Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
ISSN / EISSN : 1069-9384 / 1531-5320
Published by: Springer Nature (10.3758)
Total articles ≅ 3,777
Latest articles in this journal
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-28; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01980-3
There is increasing evidence to indicate that sleep plays a role in language acquisition and consolidation; however, there has been substantial variability in methodological approaches used to examine this phenomenon. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effect of sleep on novel word learning in adults, and explore whether these effects differed by retrieval domain (i.e., recall, recognition, and tests of lexical integration). Twenty-five unique studies met the inclusion criteria for the review, and 42 separate outcome measures were synthesized in the meta-analysis (k = 29 separate between-group comparisons, n = 1,396 participants). The results from the omnibus meta-analysis indicated that sleep was beneficial for novel word learning compared with wakefulness (g = 0.50). Effect sizes differed across the separate domain-specific meta-analyses, with moderate effects for recall (g = 0.57) and recognition memory (g = 0.52), and a small effect for tasks which measured lexical integration (g = 0.39). Overall, the results of this meta-analysis indicate that sleep generally benefits novel word acquisition and consolidation compared with wakefulness across differing retrieval domains. This systematic review highlights the potential for sleep to be used to improve second-language learning in healthy adults, and overall provides further insight into methods to facilitate language development.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01994-x
Non-visual information is important for navigation in limited visibility conditions. We designed a haptic-based relocation task to examine blindfolded adults’ use of geometric cues. Forty-eight participants learned to locate a corner in a parallelogram frame. They were then tested in different transformed frames: (a) a reverse-parallelogram, in which locations predicted by original length information and angle information conflicted, (b) a rectangle, which retained only length information, and (c) a rhombus, which retained only angle information. Results show that access to the environment’s geometry through haptic modality is sufficient for relocation. However, adults’ performances in the current task were different from that in visual tasks in previous findings. First, compared to previous findings in visual-based tasks, length information lost its priority. Approximately half of the participants relied on angle information in the conflict test and the other half relied on length. Second, though participants encoded both length and angle information in the learning phase, only one cue was relied on after the conflict test. Finally, though participants encoded the target location successfully, they failed to represent the global shape of the environment. We attribute adults' different performances in haptic-based and visual-based tasks to the high cognitive demands in encoding and using haptic spatial cues, especially length information.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01986-x
Research in psychophysics argues that incentivized sensorimotor decisions (such as deciding where to reach to get a reward) maximize expected gain, suggesting that these decisions may be impervious to cognitive biases and heuristics. We tested this hypothesis in two experiments, directly comparing the predictive accuracy of an optimal model and plausible suboptimal models. We obtained strong evidence that people deviated from the optimal strategy by excessively avoiding loss regions when the potential loss was zero and failing to shift far enough away from loss regions when potential losses outweighed the potential gains. Although allowing nonlinear distortions of value and probability information improved the fit of value-maximizing models, behavior was best described by a model encapsulating a simple heuristic strategy. This suggests that visuomotor decisions are likely influenced by biases and heuristics observed in more classical economic decision-making tasks.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-22; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01992-z
According to the ideomotor theory, action may serve to produce desired sensory outcomes. Perception has been widely described in terms of sensory predictions arising due to top-down input from higher order cortical areas. Here, we demonstrate that the action intention results in reliable top-down predictions that modulate the auditory brain responses. We bring together several lines of research, including sensory attenuation, active oddball, and action-related omission studies: Together, the results suggest that the intention-based predictions modulate several steps in the sound processing hierarchy, from preattentive to evaluation-related processes, also when controlling for additional prediction sources (i.e., sound regularity). We propose an integrative theoretical framework—the extended auditory event representation system (AERS), a model compatible with the ideomotor theory, theory of event coding, and predictive coding. Initially introduced to describe regularity-based auditory predictions, we argue that the extended AERS explains the effects of action intention on auditory processing while additionally allowing studying the differences and commonalities between intention- and regularity-based predictions—we thus believe that this framework could guide future research on action and perception.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01976-z
We explored whether speakers self-prime during question-answer dialogues. Experimenters called restaurants and asked two questions. The first was about the timing of different menu options ((At)What time do you stop serving breakfast?), and the second was about the closing time of the restaurant ((At)What time do you close?). Participants were more likely to use a preposition in their responses (At 7 vs. 7) when experimenters used a preposition in their question. However, the participants’ use of a preposition (or not) in their first response did not prime the use of a preposition in their second response (i.e., no self-priming). The lack of self-priming in these data provide support for error-based theories of structural priming, and against activation-based accounts of priming.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-13; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01991-0
In most contemporary activation-competition frameworks for spoken word recognition, candidate words compete against phonological “neighbors” with similar acoustic properties (e.g., “cap” vs. “cat”). Thus, recognizing words with more competitors should come at a greater cognitive cost relative to recognizing words with fewer competitors, due to increased demands for selecting the correct item and inhibiting incorrect candidates. Importantly, these processes should operate even in the absence of differences in accuracy. In the present study, we tested this proposal by examining differences in processing costs associated with neighborhood density for highly intelligible items presented in quiet. A second goal was to examine whether the cognitive demands associated with increased neighborhood density were greater for older adults compared with young adults. Using pupillometry as an index of cognitive processing load, we compared the cognitive demands associated with spoken word recognition for words with many or fewer neighbors, presented in quiet, for young (n = 67) and older (n = 69) adult listeners. Growth curve analysis of the pupil data indicated that older adults showed a greater evoked pupil response for spoken words than did young adults, consistent with increased cognitive load during spoken word recognition. Words from dense neighborhoods were marginally more demanding to process than words from sparse neighborhoods. There was also an interaction between age and neighborhood density, indicating larger effects of density in young adult listeners. These results highlight the importance of assessing both cognitive demands and accuracy when investigating the mechanisms underlying spoken word recognition.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01989-8
The learning benefits of retrieval practice have been linked to reduced mind-wandering, but the reasons why testing offers such an attentional advantage have scarcely been explored. Here, we investigate the extent that the inherent change in learning context during retrieval practice (i.e., interleaved study and retrieval) attenuates mind-wandering, relative to restudy (i.e., massed study). Learners (N = 120) either restudied video lectures (SSSS) or engaged in a combination of study and retrieval (SRSR). Further, they used either the same study mode – the video lecture (S) or its corresponding transcript (S′) only (i.e., SSSS or S′S′S′S′; SRSR or S′RS′R), or different study modes – alternated between the video and its transcript (i.e., SS′SS′ or S′SS′S; SRS′R or S′RSR). Learners’ mind-wandering tendencies were captured using a direct-probing approach, and a free-recall test was administered 1 week later. Retrieval practice produced less mind-wandering than restudy, and this attentional difference mediated the recall advantage of retrieval practice. Of note, in the restudy condition, alternating between study modes inoculated against mind-wandering relative to using the same mode, but only for as long as the study mode remained “new” to learners – when they returned to a previously encountered “old” study mode, mind-wandering surged. In contrast, retrieval practice consistently sustained learners’ attention over time, whether or not their study modes were the same or different. Theoretical implications for an attentional account of retrieval-based learning are discussed.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01984-z
Knowing when an event took place can provide several benefits to episodic memory, such as distinguishing among multiple traces, learning sequences of events, and guiding a search strategy. As a tool for understanding memory, time is particularly appealing given its ever-changing quality, the constant possibility to associate it with encoded events, and the ease with which it can be targeted at retrieval. Whereas studies of episodic retrieval typically employ categorical and probabilistic measures of retrieval success, characterizing a continuous feature such as time warrants measures particularly sensitive to the fidelity, or precision, of retrieved information. Here, we adapt a paradigm for assessing the fine-grained precision of retrieval to understand the nature of judging the time at which a memory was encoded. Subjects studied a series of pictures and then undertook a test in which they placed each picture, as precisely as possible, along a continuous time line representing the study list. Based on mixture-modeling analyses of the test response errors, the primary results were that temporal judgments were less accurate with passing time, and this change was due to diminished precision as opposed to an increased rate of guessing. Moreover, although we observed a negligible influence of guessing, subjects exhibited a clear effect of bias that favored recent responses. Together, in contrast to numerous studies of memory for other continuous features (e.g., color and location), our findings demonstrate a novel pattern of decision factors, suggesting that the retrieval of time might highlight distinct attributes of episodic memory.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01960-7
We investigated how changes in dynamic spatial context influence visual perception. Specifically, we reexamined the perceptual coupling phenomenon when two multistable displays viewed simultaneously tend to be in the same dominant state and switch in accord. Current models assume this interaction reflecting mutual bias produced by a dominant perceptual state. In contrast, we demonstrate that influence of spatial context is strongest when perception changes. First, we replicated earlier work using bistable kinetic-depth effect displays, then extended it by employing asynchronous presentation to show that perceptual coupling cannot be accounted for by the static context provided by perceptually dominant states. Next, we demonstrated that perceptual coupling reflects transient bias induced by perceptual change, both in ambiguous and disambiguated displays. We used a hierarchical Bayesian model to characterize its timing, demonstrating that the transient bias is induced 50–70 ms after the exogenous trigger event and decays within ~200–300 ms. Both endogenous and exogenous switches led to quantitatively and qualitatively similar perceptual consequences, activating similar perceptual reevaluation mechanisms within a spatial surround. We explain how they can be understood within a transient selective visual attention framework or using local lateral connections within sensory representations. We suggest that observed perceptual effects reflect general mechanisms of perceptual inference for dynamic visual scene perception.
Psychonomic Bulletin & Review pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.3758/s13423-021-01985-y
Conventional metaphors such as broken heart are interpreted rather fast and efficiently. This is because they might be stored as lexicalized, noncompositional expressions. If so, they require sense retrieval rather than sense creation. But can their literal meanings be recovered or “awakened”? We examined whether the literal meaning of a conventional metaphor could be triggered by a later cue. In a maze task, participants (N = 40) read sentences word by word (e.g., John is an early bird so he can . . .) and were presented with a two-word choice. Participants took longer and were less accurate when the correct word (attend) was paired with a literally-related distractor (fly) rather than an unrelated one (cry). This suggests that the literal meaning of a conventional metaphor is not circumvented, nor that metaphors simply involve sense retrieval. The metaphor awakening effect suggests that the mechanisms employed to process conventional metaphors are dynamic with both metaphorical sense and literal meaning being available.