Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences
ISSN / EISSN : 2456-7795 / 2456-7795
Published by: Sciencedomain International (10.9734)
Total articles ≅ 176
Latest articles in this journal
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 31-39; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i319095
Polyvinyl butyral (PVB) was prepared by the condensation reaction of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) with n-butyraldehyde using a catalyst which is a kind of deep eutectic solvent (DES) made of dodecyltrimethylammonium chloride and p-toluenesulfonic acid. The raw materials and products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effects of the following reaction conditions on the degree of PVB acetal, yield and agglomeration of the products were investigated: the mass ratio of n-butyraldehyde to PVA (mBA/mPVA) of 0.48-0.96, the mass ratio of catalyst to PVA (mcat/mPVA) of 0.16-0.64, the low temperature reaction temperature (5-20℃), and the low temperature reaction time (1-3h). The results showed that at mBA/mPVA =0.8, mcat/mPVA =0.32, low temperature reaction temperature of 15°C and low temperature reaction time of 2 hours, the obtained PVB was a homogeneous powder with the highest acetal degree of 73.85%.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 20-30; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i319093
The pulp and paper industry is considered as one of the major potential sources of pollution in the environment and a consumer of wood. Environmental effects have been attributed to chemicals introduced during the manufacturing process. This paper investigated the influence of cooking chemicals, concentration and time on the properties of effluent generated during pulping of agricultural residue. A stem of kenaf which is an agricultural residue was pulped with 20%, 60% and 90% concentrations of formic acid and sodium hydroxide at 1 hour, 2 hours and 3 hours intervals to determine the characteristics of their effluents. The lowest Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) obtained from formic acid effluent for the 3 hours cooking at 20%, 60% and 90% concentrations was 324mg/l at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide effluent has 3050mg/l at 20% concentration after 1hour cooking as its lowest. Formic acid effluent showed lowest Biological Oxygen Demand (BOD) of 10.63mg/l at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide has 13.75mg/l at 90% after 1 hour cooking. The value of Total Solid (TS) from formic acid effluent was lowest (16890mg/l) at 60% concentration after cooking for 2 hours while sodium hydroxide lowest value (15524mg/l) was recorded at 20% after 3 hours cooking. Sodium hydroxide effluent has lowest Total Suspended Solid (TSS) of 3165mg/l while formic acid has 2245mg/l both at 90% concentrations after 2 and 3 hours cooking.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 11-19; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i319092
The adoption of aluminium sulfate and potassium sulfate as electrolyte additives were investigated to determine the possibility of enhancing the charge cycle of 2V/ 20AH lead acid battery with reference to the conventional dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte. The duration and efficiency of lead acid batteries have been a challenge for industries over time due to weak electrolyte and insufficient charge cycle leading to sulfation. This has affected the long-term production output in manufacturing companies that depend on lead acid batteries as alternative power source. Hence there is need to explore the use of specific sulfate additives that can possibly address this gap. The electrolyte solutions were in three separate charge and discharge cycles involving dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte, dilute sulfuric acid-aluminium sulfate mixed electrolyte and dilute sulfuric acid-potassium sulfate mixed electrolyte for one hour each. The total voltage after 30 minutes charge cycle was 2.3V, 2.35V and 5.10V for dilute sulfuric acid, aluminium sulfate additive and potassium sulfate additive respectively. The cell efficiency for dilute sulfuric acid, aluminium sulfate additive and potassium sulfate additive electrolytes are 77%, 77% and 33% respectively. The electrolyte sulfate additives were of no positive impact to the conventional dilute sulfuric acid electrolyte of a typical lead acid battery due to the low difference in potentials between the terminals.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i319091
Yellow Achu soup used to eat achu is an emulsion composed primarily of red palm oil and water stabilized by potash as an emulsifier, is regarded as one of the prestigious traditional foods in Cameroon. However, the yellow achu soup faces a problem of stability due to the inability of the potash from plantain peel alone, commonly called Nikkih, to emulsify and stabilize it. This study was therefore aimed at investigating the effect of incorporation of potash from Ficus carica fruit peel to potash from plantain peel, Nikkih, on the emulsification, emulsion stability, and acceptability of yellow achu soup. To this effect, ashes obtained from plantain peels and Ficus carica fruit peel were extracted with water to get their respective crude extracts, potash, with concentrations of 0.07g/ml or 1g/15ml. A mixture experimental design was used to mix different proportions of the plantain peels to Ficus carica fruit peel potash to get 7 samples of the emulsifier, ranging from 100:0, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, 50:50, 30:70 0:100 denoted as IKM, KIM, MKI, IMK, MIK, KMI, and KKI respectively. The yellow achu soup obtained thereafter was prepared by mixing thoroughly 20ml of partially bleached palm oil, 10ml of emulsifier solution, and 70ml of water at 800C. The pH, emulsification index, foaming capacity, and foam stability of the resulting soup were analyzed followed by an evaluation of its acceptability. The pH of the mixture varied from 11.75 to 11.01, with a pH of 11.53 obtained for the plantain peel crude extract, IMK, and the lowest pH of 11.01 ± 0.01 obtained from the Ficus carica fruit peel ash extract, KKI. The highest alkalinity of 11.75 ± 0.02 for the mixture was obtained at a mixture ratio of 60:40 for sample IMK. The pH of the resulting yellow achu soup decreased as the incorporation ratio increased, with the highest pH of 11.49 using only the plantain crude extract, IKM, to the lowest pH of 10.58 using only the Ficus carica fruit peel ash extract, KKI. The foaming capacity of the yellow achu soup varied from 10.76 ± 2.78% representing the highest for sample IMK while the lowest value was 5.36 ± 0.18% using sample KIM. The foam stability varied from 11.89 ± 2.34% for sample IMK to 4.67 ± 0.79% for sample KIM. Sample MIK displayed the highest emulsifying activity with a value of 65.15±0.30% and 58.79±8.70% after 24 hrs and 48hrs respectively, while KIM had the lowest emulsifying activity of 34.21±0.54% after 24 hours and 34.17±0.23 after 48hours. Out of the ten panelists involved in the sensory evaluation, 50% generally accepted sample MIK, 20% accepted IMK and KMI while 10% preferred MKI. The incorporation of the Ficus carica fruit peel potash to Nikkih serves as a good strategy to improve on the functional properties and acceptability of yellow achu soup.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 41-51; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i219090
Nickel oxide nanostructures were synthesized via a sol-gel combustion method using glucose, glycine and tartaric acid fuels. The effect of the fuel type on the formed nanostructures was studied. The as-prepared products were characterized by means of FE-SEM, HR-TEM, XRD, and FT-IR analyses. The results exhibited that the used fuels gave NiO products with different morphologies, and the glucose fuel produced pure NiO nanoparticles with the smallest crystallite size (ca. 8.2 nm). The adsorption properties of the NiO products for the removal of malachite green dye (MG) was examined. Using a batch method, various parameters affecting the adsorption properties were studied. The results revealed that NiO nanostructure generated from the glucose fuel had the highest adsorption capacity
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 32-40; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i219089
We reported the antimicrobial activities of cobalt and nickel complexes containing imino-NHC ligands. Complex 2 was synthesized by direct reaction of the insitu generated free carbene from 2-[2-(3-benzylimidazol-1-yl)ethyliminomethyl]phenol ligand with NiCl2 diglyme while complexes 3-5 were previously reported as catalysts in the transfer hydrogenation reaction of ketones. The compounds 1-5 were screened for antimicrobial sensitivity test against four gram-negative bacteria Escherichia Coli (E-coli), Shigella, Klebsiella Pneumoniae (K. Pneumoniae) and Salmonella Typhi (S.Typhi) and a gram positive bacteria Staphylocossus aureus (S.aureus). At a varying concentrations of 100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 µg/mL, significant activities were recorded using disc diffusion methods. The cobalt complex 3 was found to have higher activities compared with the corresponding nickel complexes and among the three nickel complexes, nickel complex with pyridine as wingtip was found to be more active than the one with a benzyl group. Similarly, the nickel centre with mononuclear was found to be more active than the tri-nuclear nickel complex. Except for the cobalt complex 3 no activity was recorded against S. typhi for all the nickel compounds.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 23-31; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i219088
Cellulose isolated from Eichhornia crassipe (Water hyacinth) and Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass) were evaluated using Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy and standard analytical methods for production of drilling mud. The physico-chemical analyses were carried out after chlorination and alkaline process using sodium chlorite and sodium hydroxide for the extraction of cellulose from the two biomass samples under same experimental conditions. Results of physico-chemical analysis of Eichhornia crassipes showed pH: 7.30; conductivity 0.028; bulk density 0.1097g/ml. Pennisetum purpureum showed pH: 7.50; conductivity 0.192; bulk density 0.1378g/ml. Pennisetum purpureum has a higher cellulose yield of 31.39% compared with Eichhornia crassipes with a percentage cellulose yield of 21.88%. Both biomass samples have Herzberg strain of Violet-blue. The results of the Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectroscopy showed prominent peaks at 3353-3164, 1655, 1629, 1320, 1033 and 1019 cm-1. The broad absorption bands around 3353-3164 cm-1 indicated stretching of –OH groups due to inter-molecular and intra-molecular hydrogen bonds of polymeric compounds. The sharp bands at 1655 cm-1 and 1629 cm-1 showed C=C stretch of aromatics. The sharp absorption bands observed at 1320, 1019 and 1033 cm-1 were characteristic of C—O stretch and C—O—C asymmetric stretch of cellulose. The FTIR results proved that the products extracted from the two samples were aromatic hydroxyl compounds. The results of the physicochemical analyses showed that cellulose isolated from the biomass samples which are persistent noxious weeds that invade the aquatic and terrestrial environment can be utilized in industrial applications for drilling fluid production.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 11-22; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i219087
The enzyme peroxidase is a heme or iron-porphyrin protein that belongs to a large family of enzymes called the oxidoreductases. Their function mainly is to oxidize molecules at the expense of hydrogen peroxide. They are widely distributed in living organisms, and usually show dramatic colour-product formation as a result of their catalytic effect. They generally catalyse many oxygen transfer reactions involving hydrogen peroxide or anyone of the many other peroxides as electron acceptors and substrates. This ability of reducing peroxides at the expense of electron donating substrates is what marks peroxidases as ubiquitous and very important enzymes with many biotechnological applications. Not surprisingly therefore peroxidases play many important roles in different areas of biotechnology. Among others, these include such diverse areas as bioenergy, bioremediation, dye decolorization, humic acid degradation, paper and pulp and textile industries among many others. An important reason for this ability is the different areas from which peroxidases could be sourced as the function of many peroxidases show variations according to its source. This is a character that differentiates peroxidases from many other biological catalysts. Among the many different types of peroxidases are the heme peroxidases which mainly come from plants and fungi and include among others lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases and versatile peroxidases. Some important types of peroxidases from humans and animals are glutathione peroxidase, thyroid peroxidase, lactoperoxidase, salivary peroxidase and thyroid peroxidase.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i219086
Biological treatment, due to its low installation cost, is widely used for wastewater treatment. However, this treatment remains ineffective for the oxidation of so-called emerging molecules. To solve this environmental problem, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) combine with Biological treatment for rapid, efficient and cost-effective purification of wastewater. This combination used in this work, allowed a total mineralization of a real wastewater solution from the teaching hospital of Treichville named CHU of Treichville in Abidjan (CHUT), both in terms of organic and microbiological pollutants. Real wastewater from the CHUT underwent a Biological treatment for 28 days via the Zahn-Wellens methods which made it possible to have a reduction rate of the chemical oxygen demand of more than 90% of biologically active organic pollutants. The biologically treated wastewater was doped with ceftriaxone (CTX) to simulate a situation of wastewater containing a recalcitrant compound after Biological treatment. Subsequently, the doped solution underwent treatment with different AOPs (UV / H2O2, Fe2+ / H2O2 and UV / Fe2+ / H2O2). This combination resulted in a COD reduction rate of over to be higher 98% and total inactivation of microbiological germs.
Asian Journal of Chemical Sciences pp 38-46; https://doi.org/10.9734/ajocs/2021/v10i119085
In this study, a rapid and sensitive analytical method has been developed to detect tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) using manganese-doped carbon dots (Mn-CDs) prepared by one-step hydrothermal procedure using 1-(2-pyridinylazo)-2-naohthalenol (PAN) and MnCl2 as precursor reagents. The obtained Mn-CDs showed an ultraviolet emission at 360 nm with an excitation wavelength of 300 nm. TC has a strong characteristic absorption peak at 356 nm, which has a large spectral overlap with the emission band of the Mn-CDs. The fluorescence intensity (FI) of Mn-CDs at 360 nm is linearly quenched within the TC concentration range of 0.1-200 µM. The developed assay for the detection of TC was based on an inner filter effect (IFE) mechanism and is rapid, sensitive, and was successfully applied for the determination of TC in different poultry meat samples with satisfactory results.