ISSN / EISSN : 0992-7689 / 1432-0576
Published by: Copernicus GmbH (10.5194)
Total articles ≅ 5,297
Latest articles in this journal
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 421-431; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-421-2022
The Mt. Pinatubo eruption in 1991 had a severe impact on the Earth system, with a well-documented warming of the tropical lower stratosphere and a general cooling of the surface. This study focuses on the impact of this event on the mesosphere by analyzing solar occultation temperature data from the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE) instrument on the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (UARS). Previous analyses of lidar temperature data found positive temperature anomalies of up to 12.9 K in the upper mesosphere that peaked in 1993 and were attributed to the Pinatubo eruption. Fitting the HALOE data according to a previously published method indicates a maximum warming of the mesosphere region of 4.1 ± 1.4 K and does not confirm significantly higher values reported for that lidar time series. An alternative fit is proposed that assumes a more rapid response of the mesosphere to the volcanic event and approximates the signature of the Pinatubo with an exponential decay function having an e-folding time of 6 months. It suggests a maximum warming of 5.4 ± 3.0 K, if the mesospheric perturbation is assumed to reach its peak 4 months after the eruption. We conclude that the HALOE time series probably captures the decay of a Pinatubo-induced mesospheric warming at the beginning of its measurement period.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 395-406; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-395-2022
The finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) model of electromagnetic wave propagation in the Earth–ionosphere cavity was developed under assumption of an axisymmetric system, solving the reduced Maxwell equations in a 2D spherical coordinate system. The model was validated on different conductivity profiles for the electric and magnetic field components for various locations on Earth along the meridian. The characteristic electric and magnetic altitudes, phase velocity, and attenuation rate were calculated. We compared the results of numerical and analytical calculations and found good agreement between them. The undertaken FDTD modeling enables us to analyze the Schumann resonances and the propagation of individual lightning discharges occurring at various distances from the receiver. The developed model is particularly useful when analyzing ELF measurements.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 407-419; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-407-2022
The high-latitude phenomenon of noctilucent clouds (NLCs) is characterised by a silvery-blue or pale blue colour. In this study, we employ the radiative transfer model SCIATRAN to simulate spectra of solar radiation scattered by NLCs for a ground-based observer and assuming spherical NLC particles. To determine the resulting colours of NLCs in an objective way, the CIE (International Commission on Illumination) colour-matching functions and chromaticity values are used. Different processes and parameters potentially affecting the colour of NLCs are investigated, i.e. the size of the NLC particles, the abundance of middle atmospheric O3 and the importance of multiply scattered solar radiation. We affirm previous research indicating that solar radiation absorption in the O3 Chappuis bands can have a significant effect on the colour of the NLCs. A new result of this study is that for sufficiently large NLC optical depths and for specific viewing geometries, O3 plays only a minor role for the blueish colour of NLCs. The simulations also show that the size of the NLC particles affects the colour of the clouds. Cloud particles of unrealistically large sizes can lead to a reddish colour. Furthermore, the simulations show that the contribution of multiple scattering to the total scattering is only of minor importance, providing additional justification for the earlier studies on this topic, which were all based on the single-scattering approximation.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 379-393; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-379-2022
Radial diffusion has been established as one of the most important mechanisms contributing to both the acceleration and loss of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belt, as well as to the supply of particles to the inner radiation belt. In the framework of the “SafeSpace” project, we have used 9 years (2011–2019) of multi-point magnetic and electric field measurements from THEMIS A, D and E satellites to create a database of radial diffusion coefficients (DLL) and ultra-low-frequency (ULF) wave power spectral densities (PSDs) spanning an L∗ range from 3 to 8. In this work we investigate the dependence of the DLL on the various solar wind parameters, geomagnetic indices and coupling functions, as well as the L-shell, during the solar cycle 24. Moreover, we discuss the uncertainties introduced on the estimation of DLL time series by the partial azimuthal coverage provided by in situ measurements. Furthermore, we investigate, via a superposed analysis, the dependence of the DLL on solar wind drivers. We show, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, that the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME)-driven disturbances accompanied by high solar wind pressure values combined with intense magnetospheric compression can produce values comparable to or even greater than the ones of . This feature cannot be captured by semi-empirical models and introduces a significant energy dependence on the DLL. Finally, we show the advantages of using DLL time series by means of numerical simulations of relativistic electron fluxes performed with the Salammbô code and significant deviations in the predictions of several semi-empirical models depending on the level of geomagnetic activity and L-shell.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 359-377; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-359-2022
In the last decades, several studies reported the tropics' expansion, but the rates of expansion are widely different. In this paper, data of 12 global navigation satellite systems radio occultation (GNSS-RO) missions from June 2001 to November 2020 with high resolution were used to investigate the possible widening of the tropical belt along with the probable drivers and impacts in both hemispheres. Applying both lapse rate tropopause (LRT) and cold point tropopause (CPT) definitions, the global tropopause height shows an increase of approximately 36 and 60 m per decade, respectively. The tropical edge latitudes (TELs) are estimated based on two tropopause height metrics, subjective and objective methods. Applying both metrics, the determined TELs using GNSS have expansive behavior in the Northern Hemisphere (NH), while in the Southern Hemisphere (SH) there are no significant trends. In the case of ECMWF Reanalysis v5 (ERA5) there are no considerable trends in both hemispheres. For the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), there is expansion in the NH and observed contraction in the SH. The variability of tropopause parameters (temperature and height) is maximum around the TEL locations in both hemispheres. Moreover, the spatial and temporal patterns of total column ozone (TCO) have good agreement with the TEL positions estimated using GNSS LRT height. Carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4), the most important greenhouse gases (GHGs) and the main drivers of global warming, have spatial modes in the NH that are located more poleward than that in the SH. Both surface temperature and precipitation have strong correlation with GNSS LRT height. The surface temperature spatial pattern broadly agrees with the GNSS TEL positions. In contrast, the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) has no direct connection with the TEL behavior. The results illustrate that the tropics' widening rates are different from one dataset to another and from one metric to another. In addition, TEL behavior in the NH is different from that in the SH. Furthermore, the variability of meteorological parameters agrees with GNSS TEL results more than with that of other datasets.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 327-358; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-327-2022
Atmospheric tides play a key role in coupling the lower, middle, and upper atmosphere/ionosphere. The tides reach large amplitudes in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT), where they can have significant fluxes of energy and momentum, and so strongly influence the coupling and dynamics. The tides must therefore be accurately represented in general circulation models (GCMs) that seek to model the coupling of atmospheric layers and impacts on the ionosphere. The tides consist of both migrating (sun-following) and non-migrating (not sun-following) components, both of which have important influences on the atmosphere. The Extended Unified Model (ExUM) is a recently developed version of the Met Office's GCM (the Unified Model) which has been extended to include the MLT. Here, we present the first in-depth analysis of migrating and non-migrating components in the ExUM. We show that the ExUM produces both non-migrating and migrating tides in the MLT of significant amplitude across a rich spectrum of spatial and temporal components. The dominant non-migrating components in the MLT are found to be DE3, DW2, and DW3 in the diurnal tide and S0, SW1, and SW3 in the semidiurnal tide. These components in the model can have monthly mean amplitudes at a height of 95 km as large as 35 m s−1/10 K. All the non-migrating components exhibit a strong seasonal variability in amplitude, and a significant short-term variability is evident. Both the migrating and non-migrating components exhibit notable variation with latitude. For example, the temperature and wind diurnal tides maximise at low latitudes and the semidiurnal tides include maxima at high latitudes. A comparison against published satellite and ground-based observations shows generally good agreement in latitudinal tidal structure, with more differences in seasonal tidal structure. Our results demonstrate the capability of the ExUM for modelling atmospheric migrating and non-migrating tides, and this lays the foundation for its future development into a whole atmosphere model. To this end, we make specific recommendations on further developments which would improve the capability of the model.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 315-325; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-315-2022
This study presents new observations of fine structure and motion of the bow shock formed in the solar wind, upstream of the Earth's magnetosphere. NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) mission has recorded data during 11 encounters with a shock oscillating with frequency of 1 mHz. Shocks move with a speed of 4–17 km s−1; have thickness of 100 km, i.e. an ion gyroradius; and represent cascades of compressional magnetic field and plasma density structures of increasing frequencies or smaller spatial scales. Induced density gradients initiate chains of cross-field current-driven instabilities that heat solar wind ions by the stochastic wave energisation mechanism. The theoretical ion energisation limits are confirmed by observations. We have identified the ion acceleration mechanism operating at shocks and explained double-beam structures in the velocity space. The nature of this mechanism has been revealed as a stochastic resonant acceleration (SRA). The results provide for the first time a consistent picture of a chain of plasma processes that generate collisionless shocks and are responsible for particle energisation.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 299-314; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-299-2022
We investigate ionospheric flow patterns occurring on 28 January 2002 associated with the development of the nightside distorted end of a J-shaped transpolar arc (nightside distorted TPA). Based on the nightside ionospheric flows near to the TPA, detected by the SuperDARN (Super Dual Auroral Radar Network) radars, we discuss how the distortion of the nightside end toward the pre-midnight sector is produced. The J-shaped TPA was seen under southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) conditions, in the presence of a dominant dawnward IMF-By component. At the onset time of the nightside distorted TPA, particular equatorward plasma flows at the TPA growth point were observed in the post-midnight sector, flowing out of the polar cap and then turning toward the pre-midnight sector of the main auroral oval along the distorted nightside part of the TPA. We suggest that these plasma flows play a key role in causing the nightside distortion of the TPA. SuperDARN also found ionospheric flows typically associated with Tail Reconnection during IMF Northward Non-substorm Intervals (TRINNIs) on the nightside main auroral oval, before and during the TPA interval, indicating that nightside magnetic reconnection is an integral process to the formation of the nightside distorted TPA. During the TPA growth, SuperDARN also detected anti-sunward flows across the open–closed field line boundary on the dayside that indicate the occurrence of low-latitude dayside reconnection and ongoing Dungey cycle driving. This suggests that nightside distorted TPA can grow even in Dungey-cycle-driven plasma flow patterns.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 281-297; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-281-2022
Despite the close relationship between planetary science and plasma physics, few advanced numerical tools allow bridging the two topics. The code Menura proposes a breakthrough towards the self-consistent modelling of these overlapping fields, in a novel two-step approach allowing for the global simulation of the interaction between a fully turbulent solar wind and various bodies of the solar system. This article introduces the new code and its two-step global algorithm, illustrated by a first example: the interaction between a turbulent solar wind and a comet.
Annales Geophysicae, Volume 40, pp 271-279; https://doi.org/10.5194/angeo-40-271-2022
Terrestrial ecliptic dayside observations of the exospheric Lyman-α column intensity between 3–15 Earth radii (RE) by UVIS/HDAC (UVIS – ultraviolet imaging spectrograph; HDAC – hydrogen-deuterium absorption cell) Lyman-α photometer at CASSINI have been analyzed to derive the neutral exospheric H-density profile at the Earth's ecliptic dayside in this radial range. The data were measured during CASSINI's swing-by maneuver at the Earth on 18 August 1999 and are published by Werner et al. (2004). In this study the dayside HDAC Lyman-α observations published by Werner et al. (2004) are compared to calculated Lyman-α intensities based on the 3D H-density model derived from TWINS (Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers) Lyman-α observations between 2008–2010 (Zoennchen et al., 2015). It was found that both Lyman-α profiles show a very similar radial dependence in particular between 3–8 RE. Between 3.0–5.5 RE impact distance Lyman-α observations of both TWINS and UVIS/HDAC exist at the ecliptic dayside. In this overlapping region the cross-calibration of the HDAC profile against the calculated TWINS profile was done, assuming that the exosphere there was similar for both due to comparable space weather conditions. As a result of the cross-calibration the conversion factor between counts per second and rayleigh, fc=3.285 counts s−1 R−1, is determined for these HDAC observations. Using this factor the radial H-density profile for the Earth's ecliptic dayside was derived from the UVIS/HDAC observations, which constrained the neutral H density there at 10 RE to a value of 35 cm−3. Furthermore, a faster radial H-density decrease was found at distances above 8 RE ( ) compared to the lower distances of 3–7 RE ( ). This increased loss of neutral H above 8 RE might indicate a higher rate of H ionization in the vicinity of the magnetopause at 9–11 RE (near subsolar point) and beyond, because of increasing charge exchange interactions of exospheric H atoms with solar wind ions outside the magnetosphere.