Latest articles in this journal
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.24114.1
Background: Pesticide exposure might increase risk of lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between the historical use of pesticides commonly found in Thailand, and lung cancer. Methods: This case-control study compared a lifetime pesticide exposure of 233 lung cancer cases, and 458 healthy neighbours matched for gender, and age (±5 years). Data on demographic, pesticide exposure, and other related factors were collected using a face-to-face interview questionnaire. Associations between lung cancer and types of pesticides as well as individual pesticides were analysed using logistic regression adjusted for gender (male, female), age (≤54, 55-64, 65-74, ≥75), cigarette smoking (ever, never smoke), occupation (farmer, non-farmer), and exposure to air pollution (yes, no). Results: It was found that lung cancer was positively associated with lifetime use of herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides. Compared to people in the lowest quartile of number of days using the herbicides and insecticides, those in a higher quartile had an elevated risk of lung cancer, with odds ratio (OR) between 2.79 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.12–6.95), and 28.43 (95% CI 11.11-72.76) (p < 0.001). For fungicides, only the most exposed group had a significant risk (OR = 4.97; 95% CI 1.49-16.56). For individual pesticides, those presenting a significant association with lung cancer were dieldrin (OR = 2.76; 95% CI 1.42-5.36), chlorpyrifos (OR = 3.98; 95 % CI 2.06-7.67), and carbofuran (OR = 2.58; 95% CI 1.48-4.51). Conclusions: The results showed that lung cancer among Thai people in Nakhon Sawan province is associated with previous pesticide use. This finding was consistent with previous studies in other parts of the world. Further study should focus on identifying more individual compounds that may cause lung cancer, as well as other types of cancer.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.23995.1
There is worldwide concern for lack of specific therapy against the novel Betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). This case report presents the results of a pharmacological intervention aimed at modulating the inflammatory effects of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), in an effort to avoid the use of mechanical ventilation. A COVID-19 positive patient was admitted with multisystem organ dysfunction, including acute respiratory insufficiency, and was treated with a combination of low oral doses of hydroxychloroquine and intravenous N-acetylcysteine (NAC). The combination therapy resulted in noticeable clinical improvement and a quantifiable decrease of several of the inflammatory markers measured, in particular ferritin levels, C-reactive protein (CRP) and lactic acid. He also developed pulmonary embolism (PE) and deep vein thrombosis (DVT), both known side effects of COVID-19 infection. Following thrombolysis and heparinization his clinical evolution continued a positive trend until discharge. The therapeutic approach utilized in this case suggests that early intervention not only decrease acute organ dysfunction but also may decrease the need for mechanical ventilation in COVID-19 positive patients.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.24302.1
Primary malignant melanoma represents the fifth most common cancer in the United States. It is subdivided into two forms: cutaneous (90%), visceral (8%, including ocular and mucosal) and of unknown primary (2%). The vast majority of gastrointestinal melanomas are secondary lesions until proven otherwise. Primary esophageal melanoma in particular is exceedingly rare, less than 200 cases have been documented in the literature to date. It is highly prevalent in Japan and occurs twice as much in men than women around the 6th decade of life. It has a predilection for the middle and lower esophagus, with only 6 cases occurring at the gastroesophageal junction worldwide. Its etiology and pathogenesis are poorly understood, and no curative treatment has been established given the paucity of cases. We present a case of primary melanoma of the gastroesophageal junction which represents the 2nd incident case in the united states and 7th worldwide.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.22966.1
Background: Medicinal plants are a source of phytochemicals and they are used for the treatment of several oxidative stress-related or other diseases for their effectiveness, low toxicity and easy availability. Five traditionally used and less characterized herbaceous weeds of West Bengal, India, namely, Heliotropium indicum, Tridax procumbens, Cleome rutidosperma, Commelina benghalensis and Euphorbia hirta, were investigated for the current research study. Methods: Aqueous and 70% ethanolic extracts of the leaves were analyzed for estimation of essential phytochemicals and to evaluate their in vitro antioxidant status, medicinal properties and cytotoxic effects. To the best of our knowledge, several assays and comparative evaluations using these herbs are reported for the first time. For quantitative study, UV-vis spectrophotometry and high-performance liquid chromatography with diode array detector HPLC-DAD techniques were used. Antibacterial properties were investigated using the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. For in vitro anti-lithiatic study, a titration method was used. The cell viability assay was done using peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Results: The aqueous extract exhibits higher content of polyphenols, flavonoids, tannins and inhibition percentage values for free radical scavenging assays, whereas the 70% ethanolic extract exhibits higher content of alkaloids and cardiac glycosides. HPLC-DAD analysis of 70% ethanolic extracts led us to identify 10 predominant phenolic constituents. Euphorbia hirta extracts showed minimum cytotoxicity (cell death ~2.5% and 4% in water and 70% ethanolic extract, respectively), whereas Cleome rutidosperma and Tridax procumbens’ 70% ethanolic extracts showed higher cell death (~13% and 28%, respectively), compared with the control (cell death ~10-12%). Conclusions: The study concluded that of all the medicinal weeds selected for the current study, Euphorbia hirta possesses the highest amount of bioactive compounds and hence exhibits the highest in vitro antioxidant activity and promising in vitro medicinal properties.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.23889.1
Scientific innovation is increasingly reliant on data and computational resources. Much of today’s life science research involves generating, processing, and reusing heterogeneous datasets that are growing exponentially in size. Demand for technical experts (data scientists and bioinformaticians) to process these data is at an all-time high, but these are not typically trained in good data management practices. That said, we have come a long way in the last decade, with funders, publishers, and researchers themselves making the case for open, interoperable data as a key component of an open science philosophy. In response, recognition of the FAIR Principles (that data should be Findable, Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) has become commonplace. However, both technical and cultural challenges for the implementation of these principles still exist when storing, managing, analysing and disseminating both legacy and new data. COPO is a computational system that attempts to address some of these challenges by enabling scientists to describe their research objects (raw or processed data, publications, samples, images, etc.) using community-sanctioned metadata sets and vocabularies, and then use public or institutional repositories to share them with the wider scientific community. COPO encourages data generators to adhere to appropriate metadata standards when publishing research objects, using semantic terms to add meaning to them and specify relationships between them. This allows data consumers, be they people or machines, to find, aggregate, and analyse data which would otherwise be private or invisible, building upon existing standards to push the state of the art in scientific data dissemination whilst minimising the burden of data publication and sharing.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.22977.3
Background: High stocking density and intensive feeding in aquaculture systems lead to the accumulation of organic waste, which results in an increase in ammonia, nitrite, and nitrite concentrations in culture media. Biofloc is a potential technology to overcome this problem. The starter is a crucial carbon source for bacteria in the formation of biofloc. The objective of the present study aimed to explore the best starter of biofloc in a red tilapia Oreochromis niloticus culture system. Methods: A completely randomized design with four levels of treatment was used in this study. The tested starter was (A) control treatment, biofloc without starter, (B) biofloc with molasses starter, (C) biofloc with tapioca starter, and (D) biofloc with sucrose starter. The floc was cultured in 100-L tanks with a salinity of 17 ppt. The tanks were stocked with O. niloticus with a size of 3.71±0.11 cm at a stocking density of 30 fish per tank. The fish were fed on a commercial diet two times a day at satiation for 40 days. The ammonia, nitrite, and nitrite concentrations were measured for an interval of 8 days. Results: The study showed that the NH3-N range was 0.02–0.07 mg L−1 (mean, 0.03 ± 0.02 mg L−1), NO2-N range was 0.20–0.43 mg L−1 (mean, 0.25 ± 0.12 mg L−1), and NO3-N range was 0.90–3.20 mg L−1 (mean, 1.42 ± 1.19 mg L−1). Conclusion: Among the starters tested, molasses was found to be the best for biofloc in tilapia culture.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.22472.1
Cancer occurs in approximately 1/1000 to 1/2000 pregnancies and presents complex medical and ethical dilemmas for patients and providers. The most common cancers diagnosed in the gestational period include breast, cervical, melanoma, and lymphomas. The majority of existing evidence regarding the treatment of cancer during pregnancy is derived from experiences with breast cancer. Other cancers often pose unique challenges given the location of the tumors and their traditional mode of treatment with pelvic surgery and radiation. Additionally, many emerging therapies for cancer target mechanisms that are necessary for fetal development, such as angiogenesis, and are contraindicated in pregnant women. Although limitations on the treatment of cancer during pregnancy currently exist, increasing evidence shows that many surgical and systemic therapies can be effective for a mother’s oncologic outcomes without significant detriment to the developing fetus. Traditional perspectives of cancer during gestation may sway providers to encourage pregnancy termination, delays in therapy, or early delivery. However, recent studies and reviews discourage such practices. Although every cancer diagnosis in pregnancy requires an individualized approach and should use the multidisciplinary perspectives of maternal–fetal medicine specialists as well as medical and surgical oncologists, providers should feel empowered to safely employ systemic, surgical, and even reserved cases of radiation therapies for their pregnant patients with cancer. The aim of this review is to highlight some of the recent advances in cancer therapies for common cancer subtypes and encourage providers to use this growing body of evidence to employ treatments with curative intent while continuing to evaluate the long-term effects of these therapies on mothers and their children.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.24086.1
A 58-year-old man presented with recurrence of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) after complete molecular remission in the setting of non-compliance with imatinib. He was restarted on imatinib and was also noted to have IgG kappa monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS). The patient re-achieved molecular remission after resumption of imatinib, but his MGUS progressed to smoldering myeloma and he was eventually diagnosed with multiple myeloma (MM) and initiated on treatment for MM with thalidomide, bortezomib and dexamethasone. He has responded well to treatment of the myeloma and continues concurrent maintenance imatinib treatment for CML and is being evaluated for bone marrow transplant. The association of two concurrent hematological malignancies, CML and MM, is very rare and has been infrequently reported in literature. The pathophysiology of this has not yet been fully understood. This case report reviews the various theories to explain this and discusses the potential challenges of simultaneous treatment of MM and CML.
F1000Research, Volume 9; doi:10.12688/f1000research.23663.1
Background: The process of translating preclinical findings into a clinical setting takes decades. Previous studies have suggested that only 5-10% of the most promising preclinical studies are successfully translated into viable clinical applications. The underlying determinants of this low success rate (e.g. poor experimental design, suboptimal animal models, poor reporting) have not been examined in an empirical manner. Our study aims to determine the contemporary success rate of preclinical-to-clinical translation, and subsequently determine if an association between preclinical study design and translational success/failure exists. Methods: Established systematic review methodology will be used with regards to the literature search, article screening and study selection process. Preclinical, basic science studies published in high impact basic science journals between 1995 and 2015 will be included. Included studies will focus on publicly available interventions with potential clinical promise. The primary outcome will be successful clinical translation of promising therapies - defined as the conduct of at least one Phase II trial (or greater) with a positive finding. A case-control study will then be performed to evaluate the association between elements of preclinical study design and reporting and the likelihood of successful translation. Discussion: This study will provide a comprehensive analysis of the therapeutic translation from the laboratory bench to the bedside. Importantly, any association between factors of study design and the success of translation will be identified. These findings may inform future research teams attempting preclinical-to-clinical translation. Results will be disseminated to identified knowledge users that fund/support preclinical research.