Open Journal of Applied Biosensor

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2168-5401 / 2168-5398
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 26
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
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Latest articles in this journal

Ethan Law, Monika Kakani, Mangilal Agarwal , Maher Rizkalla
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 4, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojab.2017.41001

Abstract:
With the rise in prevalence of Type II diabetes throughout the world, an increasing need for a portable monitoring system for both blood glucose and lipoprotein concentrations is in demand. Recent work has led to non-invasive wearable devices for monitoring changes in blood glucose concentrations using electromagnetic (EM) waves. However, this still fall short as a means of monitoring cholesterol levels in diabetic patients. The EM study on human tissues emphasized here may also relate to the safety guidelines applied to cellular communications, power lines, and other EM applications. The specific absorption rate (SAR) for the power of the non-ionizing frequency must not exceed a threshold as it impacts DNA and can lead to cancerous tissues. In this study, we used COMSOL software for the investigation of the viability of using EM within the frequency range of 64 MHz-1 GHz as a means of monitoring the transmission properties of human blood and lipoprotein. In this approach, wave equations were solved within blood and lipoprotein boundaries. Research parameters, including frequency range, Power input (SAR), and lipoprotein densities, were investigated. The transmission properties, produced by the electrical and thermal characteristics of these physiological parameters, have led to proper diagnosis of lipoprotein density. Within the frequency range of 64 MHz to 1 GHz, and for a power range of 0.1 to 0.6 SAR, lipoprotein density from 1.00 g/mL to 1.20 g/mL was considered. A 2D model, with an antenna source that supplied the electromagnetic waves to human tissues, was created for the simulations. These were used for the study of the transmission properties of the EM energy into the blood and lipoprotein tissues. While the range of magnetic flux values between simulations varies only slightly or not at all, the distribution of these values is impacted by given parameters. As such, a device capable of comparing magnetic flux values and penetration depths could easily distinguish between samples of different lipoprotein densities. The results obtained in this study can be accommodated non-invasively by human tissues, and can be produced in a practical model using wearable devices. A practical model is proposed for future consideration.
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 3, pp 19-27; doi:10.4236/ojab.2014.33003

Abstract:
A potential confounding factor in the development and evaluation of biosensors is the diverse nature of the disciplines involved. Biosensor technology involves electrochemistry, microbiology, chemical synthesis, and engineering, among many other disciplines. Biological systems, due to non-homogeneous distribution, are already imprecise compared with other systems, especially food based systems. Inadequate knowledge of the techniques to moderate this leads to ineffective evaluation strategies and potentially halting the pursuit of excellent technology that was merely poorly evaluated. This research was undertaken to evaluate the effect culture age had on the capture efficiency of the electrically active magnetic nanoparticles (EAMNP) using culture as the evaluation tool. The age of culture used for immunomagnetic separation (IMS) over all the experiments was 6 to 18 hours. Ideal culture age range for evaluating biosensors is 4 to 10 hours according to the growth curve for E. coli O157: H7 in trypticase soy broth. This is supported by the statistically significant difference among organisms in groups from 3 to 10 hours old compared with those grouped from 11 to 18 and >19 hours old (α = 0.05, p = 0.001 and p = 0.014 respectively). The two older categories were not different from each other. The capture efficiency in all biosensor analysis will vary less than when culture of only viable cells is the diagnostic tool. This allows a true evaluation of the consistency and accuracy of the method, less hindered by the variation in the ability to culture the organism.
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 3, pp 1-7; doi:10.4236/ojab.2014.31001

Abstract:
Maize tassel-multiwalled carbon nanotube (MT-MWCNT) composite has been used as a matrix for physical adsorption of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) onto the surface of a glassy carbon electrode through electrostatic interactions. The HRP/MT-MWCNT biosensor was applied for the detection of Zn2+ in aqueous solution. The biosensor designed was able to determine Zn2+ in the range of 0.35 - 12 mg/L with a detection limit of 7.5 μg/L. The inhibition was found to be reversible and uncompetitive when data were modeled using the Dixon and Cornish-Bowden plots. The biosensor was found to have good repeatability, reproducibility and high selectivity. The developed biosensor can be used to detect other HRP inhibiting trace metal ions.
Bhargava Teja Nukala , Naohiro Shibuya, Amanda Rodriguez, Jerry Tsay, Jerry Lopez , Tam Nguyen, Steven Zupancic, Donald Yu-Chun Lie
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 3, pp 29-39; doi:10.4236/ojab.2014.34004

Abstract:
In this work, a total of 322 tests were taken on young volunteers by performing 10 different falls, 6 different Activities of Daily Living (ADL) and 7 Dynamic Gait Index (DGI) tests using a custom-designed Wireless Gait Analysis Sensor (WGAS). In order to perform automatic fall detection, we used Back Propagation Artificial Neural Network (BP-ANN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) based on the 6 features extracted from the raw data. The WGAS, which includes a tri-axial accelerometer, 2 gyroscopes, and a MSP430 microcontroller, is worn by the subjects at either T4 (at back) or as a belt-clip in front of the waist during the various tests. The raw data is wirelessly transmitted from the WGAS to a near-by PC for real-time fall classification. The BP ANN is optimized by varying the training, testing and validation data sets and training the network with different learning schemes. SVM is optimized by using three different kernels and selecting the kernel for best classification rate. The overall accuracy of BP ANN is obtained as 98.20% with LM and RPROP training from the T4 data, while from the data taken at the belt, we achieved 98.70% with LM and SCG learning. The overall accuracy using SVM was 98.80% and 98.71% with RBF kernel from the T4 and belt position data, respectively.
Nur Azimah Mansor, Zainiharyati Mohd Zain, Hairul Hisham Hamzah, Mohd Shihabuddin Ahmad Noorden, Siti Safura Jaapar, Valerio Beni, Zafar Husain Ibupoto
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 3, pp 9-17; doi:10.4236/ojab.2014.32002

Abstract:
Herein we report an electrochemical DNA biosensor for the rapid detection of sequence (5’ AAT GGA TTT ATC TGC TCT TCG 3’) specific for the breast cancer 1 (BRCA1) gene. The proposed electrochemical genosensor is based on short oligonucleotide DNA probe immobilized onto zinc oxide nanowires (ZnONWs) chemically synthesized onto gold electrode via hydrothermal technique. The morphology studies of the ZnONWs, performed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), showed that the ZnO nanowires are uniform, highly dense and oriented perpendicularly to the substrate. Recognition event between the DNA probe and the target was investigated by differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) in 0.1 M acetate buffer solution (ABS), pH 7.00; as a result of the hybridization, an oxidation signal was observed at +0.8 V. The influences of pH, target concentration, and non-complimentary DNA on biosensor performance were examined. The proposed DNA biosensor has the ability to detect the target sequence in the range of concentration between 10.0 and 100.0 μM with a detection limit of 3.32 μM. The experimental results demonstrated that the prepared ZnONWs/Au electrodes are suitable platform for the immobilization of DNA.
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 2, pp 1-11; doi:10.4236/ojab.2013.21001

Abstract:
Ochratoxin-A[7-(L-β-phenylalanylcarbonyl)-carboxyl-5-chloro-8-hydroxy-3,4-dihydro-3R-methyl-isocumarin, OTA] is a common food contaminant mycotoxin that enters the human body through the consumption of improperly stored food products. Upon ingestion, it leads to immuno-suppression and immuno-toxicity. OTA has been known to produce nephrotoxic, teratogenic, and carcinogenic activity (via oxidative DNA damage) in several species. This review introduces potentials of electrochemical biosensor to provide breakthroughs in OTA detection through improved selectivity and sensitivity and also the current approaches for detecting OTA in food products.
Svetla Ivanova, Yavor Ivanov, Tzonka Godjevargova
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 2, pp 12-19; doi:10.4236/ojab.2013.21002

Abstract:
Urea Amperometric biosensor was obtained on the base of nanostructured polypyrrole (PPy) and poly ortho- phenylenediamine (POPDA). The optimal conditions for monomer electropolymerization were determined. The effect of supporting electrolyte and number of deposition cycles on the OPDA and Py electropolymerization were studied. It was proved that POPDA and PPy were affected by pH changes and responded to the ammonium, product of urease catalyzed reaction. SEM images of the modified Pt/PPy electrode were presented. The cycle voltammograms and chrono amperometric curves of Pt/POPDA/urease and Pt/PPy/urease electrodes were studied. A good linear relationship was observed for Pt/POPDA/urease electrode in a concentration range from 6.7 to 54 mMurea. For Pt/PPy/urease electrode the linear relation in the range from 0.02 to0.16 mMurea was determined. The entrapped carbon nanotubes (CNT) in PPy film and the bipolymer layers were prepared for construction of Pt/PPy/CNT/urease, Pt/POPDA/PPy/urease and Pt/PPy/POPDA/urease biosensors. Obviously, the addition of POPDA to the composition of the two biosensors (Pt/PPy/POPDA/urease and Pt/POPDA/PPy/urease) reduced their sensitivity to urea. Pt/РPy/CNT/urease and Pt/РPy/ urease biosensors were 173 and 138 times more sensitive to urea than biosensor without PPy (Pt/POPDA/urease biosensor). It was found, that the performance of Pt/PPy/CNT/urease electrode was the best from the five obtained biosensors: linear range of urea concentrations—from 0.02 to0.16 mM; sensitivity—15.22 μA/mM and detection limit— 0.005 mM urea.
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 2, pp 29-38; doi:10.4236/ojab.2013.22004

Abstract:
This work proposes to design a fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controller for dual-sensor cardiac pacemaker systems, which can automatically control the heart rate to accurately track a desired preset profile. The combination of fuzzy logic and conventional PID control approaches is adopted for the controller design based on dual-sensors. This controller offers good adaptation of the heart rate to the physiological needs of the patient under different states (rest and walk). Through comparing with the conventional fuzzy control algorithm, FPID provides a more suitable control strategy to determine a pacing rate in order to achieve a closer match between actual heart rate and a desired profile. To assist the heartbeat recovery, the stimuli with adjustable pacing rate is generated by the pacemaker according to the FPID controller, such actual heart rate may track the preset heart rate faithfully. Simulation results confirm that this proposed control design is effective for heartbeat recovery and maintenance. This study will be helpful not only for the analysis and treatment of bradycardias but also for improving the performance of medical devices.
Hongjun Song, Ziliang Cai, Dawn J. Bennett
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 2, pp 65-75; doi:10.4236/ojab.2013.22008

Abstract:
The dielectrophoretic gate and sorter system has been widely applied for preconcentrating and sorting of bioparticles for biodetection. In such systems, the dielectrophoretic force is generated by applying an AC electric field on the three dimensional electrode systems (containing a pair of electrodes on the top and bottom of the channel). Particles are held and sorted by balancing the DEP force with the hydrodynamic drag force. The holding capability is very important for such systems because it determines the preconcentration and sorting efficiency. In this paper, we investigate the holding capability of a simple dielectrophoretic gate system. Initially, a three dimensional numerical scheme was introduced to estimate the holding capability and was further validated by comparing with experimental results. Second, we systematically investigated the effects of the phase difference between the top and bottom electrodes; the height and width of the channel, and the relative position and size of top and bottom electrodes. The results demonstrated that the maximum holding capability is reached when the phase difference between the top and bottom electrodes is around 180o. The results also show that the holding capability varied with the size and relative position of electrodes on the top and bottom, and the maximum holding capability is obtained when the top and bottom electrodes had the same size and the centers of both electrodes overlapped.
K. Spinella , Lucia Mosiello , Giuseppe Palleschi, Fabio Vitali
Open Journal of Applied Biosensor, Volume 2, pp 112-119; doi:10.4236/ojab.2013.24015

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