World Allergy Organization Journal
ISSN / EISSN : 1939-4551 / 1939-4551
Published by: Elsevier BV (10.1016)
Total articles ≅ 3,211
Latest articles in this journal
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100597
Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is currently more than 100 years old. It is considered an evidence-based efficacious immune therapeutical treatment. It is at this time the only causative treatment for allergic respiratory and venom allergic diseases. Though clinical indications for AIT are well established, clinical contraindications to AIT differ among several guidelines. Regarding malignant neoplasia, traditionally, it has been considered as a relative or absolute contraindication with the concern that AIT might stimulate tumour growth even though pathogenic impact of AIT in cancer is not well understood. Furthermore, this contraindication is often based on observational case series, or case reports, with little real evidence-based data. Therefore, should cancer still be contemplated as an absolute contraindication for AIT?
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100593
Background Although recent studies suggest that the prevalence of food allergy (FA) has not changed, the data from developing countries are limited. This study aimed to investigate time trends in the prevalence of FA among preschool children in 2010 and 2019 in Northern Thailand. Methods Two cross-sectional studies were performed, 9 years apart (2010 and 2019), using the same methods, in children aged 3–7 years living in Chiang Mai, Thailand. Parent-reporting questionnaire surveys were conducted. Families with children reporting FA were invited to undergo further investigations with skin prick testing, serum specific IgE, and oral food challenge (OFC). The prevalence of parent-reported FA, food sensitization, and OFC-confirmed FA were compared between the 2 periods. Results A total of 1013 out of 1146 questionnaires (452/546 in 2010 and 561/600 in 2019) were returned. The response rate was 88.4%. The prevalence of parent-reported food allergy in 2019 was significantly lower than that in 2010 (5.5% vs 9.3%; p = 0.02). However, there was no significant change in the prevalence of OFC-confirmed FA (0.9% vs 1.1%; p = 0.75). Three leading causative foods of parent-reported FA were cow's milk, shrimp, and eggs. Shrimp was still the most common OFC-confirmed food allergen. Atopic dermatitis was the most significantly parent reported factor associated with FA. Conclusion The overall prevalence of FA among preschool children in Northern Thailand had not increased during the past decade. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of OFC-confirmed FA between 2010 and 2019.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100588
Background Asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis are the most common chronic inflammatory disorders in children worldwide. These conditions place a significant burden on the healthcare system due to their multiple related complications and the necessity of hospital visits. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence and severity of asthma and allergic diseases among school children aged 6–7 years and 13–14 years in Dubai and the Northern Emirates, United Arab Emirates (UAE). Patients and methods This was a multicenter, cross-sectional study that recruited children from March to June 2019 via school class registers in Dubai and the Northern Emirates, UAE. The Arabic and English versions of the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) core questionnaires on asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis were completed by parents or legal guardians of children aged 6–7 years, and by the children themselves in those aged 13–14 years. Results In this study, we included 3436 children (1944 children aged 6–7 years and 1793 children aged 13–14 years). We estimated the prevalence of asthma (11.9%), wheezing (44.2%), allergic rhinitis (46.5%), hay fever (22.1%), and atopic dermatitis (12.9%) in the 6- to 7-year-old group. In the 13- to 14-year-old group, the prevalence was 9.8%, 33.1%, 51.3%, 19.9%, and 14.6%, respectively. The prevalence of any history of asthma was higher in boys than girls in the 6- to 7-year-old group (13.9% vs. 10%) and in the 13- to 14-year-old group (11.2% vs. 8.7%). In the 6- to 7-year-old group, the highest prevalence of asthma, sneezing, and atopic dermatitis was observed in Dubai, Ajman, and Umm Al Quwain, respectively. In the 13- to 14-year-old group, the highest prevalence of asthma was observed in Ras Al Khaimah, and the highest prevalence of sneezing and atopic dermatitis was observed in Sharjah. Conclusion We found that the prevalence of asthma, allergic rhinitis, and atopic dermatitis in the UAE is comparable to that in neighboring countries; the prevalence of asthma, wheezing, and hay fever was higher in the 6- to 7-year-old group, while in the 13- to 14-year-old group, the prevalence of allergic rhinitis and atopic dermatitis was higher. Overall, the prevalence of any history of asthma was highest in Ras Al Khaimah, followed by Dubai, and lowest in Ajman. Our findings suggest that allergic disorders represent a healthcare burden in the UAE and more efforts are needed to organize nationwide campaigns to detect undiagnosed children to overcome the burden caused by these conditions.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100598
Food allergy carries high importance and responsibility, affecting an estimated 220 million people worldwide. It is a frequent cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, a life-threatening condition requiring a toll of about one death per 50 million people a year worldwide. In order to help patients to identify allergenic foods and thus avoid anaphylactic reactions, 66 countries over the 5 continents require by law that allergenic ingredients must be declared when used in prepackaged foods. Unfortunately, the mandatory allergen list is not uniform, but varies among different countries. The widespread adoption of Precautionary Allergen Labeling (PAL) results in a proliferation of unregulated PALs with different informative statements. In this situation, the need of a scientific consensus on the definition of food allergy and the identification of a tolerable risk with routinely used detection assays, considering not only the eliciting dose but also the food source, is urgent. The aim of this manuscript is: 1) to draw a picture of the global situation in terms of PALs, and 2) to highlight new approaches that could aid in tackling the problem of regulating the labeling of allergens. These include the Voluntary Incidental Trace Allergen Labelling (VITAL) system, which intersects reference doses and labelling decisions, and a direct quantification of trace amounts of allergens at lower limit of detection (LOD) levels in the food itself through proteomics. We here highlight how, although with some limitations, the steady advances in proteomic approaches possess higher sensitivity than the recommended VITAL reference doses, allowing the identification of allergens at much lower LOD levels than VITAL. Considering that each assay used to detect allergen in food products carries method-specific issues, a more comprehensive and harmonized approach implementing both quantitative and qualitative methods could help overcoming the risk stratification approach and the overuse of PALs, offering promise as the field moves forward towards improving consumers' quality of life.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100587
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100594
Background There are limited real-world studies on the differences in leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA), H1-antihistamines (H1-AH), and inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) associated neuropsychiatric events. In this study, we aimed to analyze the characteristics of drug associated neuropsychiatric events, and compare the differences among different drug categories. Methods Disproportionality analysis and Bayesian analysis were used in data mining to identify suspected neuropsychiatric events associated with LTRA, H1-AH, and ICS based on the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) from January 2004 to September 2020. Demographic information, time interval to onset, and death rates of LTRA, H1-AH, and ICS-associated neuropsychiatric events were also analyzed. Results A total of 9475 neuropsychiatric events were identified. The number of neuropsychiatric events related to LTRA, H1-AH, and ICS were 5201 (54.89%), 3226 (34.05%), and 1048 (11.06%), respectively. LTRA related neuropsychiatric events were more common in patients aged 4–6 years (18.66%). H1-AH and ICS related neuropsychiatric events were more common in patients aged 18–44 years (29.92%) and older than 65 years (30.60%), respectively. Montelukast was highly associated with neuropsychiatric events, with a high reporting odds ratio (ROR). Most neuropsychiatric symptoms occurred within the first 10 days after drug initiation (78.63% for LTRA, 91.39% for H1-AH, and 84.07% for ICS). The death rate due to neuropsychiatric events of first generation H1-AH was significantly higher than that of LTRA and ICS (p < 0.001). Conclusions LTRA associated neuropsychiatric events reported in FAERS were most frequent in 4 to 6-year-old children. Most reported cases occurred within the first 10 days after drug initiation. The second generation H1-AH was relatively safe for neuropsychiatric events compared with the first generation. The fatality rate due to first generation H1-AH associated neuropsychiatric events was higher than that of LTRA and ICS. More attention should be paid to specific patients treated with LTRA and H1-AH.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100583
Background Allergies are on the rise globally, with an enormous impact on affected individuals' quality of life as well as health care resources. They cause a wide range of symptoms, from slightly inconvenient to potentially fatal immune reactions. While allergies have been described and classified phenomenologically, there is an unmet need for easily accessible biomarkers to stratify the severity of clinical symptoms. Furthermore, biomarkers marking the success of specific immunotherapy are urgently needed. Objectives Plasma extracellular vesicles (pEV) play a role in coordinating the immune response and may be useful future biomarkers. A pilot study on differences in pEV content was carried out between patients with type I allergy, suffering from rhinoconjunctivitis with or without asthma, and voluntary non-allergic donors. Methods We examined pEV from 38 individuals (22 patients with allergies and 16 controls) for 38 chemokines, cytokines, and soluble factors using high-throughput data mining approaches. Results Patients with allergies had a distinct biomarker pattern, with 7 upregulated (TNF-alpha, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-17F, CCL2, and CCL17) and 3 downregulated immune mediators (IL-11, IL-27, and CCL20) in pEV compared to controls. This reduced set of 10 factors was able to discriminate controls and allergic patients better than the total array. Conclusions The content of pEV showed potential as a target for biomarker research in allergies. Plasma EV, which are readily measurable via blood test, may come to play an important role in allergy diagnosis. In this proof-of-principle study, it could be shown that pEV's discriminate patients with allergies from controls. Further studies investigating whether the content of pEVs may predict the severity of allergic symptoms or even the induction of tolerance to allergens are needed.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100590
Accurate house dust mite (HDM) genome and transcriptome data would promote our understanding of HDM allergens. We sought to assemble chromosome-level genome and precise transcriptome profiling of Dermatophagoides farinae and identify novel allergens. In this study, genetic material extracted from HDM bodies and eggs were sequenced. Short-reads from next generation sequencing (NGS) and long-reads from PacBio/Nanopore sequencing were used to construct the D. farinae nuclear genome, transcriptome, and mitochondrial genome. The candidate homologs were screened through aligning our assembled transcriptome data with amino acid sequences in the WHO/IUIS database. Our results showed that compared with the D. farinae draft genome, bacterial DNA content in the presently developed sequencing reads was dramatically reduced (from 22.9888% to 1.5585%), genome size was corrected (from 53.55 Mb to 58.77 Mb), and the contig N50 was increased (from 8.54 kb to 9365.49 kb). The assembled genome has 10 contigs with minimal microbial contamination, 33 canonical allergens and 2 novel allergens. Eight homologs (≥50% homology) were cloned; 2 bound HDM allergic-sera and were identified as allergens (Der f 37 and Der f 39). In conclusion, a chromosome-level genome, transcriptome and mitochondrial genome of D. farinae was generated to support allergen identification and development of diagnostics and immunotherapeutic vaccines.
World Allergy Organization Journal; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100584
There is a wide time gap between the publication of evidence and the application of new knowledge into routine clinical practice. The consequence is sub-optimal outcomes, particularly concerning for long-term relapsing/remitting conditions such as allergic diseases. In response, there has been a proliferation of published guidelines which systematically review evidence for the gold-standard management of most allergic disorders. However, this has not necessarily been followed by improved outcomes, partly due to a lack of coordination across the patient pathway. This has become known as the "second translational gap". A proposed solution is the development and implementation of integrated care pathways (ICPs) to optimize patient outcomes, with the notion that evidence-based medicine requires evidence-based implementation. ICP implementation is shown to improve short-term outcomes for acute conditions and routine surgery, including reduced length of hospital stay, improved documentation and improved patient safety. However, this improvement is not reflected in patient experience or patient-centered functional outcomes. The implementation of life-long, cost-effective interventions within comprehensive pathways requires a deep appreciation for complexity within allergy care. We promote an evidence-based methodology for the implementation of ICPs for allergic disorders in which all stakeholders in allergy care are positioned equally and encouraged to contribute, particularly patients and their caregivers. This evidence-based process commences with scoping the unmet needs, followed by stakeholder mapping. All stakeholders are invited to meetings to develop a common vision and mission through the generation of action/effect diagrams which helps build concordance across the agencies. Dividing the interventions into achievable steps and reviewing with plan/do/study/act cycles will gradually modify the pathway to achieve the best outcomes. While the management guidelines provide the core knowledge, the key component of implementation involves education, training, and support of all healthcare professionals (HCPs), patients and their caregivers. The pathways should define the level of competence required for each clinical task. It may be useful to leave the setting of care delivery or the specific HCP involved undefined to account for variable patterns of health service delivery as well as local socioeconomic, ethnic, environmental, and political imperatives. In all cases, where competence is exceeded, it is necessary to refer to the next stage in the pathway. The success and sustainability of ICPs would ideally be judged by patient experience, health outcomes, and health economics. We provide examples of successful programs, most notably from Finland, but recommend that further research is required in diverse settings to optimize outcomes worldwide.
World Allergy Organization Journal, Volume 14; https://doi.org/10.1016/j.waojou.2021.100579
Background It is hypothesized that parents of children with allergic conditions believe dairy products are potentially harmful to their child. Objectives This study compares the calcium and vitamin D intake of allergic versus non-allergic children and parental beliefs about milk and dairy products. Methods A survey and food-frequency-questionnaire were administered to parents of children between 3 and 13 years, 110 with allergic disease (allergic rhinitis, asthma, food allergy, and/or atopic dermatitis) versus 110 without allergic disease. Calcium and vitamin D intake was calculated from the food-frequency-questionnaire and compared to National Institutes of Health recommendations. Associations between atopy, calcium and vitamin D intake, and beliefs were investigated using Chi-square test (α = 0.05). Distribution across subjects was investigated using Mann-Whitney-U test (α = 0.05). Results Fewer allergic (51.8%) versus non-allergic children (77.3%) met the recommended calcium intake (p < 0.001). Both had similar rates of insufficient vitamin D intake: 12.7% allergic and 17.3% non-allergic (p = 0.345). 81.7% of parents of allergic versus 94.0% of non-allergic children believe intake of dairy is important (p = 0.009). 23.7% of parents of allergic versus 8.0% of non-allergic children believe dairy negatively impacts their child (p = 0.003). 19.1% of parents of allergic children (excluding 3 with documented milk allergy) versus 2.0% of non-allergic believe their child is allergic or intolerant to dairy (p < 0.001). Conclusions Children are at risk of insufficient calcium and vitamin D intake. Atopic children may be at increased risk for insufficient intake, due in part to parent's negative beliefs regarding dairy products. Physicians should counsel on the importance of micronutrient intake and how allergic conditions do or do not entail dietary restrictions.