Materials Research Express

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EISSN : 2053-1591
Published by: IOP Publishing (10.1088)
Total articles ≅ 12,556
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E.L. Veera Prabakaran, K Senthil Vadivu,
Published: 12 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac4aa1

Abstract:
Thin film sensors are used to monitor environmental conditions by measuring the physical parameters. By using thin film technology, the sensors are capable of conducting precise measurements. Moreover, the measurements are stable and dependable. Furthermore, inexpensive sensor devices can be produced. In this paper, thin film technology for the design and fabrication of sensors that are used in various applications is reviewed. Further, the applications of thin film sensors in the fields of biomedical, energy harvesting, optical, and corrosion applications are also presented. From the review, the future research needs and future perspectives are identified and discussed.
Meizhen Zhuo, Chun-E Huang, Changzhi Zhao, Jiongjiong Yin, Chunying Shen
Published: 11 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac4a2f

Abstract:
ZnO-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2-SiO2-Ta2O5 (ZnO-based) linear resistance ceramics with doping different molar percentages of Ta2O5 were prepared by a conventional ceramics method. Effects of Ta2O5 additives on the phase composition, microstructures, and electrical properties of ZnO-based linear resistive ceramics were investigated. The results show that doping Ta2O5 can refine the grains of the main crystalline phase ZnO and the secondary crystalline phase ZnAl2O4 in terms of microstructure, and also can reduce the grain boundary barrier and optimize the I-V characteristics in terms of electrical properties. In addition, the doping of Ta2O5 can improve the stability of the resistivity , and the impedance frequency indicates that the doping of Ta2O5 makes the sample suitable for high-frequency electric fields. The resistivity of the sample doped with 0.2 mol% Ta2O5 is 56.2 Ω·cm, and this sample has the best grain boundary barrier height, nonlinear coefficient and temperature coefficient of resistance of 0.054 eV, 1.04 and -3.48×10-3 / ℃,respectively.
Published: 11 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac4a2d

Abstract:
The surface composites of aluminum alloys have a higher scope of applications encountering surface interactions in the aerospace, automobile, and other industries compared to the base aluminum alloys. The friction stir process (FSP) is recently the preferred method to prepare aluminum-based surface composites due to its capability to produce improved physical properties and refined microstructure at the surface. The study examines the Al6061 alloy-based surface composite fabricated by FSP for their wear behavior and microstructure. In this study, the Al6061 alloy-based hybrid surface composites are prepared with varying weight% of copper and graphite microparticles mixture as reinforcement by FSP with two tools having unique pin profiles, i.e., threaded cylindrical and plain cylindrical. These prepared composites are investigated for the dry sliding wear test on a pin-on-disc test set-up. The experiments are designed using the L9 orthogonal array and analyzed by the Taguchi approach to obtain the influence of disc speed, load, and reinforcement weight% on wear rate. The significant parameters influencing the wear rate of the samples tested are obtained using ANOVA. Later the effects of the friction stir process and the wear tests on the microstructure of the workpieces are investigated using FE-SEM/EDS tests. It is concluded that the decrease in wear rate with the rise in reinforcement weight% (Cu + graphite) from 2% to 6%. The load has the maximum effect on the wear rate for the samples prepared by threaded cylindrical FSP tool pin profile, while reinforcement weight% affects significantly the wear rate of the samples prepared by FSP with plain cylindrical pin profile tool.
Qi Sun, Botao Li, Hui Wang, Yiting Wang
Published: 10 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac49bc

Abstract:
To study the durability of tailings and waste rock aggregate geopolymer concrete (TWGPC), a large number of tailings and waste rock were used to replace natural sand and stone as aggregates, and a fly ash geopolymer was used to replace cement as cementing material to prepare TWGPC. The slow freezing method was used to carry out single freeze-thaw and freeze-thaw corrosion tests. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM–EDS) were used to analyse the microstructure and reaction products of TWGPC. The degradation mechanism of TWGPC was studied, and the life of TWGPC was predicted. The results show that the higher the concentration of corrosion solution was, the more significant the change trend of the mechanical properties test results. In the early stage of the cycle, acinar gypsum and short columnar ettringite were generated to fill the pores and improve the compactness and frost resistance of TWGPC. In the late stage of the cycle: calcium-silicate-hydrate (C-S-H) was decomposed and gradually replaced by magnesium-silicate-hydrate (M-S-H). The cohesion between mortar and aggregate was reduced, and a large number of products were generated. Cl- inhibited the transmission rate of SO42- and reduced the erosion effect of SO42- on TWGPC. The single freezing-thawing life prediction model had high accuracy, and the life prediction conclusion based on reliability was consistent with the appearance damage analysis, mechanical property testing and microscopic morphology analysis.
Robert Roszak, , Ilja Sagradov, Tomasz Sterzyński, Daniela Schob, Matthias Ziegenhorn
Published: 10 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac49bb

Abstract:
This paper presents the modeling and analysis of the joints of metal inserts with polyamide 6 using the injection technique. Based on the conducted experiments, modeling and numerical calculations of joints were carried out for various joint configurations. Metal parts, made of steel grade DC 04, are mechanically locked with polyamide 6 (PA6) with rivets. The mechanical connection with rivets of both elements was achieved by filling the holes in the metal parts in the injection process. As part of the work, mechanical-clamp connections made of steel / PA6 were mechanically tested in a single-axis joint tensile test using appropriate tabs. The main goal was to study and numerically analyze the number of rivets and their location on the metal plate for the strength of the connector. An important element of the work was the modeling process of both the PA6 material behavior and the joint itself. As part of the experimental research, the rivet deformation was also observed using computer thermography with the use of an IR camera. The tests and simulation showed that for the sample, the polymer-metal connected with less than three rivets was destroyed by shear. On the other hand, when the polymer-metal junction was made of three rivets, the jamming mechanism was mainly related to damage to the polymer part. For these joints, the maximum values of the breaking force of the joint were obtained in uniaxial tensile and shear tests where three rivets were used. Similar values were obtained during the numerical calculations performed with the use of Abaqus software.
Bo Pu, Ping Song, Wen-Bin Li, Wen-Jin Yao, Xiao-Ming Wang
Published: 10 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac49bd

Abstract:
This paper presents a study on plastic deformation behavior of Cu–50Ta alloy at temperatures of 286–473 K and strain-rate of 0.01–6200 s−1. The effects of temperature, strain-rate, and strain on the yield strength, flow stress, and strain-rate sensitivity coefficient were determined. A phenomenological model was established to predict variation of the strain-rate sensitivity coefficient for Cu–50Ta alloy under dynamic compression. A Johnson–Cook constitutive model was established to predict the equivalent stress–equivalent plastic strain relationship under extreme deformation (high temperature and strain-rate). The results showed that the plastic deformation behavior of Cu–50Ta alloy was affected by temperature, strain-rate, and strain. The material exhibited obvious strain-rate strengthening and thermal softening. As the strain-rate increased, the yield strength logarithmically increased. At a temperature of 286 K, the strain-rate increased from 0.01 s−1 to 6200 s−1, and the yield strength increased from 543.75 MPa to 881.13 MPa. In addition, the yield strength linearly decreased as the deformation temperature increased. Under conditions of dynamic deformation, the variation of strain-rate sensitivity coefficient could be expressed as a function of strain-rate and strain. The phenomenological model accurately described the variation of the strain-rate sensitivity coefficient of Cu–50Ta under dynamic deformation conditions. The Johnson–Cook constitutive parameters, calibrated by experimental data, described the plastic deformation behavior of the alloy under high-velocity impact.
, Bo Li, Kaian Song, Fan Yang, Yanjie Wang, Chao Wang, Yaodan Chi, Xiaotian Yang
Published: 7 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac493f

Abstract:
We have prepared an ultra-thin flexible transparent conductive electrode with high folding endurance composed of randomly arranged silver nanowires (AgNWs) embedded in polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). A simple preparation method was performed to connect a glass substrate coated with a AgNW network and a glass substrate coated with PDMS. The glass substrate was then removed after the PDMS solidified, and the AgNW–PDMS composite film was peeled off. Moreover, the problem of the high contact resistance caused by the random arrangement of AgNWs was solved by the local joule heat generated by applying voltage to both sides of the AgNW–PDMS composite structure to weld the overlapping AgNWs. The sheet resistance (Rs ) of AgNW–PDMS composite films with different AgNW deposition concentrations decreased by 46.4%–75.8% through this electro-sintering treatment. The embedded structure of the AgNW–PDMS composite ensures better voltage resistance and environmental stability under high temperature and humidity conditions compared with a AgNW network attached to a glass substrate. Additionally, the substrate-free, excellent elasticity and high resilience characteristics resulted in the Rs value of the same composite electrode only increasing by 2.9 ohm/sq after folding four times. The advantage of the metal thermal conductivity makes the joule heat generated by electric injection rapidly diffuse and dissipate in the AgNW-based transparent heater with faster response time and smaller voltage drive than indium tin oxide.
Wenke Lu, Junyan Zhang
Published: 7 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac493e

Abstract:
This study investigates the mechanical response of aluminum foam sandwich panels, sandwich cylindrical shells, and sandwich shallow shells under impact loads. First, a finite element model of the sandwich panel was established, and an impact load was applied. The numerical results were compared with theoretical and experimental results to verify the model's effectiveness. Second, the energy absorption efficiency and overall deformation of sandwich panels, sandwich cylindrical shells, and sandwich shallow shells under the same impact load were studied. The research shows that the energy absorption performance of the sandwich shells is better than that of the sandwich panels, and the overall deformation is less than that of the sandwich panels. The effect of increasing panel thickness on the two types of sandwich shell studies is based on this basis. The conclusions describe that increasing the panel thickness will significantly reduce the structure's energy absorption efficiency and deformation. Finally, the effect of single-and double-layer structure on the impact resistance of sandwich shells was studied when the total thickness of the sandwich structure was unchanged. The results show that compared with the single-layer structure, the energy absorption efficiency, overall deformation, and contact force between the projectile and structure of the double-layer structure will be reduced.
Mehdi Delshad Chermahini, Ghorbanali Rafiei Chermahini, Jamal Safari
Published: 6 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac48b9

Abstract:
The effect of Mg content and milling time were investigated on the microstructure and microhardness values of Al-xMg/5Al2O3 (x = 0, 4, 8 and 12 wt %) nanostructured composite prepared via high energy milling technique. XRD results showed an acceleration of alloying process and formation of Al (Mg) ss by enhancing percentage of Mg element. Also, by increase in Mg percentage the grain size reduction was more considerable during milling treatment. Additionally, increment of the Mg content up to 12 wt%, causes the increase in micro-strain of the samples (from 0.31 to 0.82%). Increase in Mg concentration accelerates the mechanical milling process. According to SEM results a coaxial and circular morphology with a uniform distribution of powder particles has been formed. Up to 12 wt% (for each milling time), significant increase in microhardness (215 HV) was carried out due to solid solution hardening and crystallite refinement. From 10 to 15 h, a slight increase in microhardness up to 218 HV can be observed.
, , S. Vishak Thanu, Vishnu Cholapadath, Ashesh Mathew Abraham, Mohammed Zaiyan, , Velmurugan Paramasivam
Published: 6 January 2022
Materials Research Express; https://doi.org/10.1088/2053-1591/ac48b8

Abstract:
Water is a necessity for all living and non-living organisms on this planet. It is understood that clean water sources are decreasing by the day, and the rapid rise of Industries and technology has led to an increase in the release of toxic effluents that are discharged into the environment. Wastewater released from Industries, agricultural waste, and municipalities must be treated before releasing into the environment as they contain harmful pollutants such as organic dyes, pharmaceuticals wastes, inorganic materials, and heavy metal ions. If not controlled, they can cause serious risks to human beings' health and contaminate our environment. Membrane filtration is a proven method for the filtration of various harmful chemicals and microbes from water. Carbon nanomaterials are applied in wastewater treatment due to their high surface area, making them efficient adsorbents. Carbon nanomaterials are being developed and utilized in membrane filtration for the treated wastewater before getting discharged with the rise of nanotechnology. This review studies carbon nanomaterials like fullerenes, graphenes, and CNTs incorporated in the membrane filtration to treat wastewater contaminants. We focus on these CNM based membranes and membrane technology, their properties and applications, and how they can enhance the commonly used membrane filtration performance by considering adsorption rate, selectivity, permeability, antimicrobial disinfectant properties, and compatibility with the environment.
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