International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology

Journal Information
EISSN : 2455-815X
Published by: Peertechz Publications Inc. (10.17352)
Total articles ≅ 176
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International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 248-252; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000173

Abstract:
Phosphorous fixation in soils is a serious concern worldwide, and biochar is gaining attention daily due to its potential benefits for improving the agronomic benefits of applied phosphorus. The present study aims to enhance understanding of the phosphorus transformation process in a deprived sandy soil following biochar amendments (no-acidified wheat straw biochar and chemically modified (acidification with 0.01 M C6H8O7) along with or without phosphorus at 250 mg kg−1. A 54-day pot experiment was conducted with two biochar levels of 4%, 8% (w/w), and control, and two phosphorus levels (without or with phosphorus). The results indicate that the integration of acidified wheat straw biochar with phosphorus resulted in increased available phosphorus in the soil. We conclude that incorporating acidified wheat straw biochar is a promising practice to potentially improve phosphorus availability in deprived soils. Further research is needed to explore site-specific phosphorus management for sustainable crop production.
Mina Hansel A, Deering Amanda J
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 244-247; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000172

Abstract:
Historically, the United States has positioned itself as one of the leading producers and consumers of melons in the world with a 2020 production value of over $295 million (excluding watermelons). It has been estimated that on average the per capita consumption of melons in the U.S. is about 24 pounds each year [1]. Increased consumer awareness of healthy diets, sensory attributes of melons, enhanced year-round availability, marketing techniques and improved cultivars contribute to explaining the higher demand for melon consumption [2].
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 236-237; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000170

Abstract:
Milk is a healthy natural beverage and the main raw material of dairy products. It is well known that raw milk is the first link to guarantee and control the quality and safety of milk and dairy products. Only high-quality raw milk can produce high-quality dairy products.
Asfaw Anteneh
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 225-231; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000168

Abstract:
Soil erosion is one of several major deterioration processes which result in soil degradation and declining agricultural productivity in Ethiopia due to the dense population, high livestock density, and intensive crop production in the area. Soil and water conservation practices are one of the mechanisms used to reduce erosion and associated nutrient loss, reducing the risk of production. Therefore, the review focuses on the importance of soil and water conservation practices on soil properties in Ethiopia. Several studies conducted in various parts of the country showed that the implemented soil bund reduced annual runoff and soil loss at different rates. Soil and water conservation have improved the soil Physico-chemical properties on conserved cropland (BD, SMC, pH, CEC, av. K, av. P, SOC, and TN) compared to the adjacent cropland without soil and water conservation measures. Soil and water conservation, reduce the removal of fertile topsoil and improves soil moisture, which favors crop growth as a result grain yield of the crops was increased. In general, the use of soil and water conservation strategies had clearly shown a positive impact on soil physico-chemical properties and crop yields. Therefore, to reduce soil erosion sustainably, different soil and water conservation options should be introduced and used considering agroecology, socio-economic profile, and climatic condition of the intervention area.
Flocea Elena-Iuliana, Ghelbere Cosmin
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 232-235; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000169

Abstract:
A problem we are facing more and more often has caught our attention. Neurotoxicity is caused by lead contamination of the environment and food chain. The purpose of this review is to present the harmful effects of lead on human health. In the long term, lead accumulated in the body can cause cognitive, motor, and behavioral changes. According to recent studies, lead is a real danger for children because it affects the development of the nervous system even in small amounts. This review also focused on suggesting a powerful antioxidant, vitamin C in the diet. Studies have shown that it has a possible neuroprotective role, being kept in high concentrations in the brain.
Asrat Zewdu, Gojjam Mastewal
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 218-224; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000167

Abstract:
Comparative genomics is the study of the similarities and differences in the structure and function of hereditary information across taxa. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of comparative mapping in crop improvement. Hence, the study encompasses comparative genomics over the past two decades, multiple investigations of many additional taxa have delivered two broad messages: multiple investigations of many additional taxa have delivered two broad messages: In most plants, the evolution of the small but essential portion of the genome that actually encodes the organism’s genes has proceeded relatively slowly; as a result, taxa that have been reproductively isolated for millions of years have retained recognizable intragenic DNA sequences as well as similar arrangements of genes along the chromosomes. A wide range of factors, such as ancient chromosomal or segmental duplications, mobility of DNA sequences, gene deletion, and localized rearrangements, has been superimposed on the relatively slow tempo of chromosomal evolution. Comparative genomics is the study of the similarities and differences in the structure and function of hereditary information across taxa. The objective of this study was to highlight the role of comparative mapping in crop improvement. Hence, the study encompasses comparative genomics over the past two decades, multiple investigations of many additional taxa have delivered two broad messages: multiple investigations of many additional taxa have delivered two broad messages: In most plants, the evolution of the small but essential portion of the genome that actually encodes the organism’s genes has proceeded relatively slowly; as a result, taxa that have been reproductively isolated for millions of years have retained recognizable intragenic DNA sequences as well as similar arrangements of genes along the chromosomes. A wide range of factors, such as ancient chromosomal or segmental duplications, mobility of DNA sequences, gene deletion, and localized rearrangements, has been superimposed on the relatively slow tempo of chromosomal evolution.
Olana Gemechisa, Kitila Chala
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 214-217; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000166

Abstract:
Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the greatest significant grain crops in Ethiopia which ranked second only next tef in local production. However, its production is limited due to incorrect line spaces between crops. Therefore, field research was conducted at Dambi Dollo University during the 2020/2021 growing season under irrigated conditions for the production and yield of hybrid maize (BH546) with the help of optimizing spaces between rows. The test is performed using a three-dimensional Random Block Design with three replication in a single-factor test having three different line spaces (20 cm, 30 cm and 40 cm). The highest values ​​of total ears in each crop, length of the ears, total seed rows in each cob, seed in each cob, the weight of a thousand grains, seed yield, and the harvest index are recorded in wide spaces (40 cm). The performance of hybrid maize (BH546) and part of the crop, a wide range of 40 cm rows between crops can be recommended in the study area.
Akbulut Sefa
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 209-213; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000165

Abstract:
Production in industrial agriculture is under threat in the near future due to air pollution, excessive consumption, and climate change. Commercial production of traditional products is significant for the continuity of product diversity. Edible wild plants are usually collected from the wild and consumed for local needs. However, there are not enough initiatives for the cultivation of these plants. Turkey, which is very rich in point of biological diversity, is among the lucky countries in this regard. An important part of approximately 12000 plants in its flora is consumed as a food source by traditional methods. In this study, a list of 76 plants belonging to 34 families that are widely consumed for food purposes in Turkey is given.
Babeker Am, Ahmed Ar, Mastafa Gi, Abdalla Aa, Bakur A
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 202-208; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000164

Abstract:
The study was conducted in Sudanese Sugar Industries during the period 2017 to aim the determination some heavy metals and microbial profiles of raw Sugar samples collected from Sudanese Sugar Industries in season 2017 in relation to EU.1998 and ICUMSA,1974 standards. The samples were obtained from all Sudanese Sugar Industries namely, (Kenana, White Nile, Assalaya, Sennar, Guneid, and New Halfa). After that the samples were transferred to the laboratory to assess the quality parameters of raw sugar which include the determination of some heavy metals content of sugar cane per mg/kg in Sudanese sugar companies which include Mercury, Cadmium, Lead, and Arsenic, Determination Microbial analysis for final sugar which includes Detection of Thermopolis Bacteria (Sporeforming Bacteria, Bacteria producing H2S and H2 swell) and Determination Methophilic Bacteria (Total Count of bacteria CFU/10 gm, Determination Coliform Bacteria CFU/ 10 gm, Determination of Leuconstoc Mesenteroides Bacteria CFU/10 gm. and Enumeration of Yeasts and Moulds CFU/ 10 gm and Determination the concentration of Dextran. and the data were analyzed by using a Statistical system Complete Randomized Design (CRD) and analysis of variance technique by Least Significant Different Test (LSD) according to Fisher’s LSD method, 2010 at (Probability 0.05). Was applied to compare differences between means. The results showed that the mean concentration of Mercury, Cadmium, Lead and Arsenic was (0.02 mg/ kg grams of sugar), (0.62 mg/ kg sugar), (6.74 mg/ kg sugar), and (2.73mg/ kg sugar). These results Indicate all sample industries were agreeable with critical limit maximum value. It was concluded that the total count of Bacteria for raw Sugar White Nile and Sennar agreed with recommended limit. In the case of total yeasts, Sporeforming Bacteria, and Dextranium Bacteria all samples Industries were highest than the critical limit. While the total Moulds and Bacteria Production H2S all samples Industries were less than the critical limit except Kenana and Guneid respectively. Concerning the Total Count of Leuconstoc Mesenteroides Bacteria in sugar, the results revealed all samples Industries were higher than the recommended limit. And the samples Industries were online with the recommended limit concerning the dextran concentration except Guneid industry was highest than the critical limit (75 ppm). The study recommended that the Sudanese Sugar Industry needs to establish proper quality assurance laboratories to help in monitoring the quality and safety of raw materials and end products.In conclusion, the grain yield of maize increased with increasing N rate and plant density up to the optimum. Therefore, it’s possible to recommend using a high N rate with both low and medium plant density (< 45,000 plants ha-1) and (45,000 to 65,000plants ha-1) to harvest high grain yield.
Merga Tefera, Zhang Weifang, Shuaixiang Zhao, Zhiping Duan
International Journal of Agricultural Science and Food Technology, Volume 8, pp 193-201; https://doi.org/10.17352/2455-815x.000163

Abstract:
Accurate nitrogen (N) fertilization and optimum plant density increase crop yields. In this study, I report the effects of N fertilization rate and plant density on maize yield in a meta-analysis, by using observations from 15 studies conducted in Ethiopia since the 2000s for possible refinement of N fertilizer and plant density recommendations. I assessed the response of maize to different N rates ha−1 compared to the control using the yield response approach. Application of N fertilizer significantly increased maize yields by 31.5% - 65.9% compared to control. plant density increased maize yields by 42% - 72.4% compared to the control. The interaction effect of the N rate increased maize yields by 27.6% - 95.9%, with Plant density, 58.7% - 152% on loam soil, compared to control yield. The interaction effect of Plant density with soil type increased maize yields by 47% - 108% on loam soil. In conclusion, the grain yield of maize increased with increasing N rate and plant density up to the optimum. Therefore, it’s possible to recommend using a high N rate with both low and medium plant density (< 45,000 plants ha-1) and (45,000 to 65,000plants ha-1) to harvest high grain yield.
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