Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1512-8601 / 1840-4812
Total articles ≅ 1,268
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, Shiqi Xu, Xiang Chen, , Guang Tan, Wenjing Qi, Feng Ling, Chenqi Wang, Feiliyan Maimaiti, Yunlong Chen, et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 949-958; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7268

Abstract:
This study aimed to clarify the role of Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1) in the development and therapy resistance in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The mRNA expression level of ORM1 was analyzed via integrative analysis of Gene Express Omnibus (GEO) and The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) datasets. The protein expression level of ORM1 in our cohort was determined using immunohistochemistry. Correlation analysis was used to investigate the relationship between ORM1 expression and clinical parameters. The Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to clarify the role of ORM1 in HCC malignant behaviors, including cell growth and sorafenib sensitivity, in vitro. The results indicated that ORM1 was significantly downregulated in the hepatic cancer cells compared to that in the non-cancerous cells. However, it was upregulated in microvascular invasion samples, especially in the cancer embolus compared to that in the surrounding tumor cells. Though Kaplan-Meier analysis did not show an association of ORM1 expression with the overall survival rates of HCC patients, univariate analysis indicated that ORM1 expression was highly correlated with tumor grade and stage. An in vitro assay also revealed that downregulation of ORM1 led to the suppression of tumor growth and enhancement of sorafenib sensitivity without epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) alteration, which was consistent with our bioinformatic analysis. Hence, ORM1 played a key role in HCC tumorigenesis and may serve as a potential target for the development of therapeutics against HCC in the future.
Özden Yülek, Şebnem Batur, Kerem Özcan, Cansu Yol,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 894-900; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7574

Abstract:
This study aimed to investigate the programmed cell death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression in cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) and basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and its relationship with prognostic factors in tumors that are not in the head and neck region and are therefore relatively less exposed to the sun. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 25 invasive cSCC and 42 BCC cases with a diameter ≥ 2 cm located outside the head and neck region from 2010 to 2018. The biopsy samples were examined based on the membranous PD-L1 (22C3 clone) staining. Staining results were scored as follows: 0, no staining (negative); 1, < 10% PD-L1 positivity of tumor cells; and 2, ≥ 10% PD-L1 positivity of tumor cells. PD-L1 positivity was not seen in any BCC cases, whereas 11 (44%) of cSCC cases were PD-L1 positive. No significant relationship was observed between PD-L1 expression and prognostic parameters, including tumor diameter, tumor depth, and lymphovascular or perineural invasion in the cSCC group. PD-L1 expression was not associated with prognostic factors in the early stages of BCC and SCC located outside the head and neck region. Therefore, investigating the PD-L1 expression seems to be more relevant in patients with advanced-stage disease.
, Akin Ozturk, , Mehmet Besiroglu, , , Mesut Seker
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 982-991; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7147

Abstract:
Erlotinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, has been shown to improve the survival of patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. Sarcopenia is a status with increasing importance in lung cancer, and it may predict a poor prognosis. We aimed to evaluate the impact of sarcopenia on erlotinib therapy and prognosis in patients with EGFR-mutated (exon 19 or 21 L858R) metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. Sarcopenia was defined as skeletal muscle index ≤39 cm2/m2 for women and ≤55 cm2/m2 for men. The patient characteristics, inflammation parameters, clinical and survival outcomes of the erlotinib therapy were examined according to sarcopenia status. We also analyzed the erlotinib treatment-related toxicity. Seventy-two patients were included in our retrospective study, and the mean age of the patients was 63.7 years. A total of 39 (54.2%) patients were diagnosed with sarcopenia. Patients with sarcopenia had a poor prognosis and had a shorter median progression-free survival (PFS) than patients without sarcopenia (10.5 months vs. 21.8 months, p=0.002). Sarcopenia (HR 2.08) and C-reactive protein > 6.5 mg/L (HR 2.57) were determined as independent poor prognostic factors for PFS of erlotinib therapy. Treatment-related toxicity occurred in 34.7% of patients treated with erlotinib, and sarcopenia did not significantly affect treatment-related toxicity. We also found that sarcopenia significantly affected the response to erlotinib. The expected survival outcomes may be low when erlotinib therapy is used in patients with sarcopenia and metastatic lung adenocarcinoma. This study showed that survival and clinical outcomes could be better predicted by detecting sarcopenia in patients with lung cancer using erlotinib.
Xiaocui Shi, Juncong Li, Yuzhen Han, Jingyi Wang, Qingping Li, Yue Zheng, Wenxiong Li
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 882-893; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7111

Abstract:
The ameliorative effects of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR) agonists have been demonstrated in acute kidney injury (AKI) caused by multiple stimulations. However, the ameliorative effect of α7nAChR on sepsis-induced acute kidney injury (SAKI) in the cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model is unclear. Previous studies have demonstrated that α7nAChR is highly expressed on the surface of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells (Tregs). However, the role of Tregs in SAKI is unclear. We hypothesized that Tregs might play a role in the ameliorative effect of α7nAChR on SAKI. Hence, in this study, we determined the effects of PNU-282987 (a selective α7nAchR agonist) on SAKI and evaluated whether PNU-282987 would attenuate SAKI via regulating Tregs. Our study showed that immediate administration of PNU-282987 after CLP surgery in rats improved renal function, reduced levels of systemic inflammatory factors (tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), etc.), inflammatory cell infiltration and tubular apoptosis in renal tissues, and increased forkhead/winged helix transcription factor p3 (Foxp3) and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated protein 4 (CTLA-4) expression indicating activated Tregs. Moreover, in in vitro experiments, isolated Tregs co-cultured with PNU-282987 also displayed enhanced expression of CTLA-4 and Foxp3. Furthermore, Tregs were co-cultured with PNU-282987 for 24 hours and then reinfused into rats through the tail vein immediately after CLP surgery, and a significant renal protective effect was observed 24 hours postoperatively. These results demonstrate that PNU-282987 exerts its renal protective effects on SAKI through activation of Tregs.
Fatih Akin, Ibrahim Altun, Burak Ayca, , Ilknur Altun
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 1025-1032; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7142

Abstract:
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is uncommon in young adult patients. However, these patients have different risk factor profiles and high-risk coronary plaques are more common. The aim of this study was to examine the relations between the coronary plaque burden, plaque composition, serum non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non–HDL-C) levels, and triglyceride/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG/HDL-C) ratio in young adults. We analyzed a total of 551 patients under age 45 who had undergone coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA). Coronary plaque characteristics were analyzed using CCTA. Multivariate linear regression analysis was used to assess the predictors of non-calcified plaque (NCB) and calcified plaque (CB) burdens. Serum non–HDL-C levels and TG/HDL-C ratio were higher in the coronary atherosclerosis patient group. Serum non–HDL-C levels and the TG/HDL-C ratio were higher in the obstructive CAD patient group. The plaque burden was positively correlated with non-HDL-C (r = 0.30; p < 0.001), and TG/HDL-C ratio (r = 0.18; p < 0.001). NCB was positively correlated with age, gender, smoking status, fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, serum triglycerides, hbA1c, non–HDL-C, and TG/HDL-C ratio. Non–HDL-C (β coefficient = 0.13; p = 0.023) and TG/HDL-C ratio (β = 0.10; p = 0.042) were independent predictors of NCB. Serum non–HDL-C levels and TG/HDL-C were significantly associated with the presence and burden of coronary plaques. Serum non–HDL-C and TG/HDL-C ratios were independently associated with NCB, suggesting their use as easy-to-compute markers for identifying high-risk groups in young adults.
Liu-Yi Ran, Yi-Ting Kong, Jiao-Jiao Xiang, Qi Zeng, Chen-Yu Zhang, Lei Shi, Hai-Tang Qiu, Chuan Liu, Lin-Li Wu, Ya-Lan Li, et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 959-971; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7110

Abstract:
Major depressive disorder (MDD) seriously endangers adolescent mental and physical health. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are mediators of cellular communication and are involved in many physiological brain processes. Although EV miRNAshave been implicated in adults with major psychiatric disorders, investigation into their effects in adolescent MDDremains scarce. In discovery set, we conducted a genome-wide miRNA sequencing of serum EVs from 9 untreated adolescents with MDD and 8 matched healthy controls (HCs), identifying 32 differentially expressed miRNAs (18 upregulated and 14 downregulated). In the validation set, 8 differentially expressed and highly enriched miRNAs were verified in independent samples using RT-PCR, with 4 (miR-450a-2-3p, miR-3691-5p, miR-556-3p, and miR-2115-3p) of the 8 miRNAs found to be significantly elevated in 34 untreated adolescents with MDD compared with 38 HCs and consistent with the sequencing results. After the Bonferroni correction, we found that three miRNAs (miR-450a-2-3p, miR-556-3p, and miR-2115-3p) were still significantly different. Among them, miR-450a-2-3p showed the most markeddifferential expression and was able to diagnose disease with 67.6% sensitivity and 84.2% specificity. Furthermore, miR-450a-2-3p partially mediated the associations between total childhood trauma, emotional abuse, and physical neglect and adolescent MDD. We also found that the combination of miR-450a-2-3p and emotional abuse could effectively diagnose MDD in adolescents with 82.4% sensitivity and 81.6% specificity. Our data demonstrate the association of serum EV miRNA dysregulation with MDD pathophysiology and, furthermore, show that miRNAs may mediate the relationship between early stress and MDD susceptibility. We also provide a valid integrated model for the diagnosis of adolescent MDD.
Haixia Chen, Weigang Wu, Shuming Tang, Rong Fu, Xia Gong, Hu Hou, Junfa Xu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 923-933; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7091

Abstract:
The gut microbiome and its metabolism may provide crucial insight into the cause of iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in pregnant women. This study aimed to investigate the effect of the gut microbiome and its related metabolites on pregnant women with iron deficiency (ID) and IDA. Maternal cubital venous blood and stool samples were collected from healthy control pregnant women (HC, non-anemic, n=10), pregnant women with ID non-anemia (ID, n=10), and IDA (n=10). All groups were subjected to fecal metagenomics and metabolomics. The composition and function of the gut microbiome were then compared in pregnant women with ID and IDA with HC after excluding the possibility of inflammation and insufficient iron absorption capacity. Whole-genome shotgun libraries were prepared by quantifying metagenomic DNA samples with Quant-iT PicoGreen dsDNA Assay. The levels of 41 microbial species, including 21 Streptococci and ten metabolites (catechol), which could serve as siderophores, were increased. In contrast, 3 Bacteroides and six metabolites were decreased in pregnant women with IDA (p<0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analysis indicated that the bio-pathways, including biosynthesis of siderophore group non-ribosomal peptides (p<0.01), ABC transporters (p<0.05) and membrane transport of the gut microbiota (p<0.01) in IDA patients were expressed differently compared with HC. Correlation analysis also indicates that these increased bacteria formed strong co-occurring relationships with metabolites in the occurrence and development of IDA in pregnant women. The current study identified that streptococci and catechol (fecal metabolite) were significantly increased in pregnant women with IDA. Therefore, adjusting the intestinal homeostasis using long-term living and eating habits on oral Streptococcus in pregnant women with IDA before iron supplementation may be more conducive to iron supplementation, thus providing novel therapies for IDA.
Linhai Huang, Chundi Liao, Hanhua Wu, Piwei Huang
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 992-1004; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7416

Abstract:
Phospholipase C epsilon 1 (PLCE1) is involved in the pathogenesis of many cancers. However, the biological role of PLCE1 in osteosarcoma (OS) is still poorly understood. The prognostic survival analysis was performed on the PLCE1gene in the TARGET data set and the differential expression of PLCE1 in OS tissue and normal bone tissue on the tissue chip was detected by immunohistochemistry. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis was implemented to explore the relationship between PLCE1 and immune genes. Finally, PLCE1 was silenced to explore its biological function in OS cells. The results of tissue chip immunohistochemistry showed that PLCE1 expression in OS tissue was higher than in normal bone tissue. The survival curve of PLCE1 and its corresponding receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) showed that PLCE1 had a significant effect on the survival status of patients with OS and that the prognosis of patients with high PLCE1 expression was relatively poor. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficient analysis and qRT-PCR assays found that PLCE1 may promote immune escape from OS via CD70-CD27 signaling pathway. Silencing of PLCE1 causes the following biological behaviors of OS cells: it promotes apoptosis, inhibits proliferation of OS cells, and inhibits the ability of cell migration and invasion. PLCE1 is a poor prognostic marker and a potential key factor affecting the immune status of the OS tumor microenvironment.
Xuebing Li, Baohua Lu, Lina Zhang, Jing Yang, Yurong Cheng, Dong Yan
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 901-911; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7206

Abstract:
Ovarian tumor protease deubiquitinase 5 (OTUD5) has been discussed as a regulator of cancer development. Herein, the current study set out to explore the molecular mechanism of OTUD5 in non‐small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. Firstly, the expression patterns of OTUD5, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN), as well as microRNA (miR)-652-3p in cells were detected by qRT-PCR and Western blot. Cell viability, migration, and invasion were assessed with the help of cell-counting kit-8 and Transwell assays, in addition to the measurement of the ubiquitination and protein levels of PTEN. The binding relations between OTUD5 and PTEN, and miR-652-3p and OTUD5 were testified by co-immunoprecipitation or dual-luciferase assays. Cells were further treated with GSK2643943A (inhibitor of deubiquitinase) or miR-652-3p-inhibitor to explore the role of PTEN ubiquitination and miR-652-3p in NSCLC cells. OTUD5 and PTEN were both poorly-expressed, and miR-652-3p was highly-expressed in NSCLC cells. On the other hand, over-expression of OTUD5 suppressed NSCLC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration. OTUD5 deubiquitinated and stabilized PTEN, and miR-652-3p targeted and inhibited OTUD5 expression. Augmenting the ubiquitination levels of PTEN promoted NSCLC cell growth, whereas miR-652-3p inhibition promoted the tumor-suppressing effects of the OTUD5/ PTEN axis in NSCLC. Altogether, our findings highlighted that miR-652-3p restrained the role of OTUD5 in deubiquitinating PTEN to improve PTEN protein level, thereby promoting NSCLC cell proliferation, invasion, and migration.
Zhaopei Guo, Zian Wang, Ruifeng Liang, Huayu Tian, Xuesi Chen, Meiwan Chen
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences, Volume 22, pp 934-948; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2022.7194

Abstract:
Camptothecin (CPT) has attracted much attention due to its potent antitumor activities. However, the undesirable physicochemical properties, including poor water-solubility, unstable lactone ring and severe adverse effects limit its further application. In this study, two water-soluble prodrugs, CPT-lysine (CPTK) and CPT-arginine (CPTR), were designed and synthesized by conjugating lysine or arginine with CPT, improving its solubility, pharmacokinetic properties and tumor penetration. Importantly, the introduction of arginine into CPTR contributed to the mitochondria-specific delivery, which increased mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, induced mitochondria dysfunction and enhanced cell apoptosis and in vivo anti-cancer effect. This strategy is believed to hold great potential for organelle-specific synergistic anti-tumor therapy.
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