Open Journal of Air Pollution

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2169-2653 / 2169-2661
Published by: Scientific Research Publishing, Inc. (10.4236)
Total articles ≅ 118
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Esmeralda Mendez, Jonathan Rodriguez, August Luna, Amit U. Raysoni
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 13-27; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.111002

Abstract:
Spatial and temporal heterogeneity in pollutant concentrations exists at the intra-urban level. In this research work, the concentrations of various pollutants and meteorological parameters are characterized between various central ambient monitoring sites at Houston, TX, and the Rio Grande Valley Regions of South Texas. Meteorological (temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and direction) and pollutant (O3, SO2, CO, NO2, and various PM species) concentrations were downloaded from the appropriate Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) Central Ambient Monitoring Station (CAMS) sites for the year 2016. Correlation Analyses and Coefficient of Divergence (COD) analyses suggest that statistically significant differences occur between the various TCEQ CAMS sites in the Houston Region. Findings from this study will help the various stakeholders involved in assessing the overall air pollutants exposure burden for the local populations.
Caitlyn Rogers, Edward Bush
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 62-69; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.113005

Abstract:
Air pollution is defined as the presence of a substance in the atmosphere that is harmful to human health, living things, and/or has a negative impact on the environment. A plant such as Tillandsia recurvata, ball moss, could be used as an inexpensive biological indicator for urban pollution. The purpose of this research was to determine if ball moss could be used as a biological indicator of urban pollution and retain oil pollution. Multiple sites were identified and grouped by vehicular traffic frequency (counts) using the Louisiana State Department of Transportation and Development (LaDOTD) traffic data to randomly select five low (0.0 - 7000), and five medium/high frequency (7001 to >14,000) traffic counts in locations within Baton Rouge, La. city limits. Differential analysis determined that harvested ball moss tissue levels from areas with low traffic (Tillandsia recurvata plant tissue accumulated greater oil weight than absorbent paper towels. Tillandsia recurvata absorbed and/or retained oil at a greater ratio of oil than its own mass. Therefore, the results of each experiment indicated that Tillandsia recurvata may successfully function as a biological indicator and serve as an oil retentionist on a small-scale test. Further research is needed on a larger-scale area to confirm the efficacy of ball mosses for controlling water pollution in-situ.
Shweta Srivastava
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 29-46; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.112003

Abstract:
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are formed due to natural and anthropogenic activities and known for their potential impact and persistence in the environment. PAHs exposure has been linked to cause adverse health effect including lung cancer, heart conditions and genetic mutations. The understanding of metabolic effects of PAHs exposure is less clear especially in the presence of pro-inflammatory stress like alcoholism or diabetes. The aim of this article is to understand the metabolic effects of PAHs exposure on Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) by analyzing the clinical biomarkers data retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, Center for Disease Control (CDC NHANES) (2015-16). This study has also accessed the interactive impact of PAHs and other proinflammatory factors, like alcohol intake on the metabolic syndrome on T2DM. We investigated urinary levels of hydroxylated PAHs metabolites (OH-PAHs) along with demographic, clinical and laboratory data. Generalize linear model Univariate factorial ANOVA was used to evaluate the group differences in the demographics, PAH exposure, drinking patterns, clinical data, and biomarker levels. Linear regression model was used to analyze the association of biomarkers, PAH exposure and drinking data. Multivariable regression model was used for multi-independent model to assess comorbidity association and their effect sizes on the clinical outcomes. The results indicated that BMI (p = 0.002), and age (≤0.001) are independent demographic risk factors for T2DM in high PAHs exposure. Acute proinflammatory activity characterized by CRP, is augmented by elevated monocyte levels (p ≤ 0.001) and stepwise addition of 1-Hydroxynapthelene (p = 0.005), and 2-Hydroxynapthelene (p = 0.001) independently. Prevalence of highest average drinks over time is observed in the high PAHs exposure; with males drinking almost twice compared to females in highly exposed population. Pathway response of T2DM shows sexual dimorphism; with males showing association with triglycerides (p ≤ 0.001), and females with CRP (p = 0.015) independently with HbA1C. The arrangement of CRP, absolute monocyte levels, serum triglycerides and average drinks over time predict the HbA1C levels (adjusted R2 = 0.226, p ≤ 0.001) in individuals with high PAHs exposure. Findings from this investigation support the pathological role of high exposure of PAHs in the exacerbation of metabolic disorder syndrome involving T2DM. Sexual dimorphism is reflected in alcohol drinking, with males drinking more in the high PAHs exposure group. Alcohol drinking as an independent factor was associated with the T2DM indicator, HbA1C in individuals with high PAHs exposure.
Alessandro Marongiu, Elisabetta Angelino, Marco Moretti, Giulia Malvestiti, Giuseppe Fossati
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 70-83; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.113006

Abstract:
This paper presents the focus on emission estimates in the Italian Regions of the Po-basin obtained by the development of a common air pollutant emission dataset on the Po-basin and Slovenia foreseen in the project LIFE PREPAIR (https://www.lifeprepair.eu/). The objective is to update emission inventories developed by the environmental protection agencies and regions of Lombardy, Emilia-Romagna, Piedmont, Veneto, Friuli Venezia Giulia, Valle d’Aosta, the province of Bolzano (participating as stakeholder) and the province of Trento. A data flux is defined considering the activities on emission estimates by the different administrations according to the current Italian legislation. This activity has allowed the completion of two different datasets on the area for 2013 and 2017. The estimates of primary emissions of the main atmospheric pollutants have a high spatial resolution defined at the municipal level. The non-industrial combustion of biomass in small domestic appliances is the main source of primary PM10 in the Po-basin. NOx primary emissions are determined for quite of a half by road transport. Manure management and fertilization in the agriculture sector are the sources of NH3. The ensemble of the collected data shows a very good comparability even if all local compilers perform independently the estimates, thanks to a good alignment in using reference methodologies and to projects of common methodological development, as reported by the INEMAR project (https://www.inemar.eu/). The estimates of PM10, NOx and NH3 are comparable with data reported by the European Environment Agency EEA for the European Member States EU-28 (until 1 February 2020) and for Italy, reported under the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution and European Union National Emission Ceiling Directive.
Yussri Salem
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 47-61; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.113004

Abstract:
The original online version of this article Salem, Y. (2017) The Influence of Gaseous Pollutants on Silver Artifacts Tarnishing. Open Journal of Air Pollution, 6, 135-148. doi: 10.4236/ojap.2017.64011 unfortunately contains grammar mistakes. The author wishes to correct the errors. The present work investigated the effect of common gaseous pollutants on silver artifacts. The study was carried out on coupons made of a silver alloy (91 silver and 9% copper) with chemical composition similar to ancient Egyptian silver artifacts. These coupons were exposed to gaseous pollutants such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and chlorine, each gas separately. The exposure period was four weeks inside a climate chamber with 10 PPM concentration of each gas. After each test, examinations by SEM and PM were used to evaluate the effect of each gas and observe the formed tarnish layers. The results revealed that all gases reacted with the surface except carbon dioxide. The formed tarnish layers varied in coverage and density rate, and the heaviest layer was of H2S coupons. The tested coupons were analyzed by XRD and the results revealed Ag2S, AgCl, Ag2SO4, Ag(NO3)3(NO)3, AgO and Ag2O as corrosion products.
Maurice Ndeye, Hans-Arno Synal, Matar Séne
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 11, pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2022.111001

Abstract:
Radiocarbon content in biogenic samples is widely used to study the variation of atmospheric CO2 due to anthropogenic activities. A total of 20 samples of several types of tree leaves, were analyzed for this study. Sampling was carried out at the end of the rainy season in 2017 from the surrounding of the SOCOCIM cement factory in Rufisque town. Rufisque is located on the peninsula of Cape Verde, 25 km east of Dakar, where it is the 《south gate》 of the agglomeration. Reference samples of five different species were collected during the same period (2017) from a clean zone. The 14C method was used for the determination of Δ14C values. The data show that the 14C concentration in the studied sites was significantly lower than the clean area, due to the release of anthropogenic CO2. To estimate the Suess effect, the fossil fuel fraction was determined based on equations of mass balance for CO2 concentration, stable isotopic composition of carbon, and 14C concentration. The results show that selected locations are affected differently according to their distance from the factory and the wind direction.
Nam H. Nguyen, Huy X. Nguyen, Thuan T. B. Le, Chinh D. Vu
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 10, pp 1-17; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2021.101001

Abstract:
In this paper, we present the results of the evaluation of three low-cost laser sensors and comparison with the standard device Metone Aerocet 531s which is capable of counting dust particles as small as 0.3 μm. The sensors used in this study are PMS5003 (Plantower), SPS30 (Sesirion), SM-UART-04L (Amphenol). During the measurement, the overall trend of the outputs from the sensors was similar to that of the Aerocet 531s. The PMS5003 sensor has a relatively small standard error in the all particle measurement ranges (3 in the low particle concentration range). All sensors have a high linearity compared to data from standard equipment, PMS5003: PM1.0 R2 = 0.89; PM2.5 R2 = 0.95; PM10 R2 = 0.87; SPS30 PM2.5 R2 = 0.95 and PM10 R2 = 0.99; SM-UART-04L PM1.0 R2 = 0.98. Three main sensor calibration methods (single-point calibration, two-point calibration and multi-point curve correction) with implementation steps for each method as well as their practical applications in calibrating low-cost air quality sensors according to standard measuring equipment are also detailed illustrated.
Lawson Tevi Atator, Hodabalo Kamou, Anissou Bawa, Kodjovi Mawuégnigan Léonard Agbodan, Akpisso Aniko Polo, Sêmihinva Ben Akpavi, Koffi Akpagana
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 10, pp 53-62; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2021.103004

Abstract:
Air quality has been a major health issue in urban areas in recent decades. Human activities release a large number of pollutants into the atmosphere which has a direct impact on plant health and leads to ecosystem degradation. The objective of this study is to contribute to a better evaluation of the impact of the air quality of the city of Togo on biological resources. The determination of pollutants was done on samples of plant species with a strong link with the source of pollution. The determination of Sulfur dioxide (SO2) was done by the ripper method. The determination of carbon and estimation of CO2 and CO by the colorimetric method. The determination of nitrogen was done by the Kjeldhal method. The results showed that at the industrial level the amount of CO2 in Alternanthera repens is high with a value of 53.3911 mg/ml. On the other hand, the quantity of CO in Senna occidentalis is 44.3619 mg/ml. In Pithecellobium dulce, the quantity of SO2 and NO2 are evaluated respectively to 0.1588 mg/ml and 0.3696 mg/ml. Regarding to the dumps, the quantity of CO2 in Newbouldia laevis is very high with a value of 65.8508 mg/ml. On the other hand the amount of CO in Senna occidentalis is 51.6106 mg/ml. The quantity of SO2 in Newbouldia laevis is 0.2101 mg/ml and NO2 in Ocimum canum is 0.2744 mg/ml. At the level of roads, the quantities of CO2 and CO in Eragrostis tenella are very high with values respectively equal to 74.4092 mg/ml and 62.2654 mg/ml. On the other hand, the amount of NO2 in Amaranthus sp is 0.2304 mg/ml and that of SO2 in Eragrostis Tenella is 0.1691 mg/ml. The use of a plant bioindicator sensitive to pollutants, allowed concluding that the air of the city of Lome is polluted. The concentration of carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide is much more evident in return when the health of plant species is threatened.
Diana Rojo, M. Angeles Rojo, Tomas Girbes
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 10, pp 31-52; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2021.102003

Abstract:
Over the past few years, research on the quality of air and microorganisms present in the atmosphere and spore composition of the environment has increased significantly, due to concerns over health risks for humans, plants, and animals. This study shows the abundance and diversity of microorganisms and the atmosphere of an urban nucleus, that is, the city of Valladolid (Spain). We considered the conditions of precipitation, humidity and wind, and the presence of some atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen dioxide and nitrogen monoxide (NO2/NO), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5). After their deposition present at five geographic points with different environmental conditions, differences were observed in the proportion of bacteria growth which was characterized by growth in several specific culture media. Most identified the Gram-negative bacteria identified in the air samples collected belong to the genera Staphylococcus and Streptococcus. Gram-positive bacteria were present at a low rate.
Baïdy Sow, Bertrand Tchanche, Ibrahima Fall, Saliou Souaré, Aminata Mbow-Diokhané
Open Journal of Air Pollution, Volume 10, pp 18-30; https://doi.org/10.4236/ojap.2021.101002

Abstract:
The lack of data on air quality monitoring and neglected and overlooked pollutant emissions in the transportation and industrial sectors are motives for the government of Senegal to set up, in 2009, an air quality management center, the CGQA (Centre de Gestion de la Qualité de l’Air). Air quality monitoring at CGQA deals with mainly six pollutants: carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx) (with nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen monoxide (NO)), sulfur dioxide (SO2), ground-level ozone (O3), Benzene-Toluene-Xylenes (BTX), and particulate matters (PM) with diameters less than 10 μm (PM10) and 2.5 μm (PM2.5). The concentration levels of gaseous pollutants (CO, O3, NO2 and SO2) in the city generally remain below the limit value set by the WHO (World Health Organization). However, particulate matters (PM10 and PM2.5) are the most important pollutants observed in Dakar, they far exceed the annual thresholds set by the WHO and the national standard (NS 05-062). This situation results in an Air Quality Index (AQI) around bad and very bad during the dry season (November to May) and good to moderate during the rainy season (June to October). The concentrations of PM10 and PM2.5 vary respectively from 120 to 180 μg·m-3 and from 25 to 48 μg·m-3. The average concentrations of pollutants therefore vary from one area to another and depending on the location of the air quality monitoring station (near industrial sites, traffic, etc.).
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