Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2078-6336 / 2078-6344
Published by: Cambridge University Press (CUP) (10.1017)
Total articles ≅ 383
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Corrigendum
Moses Okpeku, , , Kyle C. Caires, Varun K. Sharma, , Rakesh Tamang, Adeyemi S. Adenaike, Michael O. Ozoje,
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales pp 1-1; https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633617000017

, R. Parra Molina, M.A. Peña Joya, J.L. Parra Arango, A. Góngora
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 97-103; https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633616000229

Abstract:
Resumen En bovinos, la reducción de la eficiencia reproductiva de los sistemas de producción de carne y doble propósito se atribuye a factores nutricionales, sanitarios, climáticos y en última instancia a características genéticas de los animales. Sin embargo, en condiciones de trópico cálido húmedo, variaciones genéticas entre razas podrían reducir la edad al primer parto, el intervalo entre partos y aumentar la vida útil de las vacas. Las razas Sanmartinero y Casanareño podrían mejorar los sistemas de producción bovina debido al aporte de variantes genéticas que emergieron en el proceso de adaptación a las duras condiciones de la Orinoquía Colombiana. Actualmente, los genes con función biológica conocida se usan como marcadores moleculares para estimar parámetros de diversidad genética pecuaria facilitando la identificación y ubicación dentro del genoma de regiones que codifican o regulan la expresión de rasgos de interés económico. En ganado criollo colombiano Romosinuano se han identificado genes candidatos del eje Hormona de crecimiento/Factor de crecimiento similar a la insulina que se asocian positivamente con edad al primer parto, intervalo entre partos, longevidad y protección del embrión al estrés calórico. No obstante en las razas criollas Sanmartinero y Casanareño reconocidas empíricamente por estas características, no han sido sometidas a dichos análisis de genes candidatos que permitan promover un valor agregado a los animales. El objetivo de esta revisión es documentar algunos parámetros reproductivos y genéticos de las razas criollas Sanmartinero y Casanareño que soportan la necesidad de desarrollar estudios moleculares y justificar su uso en los sistemas de producción de carne y doble propósito de la Orinoquía colombiana.
, Jigme Dorji, Tashi Dorji, Yoshi Kawamoto
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 1-6; https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633616000072

Abstract:
Summary: Genetic diversity of Mithun population in Bhutan was studied using 14 microsatellite markers. Two sets of two-step polymerase chain reactions were performed with multiplex and individual markers for genotyping 105 hair samples collected from Arong in Samdrupjongkhar (AS, 36) and Wangdigang in Zhemgang (WZ, 69). Fifty-three alleles were detected with average of 3.89 alleles and polymorphism information content of 0.44 ± 0.03 per locus. A low level of genetic variability within population was present with observed heterozygosity at 0.50 ± 0.06 and expected heterozygosity at 0.48 ± 0.06. Analysis of molecular variance attributed 58 percent of total variation to within the individuals. Mean FIS and FIT were −0.056 and 0.005 respectively, indicated low level of population differentiation and limited out-breeding. The normal L-shaped distribution of allelic frequencies without any mode-shift revealed the absence of recent genetic bottleneck in Mithun populations. Therefore to manage inbreeding in the small Mithun population of Bhutan, periodic assessment of inbreeding levels and exchange of animals between farms is recommended to reduce frequency of introduction of animals from India.
M.F. Islam, M.M. Mia, M.A. Rahman, N. Bhowmik
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 37-45; https://doi.org/10.1017/S2078633616000254

Abstract:
Summary: The study was aimed to identify, characterize and describe the phenotypic variation of indigenous goose populations in Bangladesh. The research was conducted at Sylhet Sadar Upazilla in Sylhet district and encompassed about 141 geese (74 brown type and 67 white type). Least Square Mean ± SE of body length, wing span, shank length, beak length and head length of mature indigenous goose were 73.47 ± 0.95, 134.53 ± 1.38, 9.27 ± 0.09, 8.88 ± 0.10 and 6.42 ± 0.02 cm, respectively. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) higher than their female counterparts for all morphometric traits but no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found between two types. The body weight of indigenous goose at day old, 2-week, 1-month, 2-month and 10-month of age were 95.45 ± 0.88, 148.59 ± 1.55, 407.34 ± 7.27 gm, 1.19 ± 0.03 kg and 3.65 ± 0.06 kg, respectively. Males were significantly (p < 0.01) heavier than females in all age groups except day old gosling but no significant difference (p > 0.05) were observed for body weights between two types of goose. Egg weight, egg length, egg width, incubation period, clutch size, number of eggs in a breeding season and age at first egg were 131.85 ± 1.70 gm, 7.40 ± 0.02 cm, 5.22 ± 0.02 cm, 30.30 ± 0.07 days, 7.42 ± 0.08, 20.52 ± 0.38 and 313.22 ± 3.03 days, respectively. The number of eggs in a breeding season of brown type were significantly (p < 0.05) higher than that of white type goose. This study provides a bench mark for the morphometric traits and performance of goose in Bangladesh.
, , D.K. Enahoro, A.M. Okeyo
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 81-95; https://doi.org/10.1017/s2078633616000096

Abstract:
Summary Development of the livestock industry and its role in poverty alleviation in developing countries depends on how adaptive the production systems are to changing global environmental and economic trends. This paper characterizes dairy production systems in India, Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, and describes the genetic and breeding technologies that hold promise for the advancement of global development goals. The dairy value chain has been prioritized for development under the CGIAR research programme on Livestock and Fish in Tanzania (East Africa), India (South Asia) and Nicaragua (Latin America), while ILRI is involved in research on dairy development in Kenya. In all the countries, a large number of smallholder farmers operating mixed crop–livestock production systems play a significant role in dairy production. In Tanzania, Kenya and Nicaragua, milk is predominantly produced by cattle of genotypes that differ both across countries and among production systems within the same country. In India, buffaloes contribute to a larger proportion of the national milk than cattle. Information on productivity per animal and on optimal genotypes to utilize within the smallholder production systems of all the countries is however limited. Crossbreeding and artificial insemination were identified as the most widely utilized breeding and reproductive technologies. Only in Kenya is there a national organization conducting livestock recording and monitoring productivity, however, the proportion of the dairy cattle population enrolled in the recording system is small (<2.5 percent). In all the countries, enhanced and adequately planned use of breeding and reproductive technologies, complemented with the relevant infrastructure, is needed to sustainably increase dairy productivity. The capacities of actors in the dairy value chain need to be developed in order to properly implement and manage improvements.
S. Mwangi, T.K. Muasya, E.D. Ilatsia, A.K. Kahi
Animal Genetic Resources/Ressources génétiques animales/Recursos genéticos animales, Volume 59, pp 7-14; https://doi.org/10.1017/s2078633616000199

Abstract:
Summary: Pedigree analysis using genealogical information of 18 315 animals born between 1949 and 2008 was done to quantify genetic variability of the Sahiwal population in Kenya. Generation intervals for sire pathways were longer than dam pathways and increased over year periods, from about 4–16 years. The later was due to use of old bulls for breeding in the last 2 year groups and cessation of progeny testing in the year 2000. Average inbreeding level in last year period studied was 1.2 percent. Genetic variability of the population as assessed based on gene origin statistics decreased over the years. The ratio of effective number of founders to founders of 0.06 showed unequal contribution of founders to the reference population. However, since the founding population, ancestors contributed equally as shown by the ratio of fe/fa of 0.94, which could also be due to lack of effective selection in this population. The ratio of fg/fa of 0.63 indicated genetic loss of genetic variability occurred through genetic drift in the Kenyan Sahiwal population. The small number of ancestors (16) that accounted for 50 percent of the total variation in the reference population suggested overuse of a small number of some animals as parents over generations. The smaller ratio of fg/fe compared with fa/fe also confirms loss of genetic variability in the population by genetic drift than bottlenecks. Therefore the breeding strategy for the Sahiwal population in Kenya should incorporate tools that balance rate of genetic gain and the future rate of inbreeding.
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