Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology

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ISSN : 1319-4534
Published by: Wolters Kluwer - Medknow (10.4103)
Total articles ≅ 823
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Saeed Alshahrani, Abdulrahman A Aljumah, Adel Alluhaidan
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325782

Abstract:
A 63-year-old man presented with a 10-day history of severe pain, redness of the right eye, and reduced vision in both eyes. In addition, he had been diagnosed incidentally with liver cirrhosis and splenomegaly 1 week before he was admitted to our center. The patient was found to have severe intraocular inflammation that initially involved the right eye and then progressed to bilateral panuveitis. The presenting visual acuity was 20/60 for the left eye and lumbar puncture (LP) for the right eye. Vitreous tap revealed a nonturbid, yellow fluid that was negative for organism culture, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and tumor markers. Oral prednisolone significantly improved the clinical status of both ocular and hepatic inflammation. During the admission period, the patient developed several medical comorbid complications that temporarily altered the management of our case. After a full evaluation of uveitis causes, the patient was diagnosed with biopsy-proven autoimmune hepatitis. In addition to a high-dose oral steroid, azathioprine was given for 3 months before the patient developed decompensated liver failure, which was successfully managed with a liver transplant. The patient was stable for 1 year following the transplant but eventually developed blindness of the right eye and visual acuity of 20/30 in the left eye.
Pedro Vazquez-Ferreiro, Francisco J Carrera-Hueso, Lidia Barreiro Rodriguez, Marta Diaz-Rey, María Auxiliadora Ramón Barrios, Jaime E Poquet Jornet
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325774

Abstract:
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to study the relationship between pseudoexfoliation (PES) and other predictors in the development of complications in cataract surgery by phacoemulsification in patients with PES.METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing cataract surgery by phacoemulsification in the health area of Cee in northwestern Spain during the 2-year period from 2009 to 2010. Capsule rupture, choroidal hemorrhage, and vitreous loss were included as complications and intraoperative nucleus or lens dislocation as the independent variable. PES, age, hardness, type of cataract, myopia, preoperative visual acuity, antiplatelet use, anticoagulant uses, alpha agonist use, mydriasis prior to surgery, anterior chamber depth, and axial length were included as predictor variables. All predictive hierarchical models were tested using as a selection criterion the one minimizing the Akaike index.RESULTS: A total of 551 patients were initially identified from hospital register, of which 48 were excluded due to the presence of an exclusion factor. After the initial selection, the final sample was 681 eyes of 503 patients. Of the 8192 possible models, a model with the following seven variables was selected: PES, steroid use, alpha agonist use, nuclear hardness, mydriasis, anterior chamber depth, and axial length. The selected model had an Akaike index of 435.4 and an area under the curve of 0.7895 corresponding to a sensitivity of 6.2% and a specificity of 98.5%.CONCLUSION: PES, nuclear hardness, and alpha agonist use are risk factors strongly predictive of complications.
Suryasnata Rath, Vijitha S Vempuluru, Sanchita Mitra, Devjyoti Tripathy, Samir Mohapatra
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325778

Abstract:
With increased availability of sophisticated microbiological techniques for isolation, growth and identification of micro-organisms the spectrum of organisms is rapidly. Herein we report four cases of canaliculitis with unusual organisms and highlight their clinical significance. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of isolation of Brucella melitensis and Leuconostoc species reported in English literature; and only one report of isolation of Myroides species from canaliculitis exists. Sphingomonas paucimobilis, is an uncommon isolate in canaliculitis. Extremes of age and occupational exposure may be possible risk factors for infection with uncommon organisms. Clinical features at presentation do not vary greatly with uncommon or multi drug resistant organisms' hence sampling and microbiological assessment is warranted. The benefit of curettage in canaliculitis is manifold. Unusual organisms and opportunistic pathogens can be multi-drug resistant and determination of antibiotic susceptibility is important to initiate targeted therapy to ensure disease cure and prevent recurrences.
H M. M T. B Herath, A M. B D. Alahakoon, Ms Mohideen, Aa R. Chandrakumara, S Senanayaka, Ik Goonarathne
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325783

Abstract:
Optic nerve lesions usually produce monocular visual loss, and in compressive optic neuropathies, gradual vision loss is the more usual presentation. Mucocele in the anterior clinoid process is a rare cause of compressive optic neuropathy that can lead to monocular visual loss. A 19-year-old Sri Lankan girl presented with progressive, painless fluctuating right-sided monocular visual loss over 1-year duration. On presentation, right side visual acuity was 6/60 and fundoscopy revealed pale disk on the right side. Ocular tomography showed right-sided temporal retinal thinning. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed right anterior clinoid process mucocele causing compression and kinking of the right optic nerve. Because the right side, optic disc was already pale and retina was thinned, we decided to manage conservatively. Early imaging in compressive optic neuropathy is useful for the diagnosis and early neurosurgical intervention. Delaying the diagnosis can lead to permanent visual loss.
Rinky Agarwal, Asmita Mahajan, Vinod Kumar, Namrata Sharma
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325786

Abstract:
Occupational ocular argyrosis is a rare disorder associated with accumulation of silver in the eye due to its occupational exposure. A 39-year-old male patient, a silver utensils polisher for the past 30 years, presented with bilateral gradual diminution of vision (presently 20/200) for 2 years. His serum silver levels were raised and ocular examination revealed bilateral greenish brown corneal deposits and complicated cataract. Anterior segment optical coherence tomography (OCT) and confocal microscopy suggested deposition of silver in various corneal layers. Multifocal electroretinogram showed a generalized decrease in sensitivity of P1 waves. Increased internal aberrations on aberrometric profile favoured phacoemulsification followed by intraocular lens implantation in both eyes. Postoperatively, the visual gain of 20/20 and normal fundus picture on indirect ophthalmoscopy, macular OCT, and fundus autofluorescence favored good prognosis in both eyes.
Nazife Sefi-Yurdakul, Özlem Sancakli
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325779

Abstract:
A 6-month-old boy was brought to the ophthalmology outpatient clinic of our hospital by his parents with the suspicion of esotropia of his left eye. He was able to follow the objects, pupillary light reactions were normal, orthophoric in primary position with corneal light reflex (Hirschberg) test, ductions and versions were normal in all gaze positions. One drop of tropicamide (1%) was instilled in both eyes of the infant for cycloplegic retinoscopy and fundus examinations. After 10 min, anaphylaxis, respiratory and circulatory failure developed. He was immediately examined by the pediatrician, and emergency code was announced. At the 5th min of treatment, he regained consciousness, his respiratory and circulatory symptoms started to improve, and blood pressure returned to normal. In this case report, we aim to point out that tropicamide may rarely lead to life-threatening complications
Alberto Galvez-Ruiz, Alicia Galindo-Ferreiro, Anthony J Lehner
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325787

Abstract:
Idiopathic infantile nystagmus (IIN) is an inherited disease, which can occur through a number of different inheritance patterns (autosomal dominant, recessive, or X-linked). The most common of these is X-linked inheritance with incomplete penetrance and variable expressivity, and can also be dominant or recessive. To date, only two mutations have been described: the first, affecting the FPR143 gene, which is associated with ocular albinism type I, and located on chromosome Xp22, and the second, affecting the FRMD7 gene located on chromosome X26-q27. To date, a causative gene on locus Xp11.3p11.4 has not yet been identified. The most common cause of IIN is due to mutations in the FRMD7 gene, located on chromosome Xq26. We present a case of a new mutation found in three siblings from a family with FRMD7-related infantile nystagmus, whose parents are consanguineously related in the first degree. A complex mutation has occurred in this family, which, to date, has not been previously reported in the scientific literature. The complex mutation consists of the presence of three consecutive 1 bp deletions in exon 12 (c.1248delT; 1299del C; and 1312delT), causing a secondary deletion (c. 1340–2145 + 214del), and resulting in a truncated protein. We also present a 7-year-old patient from a different family, with periodic alternating nystagmus, having no mutation in the FRMD7 gene, which we assume may be an example of non-FRMD7-related IIN. This patient does not have a family history of nystagmus.
Rashmi Jain, Vidya Hegde, Anupama Bappal, Rashmi Shambhu
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325773

Abstract:
PURPOSE: Developmental delay occurs when a child exhibits a significant delay in the acquisition of milestones, in one or more domains of development. This study was planned to determine the distribution of ocular disorders and to assess the correlation between ocular findings and systemic co morbidity, antenatal and postnatal factors, and perinatal history.METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children with developmental delay <16 years of age. All children underwent complete ophthalmological evaluation including full cycloplegic refraction. Vision assessment was done as appropriate for age. Spearman's correlation test was used to analyze the correlation between ocular findings and causes for developmental delay and antenatal, perinatal, and postnatal history.RESULTS: A total of 128 children were evaluated. Mean age of the study group was 5.59 ± 2.12 years, 64.8% were males, and 76.6% of children were from rural area. Ocular findings were seen in 110 (85.93%) children, refractive error being the most common finding seen in 87 children (astigmatism n = 47, hypermetropia n = 28, and myopia n = 12). Strabismus was seen in 65 children, esotropia being the most common (n = 36). Vision impairment was present in 39.84% of children. Other ocular findings included disc pallor, cataract, ptosis, amblyopia, keratoconus, telecanthus, lagophthalmos, blepharitis, retinitis pigmentosa, and morning glory syndrome. Spearman's correlation showed no statistical association between ocular findings and various causes for developmental delay. There was a weak negative correlation between antenatal history, mode of delivery, gestational age, and ocular findings.CONCLUSION: More than three-fourths of children with developmental delay had ocular findings which necessitates the need for ocular evaluation.
Antony A Baskaran, Tanuja Britto, Raja T Sowndher, Philip A Thomas
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325776

Abstract:
PURPOSE: To describe the agreement of three methods of Near Point of Convergence (NPC) measurement among patients with different refractive errors. METHODS: 60 asymptomatic subjects, 18 – 25 yrs old, were included in 3 groups: emmetropes, myopes and hypermetropes. All subjects underwent NPC break point and recovery point measurement by Royal Air Force (RAF) rule, Pencil Rule (PR) and penlight with red green glasses (RG) using standard techniques. The values obtained were compared within each group by Friedman test. Bland Altman plots were constructed and Limits of Agreement calculated.RESULTS: Hypermetropes performed poorly in RG test with significantly receded break point and recovery point values (10.30 ± 1.45cm, 13.13± 1.20cm) compared to RAF test (7.18 ± 1.86 cm, 10.15 ± 2.11cm ) and PR test (7.78 ± 1.75 cm, 10.75 ± 1.44cm). The recovery point values of the emmetropes with RG test (10.15 ± 2.32cm) was significantly receded compared to PR (9.30 ± 1.72 cm) and RAF test (Emm: 9.08 ± 2.30cm). The myopes performed better with PR test with significantly better recovery point values with PR test (8.70 ± 1.97 cm) compared to RAF (9.68 ± 2.08) and RG (9.45 ± 1.73) tests. The limits of agreement were wide suggesting disagreement between the tests. CONCLUSION: The RG test yields more receded results in hypermetropes compared to the RAF and PR tests, and the PR test yields better results than the RAF test in myopes. Thus, the results obtained by these different methods show a lack of agreement. The variability is not uniform in patients with different refractive errors.
Mohamed Y Tolba, Iman M A. Zaki, Karim A Raafat, Amr A Al Dib, Taher Eleiwa, Collin Chase, Ibrahim M Taher
Published: 1 January 2021
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology, Volume 35; https://doi.org/10.4103/1319-4534.325785

Abstract:
PURPOSE: To describe and compare the histological changes in the cut edges of the remaining donor corneal rim using femtosecond laser-assisted keratoplasty (FAK) versus conventional penetrating keratoplasty (PK) via light and transmission electron microscopic examination.METHODS: This was a prospective observational study of 10 eyes; 5 FAK (top-hat technique) and 5 conventional PK. Main outcomes were histological findings at the cut edge of the donor corneal rim (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 o'clock).RESULTS: Cellular and ultra-cellular changes in the form of stromal edema, disorganized collagen fibers, and nuclear changes were more prominent in the FAK eyes as compared to the conventional PK ones.CONCLUSION: FAK induces more collateral damage in the cut edge of corneal donor graft at cellular and ultra-cellular levels, compared to conventional trephination. Further studies are required to investigate the clinical ramifications of this observation.
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