Open Journal of Air Pollution

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-2653 / 2169-2661
Current Publisher: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 107
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Nicole Mölders, Mariel Friberg
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 77-104; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.94006

Abstract:
Collocated data of the moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MO-DIS) Collection 6.1 aerosol optical depths (AOD) at 3 km × 3 km north of 59.9°N over ocean were assessed at 550 nm by aerosol robotic network (AERONET) data from coastal sites and marine aerosol network (MAN) data from vessels during June to October 2006 to 2018. Typically, MODIS AOD was higher at low and lower at high values than the AERONET AOD. Discrepancies were largest for sites where the Earth’s surface around the site is very heterogeneous (Canadian Archipelago, coast of Greenland). Due to the higher likelihood for sea-ice, MAN and MODIS AOD differed stronger west of Greenland and over the Beaufort Sea than at location in the Greenland and Norwegian Seas and Atlantic. MODIS AOD well captured the inter-seasonal variability found in the AERONET AOD data (R = 0.933). At all sites, MO-DIS and AERONET AOD agreement improved as time progressed in the shipping season, hinting at errors in sea-ice vs. open water classification. Overall 75.3% of the MODIS AOD data fell within the limits of the error envelops of the AERONET/MAN AOD data with MAN ranging between 87.5% and 100%. Changes in both MODIS and AERONET mean AOD between two periods of same length (2006-2011, 2013-2018) were explainable by changes in emissions for all sites.
Senghor Habib, Machu Éric, Durán Luis, S. Jenkins Gregory, Thierno Gaye Amadou, Habib Senghor, Éric Machu, Luis Durán, Gregory S. Jenkins, Amadou Thierno Gaye
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 11-26; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.91002

Abstract:
The Westward transport of mineral dust from the North Africa continent to Atlantic Ocean can produce poor air quality, low visibilities, and negatively impacting respiratory and cardiac health due to the optical and physical properties of aerosols. The dynamical impact of the sea-breeze on the dust vertical distribution in West Africa remains unknown. To investigate this issue, we have used in-situ measurements from lidar. We have focused on the attenuated backscatter of aerosols to study the effect of the local circulation on the vertical profile of mineral dust at land-sea transition. The results highlight a strong diurnal cycle of mineral dust associated with the nocturnal low-level jet (NLLJ). The jet is located between 500 m and 1000 m and crucially affected by the dynamic of the sea-breeze circulation.
Parfait Houngbégnon, Eloïc Atindegla, Hervé Lawin, Victoire Agueh
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 61-76; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.94005

Abstract:
Introduction: Urban Air pollution is increasingly becoming a major health and sustainable development issue. Several studies showed that Traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) is one of the main sources of urban air pollution and has serious consequences on respiratory health. As no systematic review focused on the traffic-related air pollution and respiratory health in the target population of individuals working in a shop or in an office or individuals living along the trunk road, the authors conducted the current study to try to fill this gap. Methods: A systematic review search was conducted using MEDLINE (PubMed), Scientific Research Publishing: SCIRP, Web of Science, Google scholar. Studies were included if they meet the following selection criteria: 1) focus on population working or living along a major/trunk road; 2) studies had reported clearly at least on the exposure variables related to TRAP; 3) the association between TRAP and development of respiratory symptoms or respiratory diseases was established. Results: 13 articles were selected on the 192 articles that were retrieved in the initial research. Exposure to traffic-related air pollution was determined by using distance to road, traffic intensity and pollutants measured. The main respiratory health problems found were cough, wheeze, asthma and bronchitis. No article discussed about roundabouts in characterizing exposure to traffic-related air pollution. Conclusion: Distance to road, traffic density and pollutants measured are the usual methods to characterize the exposure to traffic-related air pollution and its consequences on respiratory health. Regarding the context of area occupations in African cities, it is necessary to focus on population around roundabouts and see if they are not more exposed to TRAP.
Okeke Onyeka, Okeke Cecilia Ifeyinwa, Ezeh Ernest, Ikusika Bamidele Adunola, Nwigwe Juliet Onyinye
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 105-115; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.94007

Abstract:
Studies were carried out to investigate the outdoor air pollution levels in vehicular traffic junctions in the major cities of Nsukka, Enugu and semi-urban area of Awgu all in Enugu State, Nigeria using standard analytical procedures. PM2.5 was collected using Envirotech air sampler, APM 550 and analyzed gravimetrically. Other determined air pollutant gases such as SO2, NO2, O3 and CO were analyzed using colorimetric techniques. The mean hourly traffic density in the vehicular traffic junctions in Nsukka metropolis, Enugu metropolis and Awgu were 2015, 2873 and 587 respectively. The mean range of values of PM2.5, NO2, SO2, O3 and CO in vehicular traffic junctions within the investigated environments were 1.67 - 12.16 μg/m3, 3.72 - 23.83 μg/m3, 2.96 - 30.09 μg/m3, 5.45 - 66.54 μg/m3 and 1.18 - 15.17 ppm respectively. The mean levels of the determined air pollutants in the air around vehicular traffic junctions in Nsukka metropolis, Enugu metropolis and Awgu semi-urban area differed significantly. The mean levels of PM2.5, and CO in the air around vehicular traffic junctions in Enugu metropolis and CO in the air around traffic junctions in Nsukka metropolis were above the recommended permissible limits. Traffic density was therefore seen as the single most important factor contributing to the varying air pollution levels observed in the investigated environments.
S. M. Essa Khaled, M. Etman Soad, S. El-Otaify Maha, Khaled S. M. Essa, Soad M. Etman, Maha S. El-Otaify
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 27-35; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.92003

Abstract:
In this work we used the Gaussian plume model to calculate the actual maximum ground level concentration (MGLC) of air pollutant and its downwind location by using different systems of dispersion parameters and for different stack heights. An approximate formula for the prediction of downwind position that produces the MGLC of a pollutant based on the Gaussian formula was derived for different diffusion parameters. The derived formula was used to calculate the approximate MGLC. The actual and estimated values are presented in tables. The comparison between the actual and estimated values was investigated through the calculation of the relative errors. The values of the relative errors between the actual and estimated MGLC lie in the range from: 0 to 70.2 and 0 to 1.6 for Pasquill Gifford system and Klug system respectively. The errors between the actual and estimated location of the MGLC lies in the range from: 0.2 to 227 and 0.7 to 9.4 for Pasquill Gifford system and Klug system respectively.
Stanley G. Edwin, Nicole Mölders
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 37-60; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.93004

Abstract:
To assess the exposure of residents in rural communities in the Yukon Flats to particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less in diameter (PM2.5), both indoor and outdoor concentration observations were carried out from March to September 2019 in Ft. Yukon, Alaska. Indoor concentrations were measured at 0.61 m (breathing level during sleeping) in homes and at 1.52 m heights (breathing level of standing adult) in homes and office/commercial buildings. Air quality was better at both heights in cabins than frame homes both during times with and without surface-based inversions. In frame houses, concentrations were higher at 0.61 m than 1.52 m, while the opposite is true typically for cabins. Differences between shoulder season and summer indoor concentrations in residences were related to changes in heating, subsistence lifestyle and mosquito repellents. In summer, office and commercial buildings, air quality decreased due to increased indoor emissions related to increased use of equipment and mosquito pics as well as more merchandise. During summer indoor concentrations reached unhealthy for sensitive groups to hazardous conditions for extended times that even exceeded the high outdoor concentrations. Due to nearby wildfires, July mean outdoor concentrations were 55.3 μg·m-3 which exceeds the 24-h US National Ambient Air Quality Standard of 35 μg·m-3. Indoor and outdoor concentrations correlated the strongest with each other for office/commercial buildings, followed by frame houses and cabins. Office/commercial buildings with temperature monitors had one to two orders of magnitude lower concentrations than those without.
Mohammad Hafizur Rahman, V. P. Sharma, S. Kundu, A. Datta
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 9, pp 1-10; doi:10.4236/ojap.2020.91001

Abstract:
Ambient particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10) concentrations were measured during two different seasons (summer and winter) at three different locations of Gurugram which is located in the Indo-Gangetic plain of India. The ambient concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 were higher during winter season (PM2.5: 261 μg·m-3; PM10: 440 μg·m-3) when compared to summer period (PM2.5: 114 μg·m-3; PM10: 202 μg·m-3). Potential Source Contribution Function (PSCF) analysis suggests significant seasonal variation in potential contributing locations of ambient PM2.5 over the study area. The PSCF analysis suggests that cross country transport of PM2.5 from Pakistan and Afghanistan significantly attributed to higher concentrations of PM2.5 at the study locations; whereas, PM2.5 emitted from locations in the south-western direction of the study sites attributed to the ambient PM2.5 concentrations at the study site during summer seasons. Further study is required to measure percentage contribution from different sectors and locations to the ambient particulate concentrations at the study site to develop sector specific mitigation plan.
Yee-Hsin Kao, Chih-Wen Lin, Jui-Kun Chiang
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 8, pp 1-17; doi:10.4236/ojap.2019.81001

Abstract:
Since 1991, air pollution has gained special attention in Taiwan after a petrochemical complex was constructed in Mailiao Township, Yunlin County. We explored the association between the magnitude of PM2.5 and meteorological factors during 2012-2016. Our findings revealed that 1) mean PM2.5 levels gradually decreased from 30.70 μg/m3 in 2013 to 25.36 μg/m3 in 2016; 2) wind speed is the main determinant of air quality—air quality significantly improved when it was faster than 4 m/sec; and 3) wind direction is another determinant of air quality—when the wind direction was southerly, air quality improved. Elevated PM2.5 levels were defined as those hourly levels higher than the third quartile (36 μg/m3). The significantly negative predictive factors for elevated PM2.5 levels were the summer or autumn seasons, rainfall, increased wind speed, and wind direction from 150° to 230° from the north. The significantly positive predictive factors for elevated PM2.5 levels were working hours from 6 a.m. to 2 p.m., a temperature between 11°C and 25°C, relative humidity between 40% and 68%, and wind direction (e.g., northerly wind, northeasterly wind, and easterly wind). The predictive formula is attached in the Appendix. Therefore, people should protect themselves on these high-risk days.
Nicole Mölders, Gilberto Javier Fochesatto, Stanley Gene Edwin, Gerhard Kramm
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 8, pp 19-68; doi:10.4236/ojap.2019.82002

Abstract:
The impacts of low and high-frequency variability from teleconnections between large scale atmospheric processes and local weather as well as emissions changes on concentrations of particulate matter of 2.5 μm or less in diameter ([PM2.5]) were examined for the Fairbanks Metropolitan Area (FMA). October to March and May to August mean [PM2.5] were 1.8 and 3.1 μg·m-3 higher for positive than negative annual mean Pacific Decadal Oscillation. Annual mean [PM2.5] were 3.8 μg·m-3 lower for positive than negative Southern Oscillation Index. On 1999-2018 average, [PM2.5] decreased 2.9 μg·m-3·decade-1. On average over October to March, decadal and inter-annual variability caused higher or similar differences in mean observed [PM2.5] and its species than emission-control measures. The 2006 implementation of Tier 2 for new vehicles decreased observed sulfate concentrations the strongest (~4.95 μg·m-3·decade-1) of all occurred emissions changes. On average, observed [PM2.5] showed elevated values at all sites when wind blew from directions of hot springs. The same was found for the sulfate, ammonium and non-metal components of PM2.5. Observations showed that these geothermal waters contain sulfate, ammonia, boric acid and non-metals. Hot springs of such composition are known to emit hydrogen sulfide and ammonia that can serve as precursors for ammonium and sulfate aerosols.
Andy Lindley, Archie McCulloch, Tim Vink
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 8, pp 81-95; doi:10.4236/ojap.2019.84004

Abstract:
While hydrogen fluoride (HF) and hydrogen chloride (HCl) are not considered main air-pollutants in the EU, they have the potential to contribute to acidification. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), hydrofluoro-olefins (HFOs) and hydrochlorofluoro-olefins (HCFOs) are used as refrigerants and for other applications. They break down in the atmosphere to produce HF and HCl (for HCFOs) and some of these fluorocarbons also break down to produce trifluoroacetic acid (TFA). For the emissions of these fluorocarbons in the EU, a worst-case scenario estimates their theoretical potential contribution to acidification and compares it to the acidification potential for the main air pollutants contributing to acidification, which are nitrous oxides (NOx), sulphur oxides (mainly SO2), and ammonia (NH3). The Acidification Potential from these fluorocarbons in 2016 is estimated at 2, NOx, NH3, and it can be concluded that this is insignificant in the context of the main acidification air-pollutants. Assuming that the EU targets for emissions of SO2, NOx and NH3 by 2030 are achieved, the Acidification Potential from HFCs, HFOs and HCFOs in 2030 is also estimated at 2, NOx, NH3 and will remain insignificant.
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