INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2148-4783 / 2149-2484
Published by: Guven Plus Grup Danismanlik, A.S. (10.17366)
Total articles ≅ 93
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Latest articles in this journal

Esra Dobrucali, Ismail Hakkı DEMİR
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2022.16.4

Abstract:
Aim: With Industry 4.0, the period of digitalization has begun in the construction industry, as in many other industries. The use of artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms instead of traditional methods to solve the problems experienced in construction projects and increase the risk of the project has increased in recent years. These studies have shown that artificial intelligence techniques or algorithms give successful results in solving problems in construction projects. This study investigates the applications of artificial intelligence techniques on construction project duration and demonstrates the use of the Gene Expression Programming method in estimating construction project duration. Method: In this study, analyzes were made with Gene Expression Programming (GEP) technique to estimate the project duration by using the variables of the number of floors, floor area and total construction area of 71 construction projects (60 training and 11 test data) built between 2011-2016. Results: The determination coefficient (R2) for this study was calculated as 0.78 for the training set and as 0.72 for the testing set. Conclusion: In this study, it has been seen that the ability of the created algorithm to estimate the construction time with limited data provides partially acceptable performance.
Esra Dobrucali, Ismail Hakkı DEMİR
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2022.16.2

Abstract:
Aim: Construction project, cost calculation based on bill of materials is generally accepted as a classical method in terms of giving definite result. However, because the calculation of each work item is required, there is a need for a long calculation time. In this study, is worked on the availability of practical, fast and realistic results using artificial intelligence techniques with a few determined variables without performing detailed quantification works in the public institutions budget planning or in the tenderer’s project cost estimate calculations; finally, the obtained results are compared. Method: For this purpose, it is aimed to estimate the project cost by using Gene Expression Programming (GEP) technique and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) techniques by using variables such as the number of floors, duration, building type and total construction area of 75 education and health building projects carried out between 2011 and 2016 (60 of which are training,15 are test data). Results: According to the test data obtained at the end of the study, the project cost determination coefficient (R2) was 0.970 with the Gene Expression Programming technique and 0.967 with the artificial neural network technique. Conclusion: The study shows that Gene Expression Programming and Artificial Neural Networks techniques can be used equally in building cost calculations, and both methods give acceptable values close to reality.
Abdul Majeed Qarizada, Yusuf Sümer
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2022.16.1

Abstract:
Aim: Steel structural elements can lose their strength in vehicle crashes, fire, fatigue, decay, humidity, etc. Consequently, their load-bearing capacities reduce considerably. A widely used strengthening method for steel beams is fiber-reinforced polymer strips or plates. One of the most important problems for this practice is sudden end-strip debonding due to the high normal and shear stress concentration. In this study, the structural behavior of deformed steel I-beams strengthened by carbon composites under bending was studied numerically. Using a commercial nonlinear finite element program (ABAQUS), a finite element model verified with the formerly executed experimental study was presented. To examine the effect of Mechanical Anchorage on large samples, a parametric study was carried out with the verified finite element model. In the parametric study, mainly three parameters were considered. Flange slenderness ratio (Bf/tf), web slenderness ratio (H/tw), and length to cross-sectional depth ratio (L/bf). Results derived from the nonlinear analysis revealed that the employment of the bolt anchorage increases the load capacity of the deformed elements and sustains the elements to resist more loads. However, the behavior and strengthening capacity of this practice is accordingly dependent on the flange slenderness ratio and web slenderness ratio of the proposed beam. Obtained results also indicate that the efficiency of mechanical anchorage in short-span beams is higher compared to the long-span beams.
Zeki Özcan, Ömer Semiz
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2022.16.3

Abstract:
Aim: This study revealed the relationship between the change in dynamic characteristics of structures damaged by exposure to extreme loads such as earthquakes, explosions, and impact and damage levels. Thus, a quick method can be used immediately after the damage has been proposed. Method: The studies consist of two parts, experimental measurements, and numerical solutions. For the analysis, a single degree of freedom, a four-column steel model structure was fabricated, and its free vibrations were recorded with the help of an accelerometer. Three scenarios are defined for the system no damage, medium damage, and heavy damage. Each of these failure scenarios is achieved by changing the boundary conditions of the columns. Results: The acceleration records were processed with the Seismosignal software, and the free vibration periods of the structure were determined for each case. In the numerical part of the study, free vibration periods of undamaged and damaged structures were calculated using the finite element method. Conclusion: It has been shown that the results obtained from the experimental and numerical methods are compatible. With the study, it has been revealed that damaged structures can be evaluated using free vibration periods.
Ahmet Özbek, Oğuzhan Pekinalp
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.6

Abstract:
Aim: The main purpose of this manuscript is to examine the robot technologies developed or under development for use in apparel production. Then, based on the identified related robotic technologies, it is aimed to inform the apparel clothing companies about the latest status of robot technologies and to provide information about the identified shortcomings to the people or institutions interested in this field, leading to new studies. Method: Within the scope of the manuscript, the literature on the subject was searched. Results: As a result of the literature review, robotics developed or under development to perform fabric laying (PR2 robot, Gripper and Picking Pad), sewing (Kuka LWR 4 and Robotic Arm), ironing (Baxter and Humanoid robot TEO) and packaging (Robot Motoman SDA10D) technologies have been identified. However, no robot technology has been found for cutting and quality control processes. Conclusion: Although many robotic systems have been developed for use in the apparel production, it has been understood that new R&D studies are needed in this area in order for the production to be fully robotized.
Tuğba Özge ONUR
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.1

Abstract:
Aim: This paper studies to detect the undetectable defects in casting such as air holes, pinholes, burrs, tensile defects, mold material defects, metal casting defects, metallurgical defects, and etc. Through images via deep learning methods. Method: In the study, an automatic reading review for submersible pump impeller is proposed and a deep learning model is developed. The data set of the images include defective and smooth submersible pump impeller has been utilized to prove the performance of the designed network architecture. Results: According to the obtained results, maximum accuracy of 89% for the classifier has been achieved in the training stage and it reached a maximum accuracy of 93% in the testing stage. Conclusion: Along with the developing systems, quality control systems have been evolved through image processing. Thanks to the image processing-based control systems, the capacity and efficiency of the production facilities can be increased and perfect products can be delivered to the end-user by making precise measurements. In this study, since casting is an important and frequently used process in the industry, its defects are evaluated and a deep learning model to automate the review process and detect the defective products of submersible pump impellers is presented. The success rate of 89% obtained show that the defective product inspection in the industry can be performed over the images by using a convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture.
Fahım Ahmad NOWBAHARI, Elif Ağcakoca
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.9

Abstract:
Earthquake loads are the biggest obstacle to the design of multi-storey and irregular structures in countries located in the earthquake zone and with active earthquake faults. It is a dangerous natural disaster that can result in loss of life and property depending on the intensity of the earthquake. It is important to use comprehensive and up-to-date standards and regulations for the calculation of earthquake loads. In this study, considering TBDY-2018, dynamic behavior of multi-storey steel structure with irregularity called A1 Torsional Irregularity has been investigated. For seismic load calculations, mode combination method and equivalent earthquake load method, which are linear analysis methods, were used. In a 10-storey steel structure, central inverted V braces were used and the positions of these braces were changed and a total of 4 models were produced. Structural analyzes were made using the "Etabs" program. Then, the results obtained in the two methods used were compared, and in the structural analysis of the models used, it was seen that the internal forces and displacements gave greater results when the calculations were made with the Equivalent Earthquake Load Method. In addition, it has been stated that the torsional irregularity coefficient of the structure is effective in the horizontal displacement of the structure.
Senai Yalçinkaya, Kenan Koçyiğit
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.2

Abstract:
Aim: Every country in the world develops defense strategies in order to protect their borders and to be cautious against attacks from outside, according to their geographical locations. They use underwater and surface vehicles to meet the defense needs of countries that have coasts on seas or oceans. These vehicles need to be light in order to have low fuel consumption and high mobility. Method: Aluminum and aluminum alloy materials are generally used in these vehicles in order to meet these requirements and also to have high strength. In these vehicles, which are in motion in water, corrosion and abrasions occur on the surfaces due to high pressure and friction. Coating methods are applied to minimize these corrosions and abrasions. The selection of aluminum to be applied to these coating methods and the heat treatments to be applied to aluminum materials before coating will be evaluated. In this study, by giving examples of coating types, studies will be carried out on how much the formation of corrosion on aluminum surfaces reduces or prevents. Salt fog test will be applied in order to determine the decrease in the amount of corrosion formation. Salt fog testing will be performed in accordance with the MIL-STD-810G standard. Samples will be prepared for the studies to be carried out on the aluminum 6061 alloys. These samples will be aged by T6 heat treatment. After the aging process, for anodized coating types such as type 1 class 3, type 2 class 1 type 2 class 2 type 3 class 1 type 3 class 2 from anodic anodized coating types, each sample will be in the salt cabinet for 50 hours each turn to see the difference clearly. will be subjected to the fog test. After every 50 hours, the sample will be left to dry for 50 hours. After 50 hours of drying time, these samples, which were subjected to salt fog test, will be compared with each other before the test under normal conditions and after drying after the test.Results: In this study, it has been tried to determine how the aluminum 6061 alloy, which is one of the most preferred materials for underwater and above-water vehicles, behaves against corrosion after T6 heat treatment and the coating types that should be applied in order to maximize its resistance against this corrosion. Conclusion: When the images taken from the optical microscope were compared, it was observed that the type 3 class 1 type was more durable than the other coating types.
Hatice Öğütcü
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.7

Abstract:
With the increase in the world population every year, the need for plant and animal foods has increased. In order to meet these needs, the amount of fertilizers (with chemical content) used to increase productivity in agriculture has increased and has become a threat to the soil and the environment. In order to minimize the harms of chemical fertilizers and to preserve the fertility of the soil, new environmentally friendly applications have been researched. In this context, studies on "Plant Probiotics", which are one of the effective applications both in protecting the quality of the soil and increasing the yield in plant production, especially on local isolates and formulations to be prepared from them, have gained momentum. Plant probiotics are a group of microorganisms or microorganisms that can improve soil health, plant growth, and plant tolerance or immunity to various abiotic and biotic stresses, thanks to their potential role in enhanced nutrient acquisition and/or biocontrol activities by colonizing the root zone of plants, called the rhizosphere. As a result of inoculation of plants with strains of these bacteria, which have very different properties (nitrogen binding, phosphate solubilizing, biocontrol agent, stress resistance, phytohormone synthesis), it directly affects the growth and development of the roots and shoots of the plant, increasing the biomass, as well as contributing to the increase of the yield and quality of the product. In this context, the preparation and use of biofertilizer formulations of local plant probiotic bacteria, which will be obtained from their natural areas, has become very important in rational agricultural practices in recent years and intensive researches are carried out. With the use of the aforementioned plant probiotic formulations, environmentally friendly green production will be made by contributing to the production of both foodstuffs and feed raw materials in order to ensure the continuity of the world population. As a result, the protection of the ecosystem will be ensured by preventing environmental pollution, which is the problem of the whole world.
Abdul Majeed Qarizada, Yusuf Sümer
INTERNATIONAL REFEREED JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING AND SCIENCES; https://doi.org/10.17366/uhmfd.2021.15.8

Abstract:
Aim: Locally deformed beams and girders could be temporarily repaired by heat treatment but this practice causes the decrease in the load capacity of the member. Besides, fiber reinforced polymer strips could be used to gain a permanent retrofitting solution for the deformed elements. Method: In this study initially the behavior of heat treated IPE-80 beam strengthened by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strips bonded with epoxy is observed. This practice causes a significant increase in the load capacity but it is also being observed that epoxy scatters earlier, which does not allow the CFRP to resist much more load. Scaled steel IPE80 beams are selected and they are subjected to three-point bending test. Load-deflection behavior is recorded for each test and conclusions are derived by comparing the results. Conclusion: Preliminary laboratory experiments on shell plates shows that using anchorage by employing bolt has better results compare to those observed by using anchorage made by CFRP fabric only. This study suggests implementation of anchorages through bolts or CFRP fabrics along with epoxy bonding to retrofit the heat treated elements.
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