inherent advantages of high sensitivity, rapid analysis time, and facile miniaturization, the electrochemical sensors have great potential in the detection of antibiotics. The electrochemical platforms comprising carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) have been proposed to detect antibiotic residues. Notably, with the introduction of functional CNMs, the performance of electrochemical sensors can be bolstered. This review first presents the significance of functional CNMs in the detection of antibiotics. Subsequently, we provide an overview of the applications for detection by enhancing the electrochemical behaviour of the antibiotic, as well as a brief overview of the application of recognition elements to detect antibiotics. Finally, the trend and the current challenges of electrochemical sensors based on CNMs in the detection of antibiotics is outlined.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162785

Abstract:
Magnetization-graded ferromagnetic nanostrips are proposed as potential prospects to channel spin waves. Here, a controlled reduction of the saturation magnetization enables the localization of the propagating magnetic excitations in the same way that light is controlled in an optical fiber with a varying refraction index. The theoretical approach is based on the dynamic matrix method, where the magnetic nanostrip is divided into small sub-strips. The dipolar and exchange interactions between sub-strips have been considered to reproduce the spin-wave dynamics of the magnonic fiber. The transition from one strip to an infinite thin film is presented for the Damon-Eshbach geometry, where the nature of the spin-wave modes is discussed. An in-depth analysis of the spin-wave transport as a function of the saturation magnetization profile is provided. It is predicted that it is feasible to induce a remarkable channeling of the spin waves along the zones with a reduced saturation magnetization, even when such a reduction is tiny. The results are compared with micromagnetic simulations, where a good agreement is observed between both methods. The findings have relevance for envisioned future spin-wave-based magnonic devices operating at the nanometer scale.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162787

Abstract:
Sulfur quantum dots (SQDs) are a kind of pure elemental quantum dots, which are considered as potential green nanomaterials because they do not contain heavy metal elements and are friendly to biology and environment. In this paper, SQDs with size around 2 nm were synthesized by a microwave-assisted method using sulfur powder as precursor. The SQDs had the highest emission under the excitation of 380 nm and emit blue fluorescence at 470 nm. In addition, the SQDs had good water solubility and stability. Based on the synthesized SQDs, a fluorescence assay for detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) was reported. The fluorescence of the SQDs was initially quenched by Cr (VI). In the presence of ALP, ALP-catalyzed hydrolysis of 2-phospho-L-ascorbic acid to generate ascorbic acid. The generated ascorbic acid can reduce Cr (VI) to Cr (III), thus the fluorescence intensity of SQDs was restored. The assay has good sensitivity and selectivity and was applied to the detection of ALP in serum samples. The interesting properties of SQDs can find a wide range of applications in different sensing and imaging areas.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162788

Abstract:
A high-luminescent, blue-light excitable europium(III) coordination complex, [Eu(µ2-OC2H5)(btfa)(NO3)(phen)]2phen (1) {btfa = benzoyl trifluoroacetone, phen = 1,10-phenantroline}, has been synthesized and investigated. The complex was characterized by infrared (IR) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. The PL emission spectra of powder samples registered in a range of 10.7–300 K exhibit characteristic metal-centered luminescence bands, assigned to internal radiative transitions of the Eu3+ ion, 5D17Fj and 5D07Fj (j = 0–4). The high-resolution spectrum of the transition 5D07F0 shows that it consists of two narrow components, separated by 0.96 meV, which indicates the presence in the matrix of two different sites of the Eu3+ ion. The splitting pattern of 5D07Fj (j = 0–4) transitions indicates that europium ions are located in a low-symmetry environment. The absolute quantum yield and the sensitization efficiency were determined to be 49.2% and 89.3%, respectively. The complex can be excited with low-cost lasers at around 405 nm and is attractive for potential applications in optoelectronics and biochemistry.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162790

Abstract:
Vibration measurement and analysis play an important role in diagnosing mechanical faults, but existing vibration sensors are limited by issues such as dependence on external power sources and high costs. To overcome these challenges, the use of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG)−based vibration sensors has recently attracted attention. These vibration sensors measure a small range of vibration frequencies and are not suitable for measuring high-frequency vibrations. Herein, a self-powered vibration sensor based on an elastic steel triboelectric nanogenerator (ES−TENG) is proposed. By optimizing the elastic steel sheet structure and combining time-frequency transformation and filtering processing methods, the measurement of medium- and high-frequency vibrations is achieved. These results demonstrate that the ES−TENG can perform vibration measurements in the range of 2–10,000 Hz, with a small average error (~0.42%) between the measured frequency and external vibration frequency values. Therefore, the ES−TENG can be used as a self-powered, highly-accurate vibration sensor for intelligent machinery monitoring.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162784

Abstract:
In this paper, the method of filling natural rubber with zeolite as filler was mainly studied in the following two aspects: firstly, experiments selected organic amine surface modifier to modify natural zeolite and used infrared spectroscopy to analyze the interaction between the modifier and zeolite, and secondly, studying the application of modified zeolite in natural rubber and using scanning electron microscopy to analyze the mechanism of action between zeolite and natural rubber. The test results show that octadecylamine in the modifier had the relatively best effect. Under the best conditions, the activation index of the modified product could reach 95% and above, and the contact angle could reach about 100°. When the filling amount was 30 phr, the octadecylamine modification had the most obvious effect on the performance of zeolite/natural rubber and the composite rubber had better mechanical properties. The corresponding tensile strength, tear strength, elongation at break and Shore hardness were 22.59 MPa, 28.52 MPa, 782.1% and 41, respectively, which were 45.74%, 19.28%, 7.95% and 7.89% higher than those of unmodified zeolite/natural rubber. As the first study of organic amine modified zeolite as a filler for filling natural rubber, this work provides a new way to improve the added value of natural zeolite.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162783

Abstract:
The use of the semiconductor heterojunction channel layer has been explored as a method for improving the performance of metal oxide thin-film transistors (TFTs). The excellent electrical performance and stability of heterojunction TFTs is easy for vacuum-based techniques, but difficult for the solution process. Here, we fabricated In2O3/In2O3:Gd (In2O3/InGdO) heterojunction TFTs using a solution process and compared the electrical properties with single-layer In2O3 TFTs and In2O3:Gd (InGdO) TFTs. The In2O3/InGdO TFT consisted of a highly conductive In2O3 film as the primary transmission layer and a subconductive InGdO film as the buffer layer, and exhibited excellent electrical performance. Furthermore, by altering the Gd dopant concentration, we obtained an optimal In2O3/InGdO TFT with a higher saturation mobility (µ) of 4.34 cm2V−1s−1, a near-zero threshold voltage (Vth), a small off-state current (Ioff) of $1.24×{10}^{-9}$ A, a large on/off current ratio (Ion/Ioff) of $3.18×{10}^{5}$, a small subthreshold swing (SS), and an appropriate positive bias stability (PBS). Finally, an aging test was performed after three months, indicating that In2O3/InGdO TFTs enable long-term air stability while retaining a high-mobility optimal switching property. This study suggests that the role of a high-performance In2O3/InGdO heterojunction channel layer fabricated by the solution process in the TFT is underlined, which further explores a broad pathway for the development of high-performance, low-cost, and large-area oxide electronics.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162791

Abstract:
We have developed chelator-free copper-64-incorporated iron oxide (IO) nanoparticle (NPs) which have both magnetic and radioactive properties being applied to positron emission tomography (PET)-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We have found that the IO nanoparticles composed of radioactive isotope 64Cu may act as a contrast agent being a diagnostic tool for PET as well as a good T2 MRI nanoprobe due to their good r2/r1 ratio. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the 64Cu incorporation at the core of core-shell-structured IO NPs exhibits a good in vivo stability, giving us an insightful strategy for the design of a contrast agent for the PET-MRI system.
Published: 14 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162786

Abstract:
The individual effect of nano- and micro-carbon-based fillers on the mechanical and the electrical properties of cement paste were experimentally examined in this study. The objective of the study was to separately examine the effects of size and morphology (platelets and fibers) of nano- and micro-reinforcement. Three different sizes of Graphene Nanoplatelets (GNPs), at contents of 0.05% and 0.20% and recycled milled carbon fibers (rCFs), at various dosages from 0.1–2.5% by weight of cement, were incorporated into the cementitious matrix. GNPs and rCFs were dispersed in water with air nanobubbles (NBs), an innovative method that, compared to common practice, does not require the use of chemicals or high ultrasonic energy. Compressive and bending tests were performed on GNPs- and rCFs-composites. The four-wire-method was used to evaluate the effect of the conductive fillers on the electrical resistivity of cement paste. The compressive and flexural strength of all the cementitious composites demonstrated a considerable increase compared to the reference specimens. Improvement of 269.5% and of 169% was observed at the compressive and flexural strength, respectively, at the GNPs–cement composites incorporating the largest lateral size GNPs at a concentration of 0.2% by weight of cement. Moreover, the rCFs–cement composites increased their compressive and flexural strength by 186% and 210%, respectively, compared to the reference specimens. The electrical resistivity of GNPs- and rCFs-composite specimens reduced up to 59% and 48%, respectively, compared to the reference specimens, which proves that the incorporation of GNPs and rCFs can create a conductive network within the cementitious matrix.
Published: 13 August 2022
by MDPI
Nanomaterials, Volume 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12162779

Abstract:
Solid particles scattered in a base fluid for a standard no larger than 100 nm, constituting a nanofluid, can be used to improve thermophysical characteristics compared to the base fluid. In this study, theoretical and experimental investigations were carried out to estimate the density, viscosity, and effective thermal conductivity of Co3O4 in distilled water (DW), ethylene glycol (EG), and DW–EG mixture nanofluids. Co3O4 nanoparticles with diameters of 50 nm were dispersed in different base fluids (i.e., EG, DW, 60EG:40DW, 40EG:60DW, 20EG:80DW) with varying concentrations of 0.025–0.4 vol.%. Thermal conductivity was estimated by the hot-wire technique, and viscosity was determined using a viscometer apparatus. According to the measurements, the viscosity of Co3O4 nanofluids decreased with increasing temperature, and increased with increasing volume fraction. The results revealed that the thermal conductivity of Co3O4 nanofluids increased with increasing temperature and volume concentrations. Moreover, the measurements found that the maximum thermal conductivity of 10.8% and the maximum viscosity of 10.3% prevailed at 60 °C in the volume fraction of 0.4%. The obtained viscosity and thermal conductivity results of the present experiments on Co3O4 nanofluids were compared with previous results. The results showed good agreement with theoretically proposed models to predict nanofluids’ viscosity and thermal conductivity. Thus, the thermal conductivity results of Co3O4 nanofluids are promising with respect to the use of nanofluids in solar thermal applications.