Behavioral and Brain Functions
ISSN / EISSN : 1744-9081 / 1744-9081
Published by: Springer Nature (10.1186)
Total articles ≅ 674
Latest articles in this journal
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-15; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00197-1
Background: The interaction between parent and adolescent is more challenging than in other age periods. Family cohesion seriously impacts parent-adolescent emotional interactions. However, the underlying neural mechanism has not been fully examined. This study examined the differences in the neural synchrony in response to emotional film clips between high and low family cohesion adolescent-parent dyads by using the electroencephalograph (EEG) hyperscanning. Results: Simultaneously electroencephalograph (EEG) was recorded while 15 low family cohesion parent-adolescent dyads (LFCs)and 14 high family cohesion parent-adolescent dyads (HFCs)received different emotional induction when viewing film clips. Interbrain phase-locking-value (PLV) in gamma band was used to calculate parent-adolescent dyads’ interbrain synchrony. Results showed that higher gamma interbrain synchrony was observed in the HFCs than the LFCs in the positive conditions. However, there was no significant difference between the HFCs and LFCs in other conditions. Also, the HFCs had significantly higher gamma interbrain synchrony in the positive conditions than in the negative conditions. Conclusion: Interbrain synchrony may represent an underlying neural mechanism of the parent-adolescent emotional bonding, which is the core of family cohesion.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00195-3
Background: Responses to a visual target stimulus in an exogenous spatial cueing paradigm are usually faster if cue and target occur in the same rather than in different locations (i.e., valid vs. invalid), although perceptual conditions for cue and target processing are otherwise equivalent. This cueing validity effect can be increased by adding emotional (task-unrelated) content to the cue. In contrast, adding a secondary non-emotional sensory modality to the cue (bimodal), has not consistently yielded increased cueing effects in previous studies. Here, we examined the interplay of bimodally presented cue content (i.e., emotional vs. neutral), by using combined visual-auditory cues. Specifically, the current ERP-study investigated whether bimodal presentation of fear-related content amplifies deployment of spatial attention to the cued location. Results: A behavioral cueing validity effect occurred selectively in trials in which both aspects of the cue (i.e., face and voice) were related to fear. Likewise, the posterior contra-ipsilateral P1-activity in valid trials was significantly larger when both cues were fear-related than in all other cue conditions. Although the P3a component appeared uniformly increased in invalidly cued trials, regardless of cue content, a positive LPC deflection, starting about 450 ms after target onset, was, again, maximal for the validity contrast in trials associated with bimodal presentation of fear-related cues. Conclusions: Simultaneous presentation of fear-related stimulus information in the visual and auditory modality appears to increase sustained visual attention (impairing disengagement of attention from the cued location) and to affect relatively late stages of target processing.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-16; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00196-2
Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating disorder defined by the onset of intrusive, avoidant, negative cognitive or affective, and/or hyperarousal symptoms after witnessing or experiencing a traumatic event. Previous voxel-based morphometry studies have provided insight into structural brain alterations associated with PTSD with notable heterogeneity across these studies. Furthermore, how structural alterations may be associated with brain function, as measured by task-free and task-based functional connectivity, remains to be elucidated. Methods: Using emergent meta-analytic techniques, we sought to first identify a consensus of structural alterations in PTSD using the anatomical likelihood estimation (ALE) approach. Next, we generated functional profiles of identified convergent structural regions utilizing resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) and meta-analytic co-activation modeling (MACM) methods. Finally, we performed functional decoding to examine mental functions associated with our ALE, rsFC, and MACM brain characterizations. Results: We observed convergent structural alterations in a single region located in the medial prefrontal cortex. The resultant rsFC and MACM maps identified functional connectivity across a widespread, whole-brain network that included frontoparietal and limbic regions. Functional decoding revealed overlapping associations with attention, memory, and emotion processes. Conclusions: Consensus-based functional connectivity was observed in regions of the default mode, salience, and central executive networks, which play a role in the tripartite model of psychopathology. Taken together, these findings have important implications for understanding the neurobiological mechanisms associated with PTSD.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00194-4
Background: Spinocerebellar ataxia 38 (SCA38) is a rare autosomal neurological disorder characterized by ataxia and cerebellar atrophy. SCA38 is caused by mutations of ELOVL5 gene. ELOVL5 gene encodes a protein, which elongates long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Knockout mice lacking Elovl5 recapitulate SCA38 symptoms, including motor coordination impairment and disruption of cerebellar architecture. We asked whether, in Elovl5 knockout mice (Elovl5−/−), a diet with both ω3 and ω6 PUFAs downstream Elovl5 can prevent the development of SCA38 symptoms, and at which age such treatment is more effective. Elovl5−/− mice were fed either with a diet without or containing PUFAs downstream the Elovl5 enzyme, starting at different ages. Motor behavior was assessed by the balance beam test and cerebellar structure by morphometric analysis. Results: The administration from birth of the diet containing PUFAs downstream Elovl5 led to a significant amelioration of the motor performance in the beam test of Elovl5−/− mice, with a reduction of foot slip errors at 6 months from 2.2 ± 0.3 to 1.3 ± 0.2 and at 8 months from 3.1 ± 0.5 to 1.9 ± 0.3. On the contrary, administration at 1 month of age or later had no effect on the motor impairment. The cerebellar Purkinje cell layer and the white matter area of Elovl5−/ −mice were not rescued even by the administration of diet from birth, suggesting that the improvement of motor performance in the beam test was due to a functional recovery of the cerebellar circuitry. Conclusions: These results suggest that the dietary intervention in SCA38, whenever possible, should be started from birth or as early as possible.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00191-7
Genetic variants of DCX, COMT and FMR1 have been linked to neurodevelopmental disorders related to intellectual disability and social behavior. In this systematic review we examine the roles of the DCX, COMT and FMR1 genes in the context of hippocampal neurogenesis with respect to these disorders with the aim of identifying important hubs and signaling pathways that may bridge these conditions. Taken together our findings indicate that factors connecting DCX, COMT, and FMR1 in intellectual disability and social behavior may converge at Wnt signaling, neuron migration, and axon and dendrite morphogenesis. Data derived from genomic research has identified a multitude of genes that are linked to brain disorders and developmental differences. Information about where and how these genes function and cooperate is lagging behind. The approach used here may help to shed light on the biological underpinnings in which key genes interface and may prove useful for the testing of specific hypotheses.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00193-5
The cerebellum’s anatomical and functional organization and network interactions between the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex and subcortical structures are dynamic across the lifespan. Executive, emotional and social (EES) functions have likewise evolved during human development from contributing to primitive behaviors during infancy and childhood to being able to modulate complex actions in adults. In this review, we address how the importance of the cerebellum in the processing of EES functions might change across development. This evolution is driven by the macroscopic and microscopic modifications of the cerebellum that are occurring during development including its increasing connectivity with distant supra-tentorial cortical and sub-cortical regions. As a result of anatomical and functional changes, neuroimaging and clinical data indicate that the importance of the role of the cerebellum in human EES-related networks shifts from being crucial in newborns and young children to being only supportive later in life. In early life, given the immaturity of cortically mediated EES functions, EES functions and motor control and perception are more closely interrelated. At that time, the cerebellum due to its important role in motor control and sequencing makes EES functions more reliant on these computational properties that compute spatial distance, motor intent, and assist in the execution of sequences of behavior related to their developing EES expression. As the cortical brain matures, EES functions and decisions become less dependent upon these aspects of motor behavior and more dependent upon high-order cognitive and social conceptual processes. At that time, the cerebellum assumes a supportive role in these EES-related behaviors by computing their motor and sequential features. We suspect that this evolving role of the cerebellum has complicated the interpretation of its contribution to EES computational demands.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00190-8
Background: Several findings suggest neuroinflammation as a contributing factor for the onset of psychiatric disorders such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and anxiety. There is increasing evidence pointing out that the Mediterranean diet influences brain and behavior. Mediterranean herbs and spices have been shown to be within those components of the Mediterranean diet involved in cognitive enhancement. Thus, we investigated the influence of Mediterranean natural extracts (MNE), Rosemary extract (RE) and Glycyrrhiza glabra root extract (GGRE), on cognitive behavior. Results: Adult zebrafish were exposed to RE or GGRE (100 and 250 mg/L) treatments. Both MNE improved memory retention during the T-maze test, although no improvements were observed during the novel object preference. Similarly, chronic administration of RE (150 mg/Kg) and GGRE (150 mg/Kg) improved, respectively, spatial and retention memory, as assessed by the Morris Water Maze (MWM), and the Elevated Plus Maze (EPM) in healthy male rats. However, no improvements were observed during the novel object recognition. Finally, male, and female rats were chronically treated with lipopolysaccharide [(LPS) 300 ug/kg] and orally administered with RE. Interestingly, RE reversed LPS-induced cognitive deficit during the MWM and EPM in female rats. Conclusions: We found that MNE improved cognition in both zebrafish and rats. Moreover, MNE rescued LPS-induced cognitive impairment in a gender-specific manner. Therefore, our study supports the view that zebrafish represent a valuable preclinical model for drug discovery in neuroscience. These findings contribute to an exciting and growing body of research suggesting that MNE may play an important role in the prevention of cognitive impairment.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00189-1
Background: Depression is one of the most common mental illnesses worldwide. Nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the pathophysiology of depression. Auraptene (a coumarin derivative) has been shown to possess pharmacological effects on neurological diseases. Purpose: The present study aimed to investigate the possible role of the NO pathway in Auraptene antidepressant effects in male mice. Methods: Behavioral tests were used to assess depression-like behaviors. The mice received Auraptene at 10, 30, and 100 mg/kg, the combination of the sub-effective (ineffective) dose of Auraptene (10 mg/kg) and L-NAME, and the combination of the effective dose of Auraptene (30 mg/kg) and L-arginine. Finally, OFT, TST, FST, brain, serum MDA level, antioxidant capacity, hippocampus, and serum NO level were measured. Results: The data analysis showed that Auraptene (30 mg/kg) improved depression-like behaviors. Auraptene (30 mg/kg) also significantly reduced serum NO levels (P < 0.05) and significantly increased serum MDA (10 mg/kg, P < 0.05). Auraptene at 30 mg/kg also increased serum antioxidant capacity (P < 0.01). Co-administration of L-NAME and the sub-effective dose of Auraptene enhanced the effects of Auraptene. However, co-administration of the effective dose of Auraptene and L-arginine reduced the impacts of Auraptene. Conclusions: The results showed that Auraptene causes antidepressant effects in a dose-dependent manner and acts as a prooxidant at 100 mg/kg, and exacerbates oxidative stress. The antidepressant effects of this active molecule are exerted by reducing the NO level in the hippocampus and serum, increasing the antioxidant capacity, and reducing the MDA level in the serum.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00187-3
Regarding the epidemiological studies, neurological dysfunctions caused by cerebral ischemia or neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been considered a pointed matter. Mount-up shreds of evidence support that both autophagy and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the commencement and progression of neurological diseases. Remarkably, oxidative stress prompted by an increase of ROS threatens cerebral integrity and improves the severity of other pathogenic agents such as mitochondrial damage in neuronal disturbances. Autophagy is anticipated as a cellular defending mode to combat cytotoxic substances and damage. The recent document proposes that the interrelation of autophagy and ROS creates a crucial function in controlling neuronal homeostasis. This review aims to overview the cross-talk among autophagy and oxidative stress and its molecular mechanisms in various neurological diseases to prepare new perceptions into a new treatment for neurological disorders. Furthermore, natural/synthetic agents entailed in modulation/regulation of this ambitious cross-talk are described.
Behavioral and Brain Functions, Volume 18, pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.1186/s12993-022-00188-2
Background: Power spectral analysis (PSA) is one of the most commonly-used EEG markers of cortical hyperarousal, and can help to understand subjective–objective sleep discrepancy (SOD). Age is associated with decreased sleep EEG activity; however, the PSA of young adults is currently limited. Thus, this study aimed to examine the correlation of spectral EEG power with total sleep time (TST) misperception in young patients. Methods: Forty-seven young adults were recruited and underwent a polysomnography recording in a sleep laboratory. Clinical records and self-report questionnaires of all patients were collected, and were used to categorize patients into a good sleeper (GS) group (n = 10), insomnia with a low mismatch group (IWLM, n = 19) or participant with a high mismatch group (IWHM, n = 18). PSA was applied to the first 6 h of sleep. Results: IWHM patients exhibited a higher absolute power and relative beta/delta ratio in the frontal region compared to the GS group. No significant difference was observed between the IWLM and GS groups. No significant difference in the above parameters was observed between the IWHM and IWLM groups. Moreover, The SOD of TST was positively correlated with frontal absolute power and the relative beta/delta ratio (r = 0.363, P = 0.012; r = 0.363, P = 0.012), and absolute beta EEG spectral power (r = 0.313, P = 0.032) as well as the number of arousals. Conclusions: Increased frontal beta/delta ratio EEG power was found in young patients with a high mismatch but not in those with a low mismatch, compared with good sleepers. This suggests that there exists increased cortical activity in IWHM patients. In addition, the frontal beta/delta ratio and the number of arousals was positively correlated with the SOD of TST.