Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas
ISSN / EISSN : 13923358 / 23358890
Current Publisher: Vilnius University Press (10.15388)
Total articles ≅ 476
Latest articles in this journal
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 44, pp 155-186; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2019.1.12
The main purpose of this article is to discuss the social aspects of the apparitions of the Virgin Mary, the development of apparition places, as well as the motivation and behavioral characteristics of pilgrims going to the miraculous places of the Virgin Mary in Lithuania. The article reviews the criteria recognized by the Church for assessment of the authenticity of apparitions, their characteristics, paradigm, and other scientific researches, a list of the Vatican-approved apparitions and apparition places in Lithuania. We used the main elements of the paradigm of apparitions for an empirical study of the officially recognized apparition in Šiluva, Lithuania. Finally, we also explore the complex motivation of religious tourism and pilgrimage. It relates to the manifestation of pilgrims’ personal or community values and identity as well as other cognitive or social motives. The paper concludes that the apparitions of the Virgin Mary take place in locations where social groups resist political, social, or moral change. Therefore, places of apparitions become a continuously re-created and re-interpreted social reality.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 44, pp 93-131; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2019.1.10
The Soviet past is crucial in understanding the processes of transformation of the Lithuanian kolkhoz system into the farming practices of free-market economy. The violent and forced incorporation of the nation-states into the Soviet Union radically transformed societies. In our analysis of kolkhoz system and its transformations, we use two different concepts – Soviet modernity and modernity of the Soviet period. These concepts let us to approach the agricultural project of the Soviet collective farming as an alternative system of social institutions for implementation of industrial farming of modern society. The concept of entangled modernity refers to interaction of two trends of modernization and defines the kolkhoz as a hybrid or a result of intertwining of two models of modernity – the universal and the Soviet one. By applying the concept of entangled modernity and hybrids to the interpretation of the kolkhoz’s post-Soviet transformation, the article explores the experiences of social actors and the inevitable human and material losses of the hybrid’s transformation. In our theoretical interpretation, we use data from interviews with former agents of the kolkhoz system and legislative documents.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 44, pp 74-92; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2019.1.9
The article deals with the Lithuanian-American political scholar Vytautas Kavolis’s approach to the metaphysical foundations of liberalism. It is argued that the scholar’s position in regard to this question has changed as time passed. Until the 1970s, Kavolis defended the position that pure (philosophical) liberalism does not presuppose any a priori metaphysics. It doesn’t dictate to its partisans in a normative way what they have to think about God, to accept His existence or not, or how they ought to treat reality as a whole. According to Kavolis, pure liberalism is neutral with regard to God and reality as a whole. It is an empty form in the metaphysical sense. The right to fill up an empty form with a metaphysical content is delegated to an individual in pure liberalism. From the 1970s, Kavolis took a much more moderate position regarding the metaphysical foundations of liberalism. In his view, pure liberalism is founded on some metaphysical presuppositions – namely, the metaphysical conception of order. Inquiring Kavolis’ approach to the metaphysical foundations of liberalism, wide attention is paid to its context of origin as well.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 44, pp 7-73; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2019.1.8
The article discusses the genesis of the political by treating this phenomena as a distinctive interaction between political and religious factors. The aim is to carry out the reconstruction of the premises of the political of ancient Greeks, by distinguishing its particular historic development features, exclusively characteristic for the Ancient Greece context. The rites of passage of Greek social communities are analyzed in order to understand why its youth initiation structure, formed during the Greek Dark Ages, became the basic model for Western Civilisation. The role of youth groups, the phenomena of Greek heroes, the educational structure of the young soldier class (ephebeia), and the first ever political revolution, initiated by Lycurgus, are examined by reconstructing the genealogy of the political.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 44, pp 131-154; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2019.1.11
The article presents a research on trajectories of leaving the parental home in the last Soviet and the first post-Soviet generations. It focuses on social transformation of the state during the transition from the Soviet to the post-Soviet and its impact on the life-course of these generations. In our study, we applied a dyadic approach and conducted semi-structured interviews with women of the last Soviet generation (born in 1962–1972) and their children (born in 1992–2002), who represent the first post-Soviet generation. Early changes in and the differentiation of the timetable of transition to adulthood of the last Soviet generation indicated a declining effect of ideologically supported social structures on the life-course of young adults and the growing power of individual decision to leave the parental home or stay within. The rapidly increasing globalization and a transformed economy shaped a new structural environment for the coming of age for the first post-Soviet generation; therefore, we can interpret the further pluralization, de-standardization, and differentiation of the timetable of the transition to adulthood of this generation as a reaction of young people to the emerging risks and insecurities.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 43, pp 107-132; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2018.2.5
Contemporary trends in urban development indicate that its processes rarely observe ecocentric perspectives, under which nature is considered as a value. This concept is represented by modern urban ecology. Meanwhile, the urban ecosystem, as a concept of a human system, is represented by classical urban ecology. The existence of different urban ecosystem concepts encourages a closer look at not only the differences between these concepts but also the circumstances that have led to this transformation process. The aim of this article is to analyze the concepts of an urban ecosystem in classical and modern urban ecology, focusing not only on the explication of the content of the concepts of urban ecosystem, but also on the social, cultural and economic conditions of the emergence of different concepts. This article reveals that the separation of urban ecosystem concepts was determined by the different sociocultural environment in which classical urban ecology and contemporary urban ecology have emerged. From the point of view of modern urban ecology, in order to explain the reasons for the emergence of global urban development problems and to search for solutions to them, the conceptual legacy of classical urban ecology, due to its anthropocentric orientation, not only cannot be of use anymore but also hinders in this search – that is, instead of solving problems, it makes them even worse.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 43, pp 71-94; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2018.2.3
This article discusses a direction of sociocultural studies – the cultural history of natural resources – and the possibilities of its application in examining the causes of inequality and social exclusion in post-Soviet Lithuania. This theoretical-methodological approach assumes a strong interdependence shared between the extraction of natural resources, a state’s political system and institutions as well as certain sociocultural provisions. In exploring the concept of “internal colonization,” developed by historian of culture Alexander Etkind and other authors, this article sets guidelines for a comparative analysis of the sociopolitical structure of post-Soviet countries (especially Russia and Lithuania). Some initial hypotheses regarding the trends, differences, and similarities of post-Soviet societies in the long historical perspective, from the 16th century up to our time, are presented for further analysis. This article concludes that this methodological approach could be sufficiently promising in explaining the specifics of the socioeconomic development of independent Lithuania, in particular by applying the hypothesis of a “secondary internal colonization,” which has been raised during the course of the investigation.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 43, pp 133-154; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2018.2.6
In this article, two different models of Klaipėda city’s time-space appropriation are analyzed and compared by applying the phenomenological concept of “depth of time,” coined by philosopher A. Mickūnas. One is represented by a scientific-methodological discourse, examining the poetic and philosophical/publicist interpretations of the narrated city of Klaipėda; the second model includes and analyzes poetic essays on Klaipėda, which convey the artistic-aesthetic (re)presentation of the city’s time-space. This comparison allows one to draw a conclusion that artistic narration, arising from an immediate experience of the city’s time-space, appears to be a more effective form of appropriation, for it makes possible an authentic integration of different time-space dimensions, divided (and contrapositioned) by historic turning-points. Because it contains a kind of developed subjectivity, artistic narration, contrary to an approach based on academic discourse, it also has no claims to some “privileged” knowledge of the city and as such contributes to the plurality of the construction of the city’s identities.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 43, pp 7-42; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2018.2.1
This article further develops the ideas expressed in our previous publication – On the Attempt to Unlock the Black Boxes of Science (1) – and presents a sociological experiment that aims to break the conventional routine of the research activities of both sociology and life sciences. The article consists of two parts. The first part discusses the concept of “the new scientific spirit,” elaborated by French scientist and philosopher G. Bachelard, and introduces H. White’s theory of tropes, which provides a novel interpretative framework for “the new scientific spirit.” The second part of this article describes a didactic experiment comprised of two discussion groups with PhD students working in the field of life sciences. The first discussion group attempted to realize the principles of the sociology of the social, whereas the second one attempted to break the limits of the sociology of the social and to induce an epistemological rupture in order to realize the principles of the sociology of translation in the second discussion. This article also includes the authors’ reflections regarding the formation of their own sociological habitus.
Sociologija. Mintis ir veiksmas, Volume 43, pp 95-106; doi:10.15388/socmintvei.2018.2.4
Large-scale farming that utilizes industrial methods to intensify production is becoming more significant worldwide. This study explores this phenomenon and sheds light on its consequences. Contingency factors serve as key drivers when determining the advantages and disadvantages of both large-scale and small-scale farming. Significant shifts in agro-production methods have fundamentally altered ownership and production structures in agriculture and had a disastrous impact on the livelihoods of people living in rural areas.