Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
ISSN / EISSN : 1512-8601 / 1840-4812
Current Publisher: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of FBIH (10.17305)
Total articles ≅ 1,118
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 7 March 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5543
Coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) is an extremely infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that has become a major global health concern. The induction of a coordinated immune response is crucial to the elimination of any pathogenic infection. However, SARS-CoV-2 can modulate the host immune system to favor viral adaptation and persistence within the host. The virus can counteract type I interferon (IFN-I) production, attenuating IFN-I signaling pathway activation and disrupting antigen presentation. Simultaneously, SARS-CoV-2 infection can enhance apoptosis and the production of inflammatory mediators, which ultimately results in increased disease severity. SARS-CoV-2 produces an array of effector molecules, including nonstructural proteins (NSPs) and open-reading frames (ORFs) accessory proteins. We describe the complex molecular interplay of SARS-CoV-2 NSPs and accessory proteins with the host’s signaling mediating immune evasion in the current review. In addition, the crucial role played by immunomodulation therapy to address immune evasion is discussed. Thus, the current review can provide new directions for the development of vaccines and specific therapies.
Published: 18 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5266
The circular RNA RNF13 (circ-RNF13; ID: hsa_circ_0067717) is a novel identified abnormally upregulated circRNA in hepatitis B virus (HBV)-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, its role and mechanism remain to be further annotated. The expression of circ-RNF13, microRNA (miR)-424-5p, and TGFβ-induced factor homeobox 2 (TGIF2) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR and western blotting, and their interaction was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay. Functional assays were performed using MTS assay, colony formation assay, flow cytometry, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, transwell assay, and xenograft tumor model, along with real-time quantitative PCR. Circ-RNF13 was upregulated in HBV-infected human HCC tissues and HBV-expressing cells (Huh7-HBV and Hep3B-HBV), accompanied with TGIF2 upregulation and miR-424-5p downregulation. Blocking circ-RNF13 enhanced the apoptosis rate of Huh7-HBV and Hep3B-HBV cells but inhibited cell viability, colony formation, migration, and invasion, along with suppressed tumor growth in vivo. Besides, HBV DNA copies and levels of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were diminished by circ-RNF13 knockdown in Huh7-HBV and Hep3B-HBV cells. Mechanistically, circ-RNF13 and TGIF2 served as competing endogenous RNAs (ceRNAs) for miR-424-5p. Overexpressing miR-424-5p mimicked and silencing miR-424-5p counteracted the effects of circ-RNF13 depletion in HBV-expressing HCC cells in vitro. Consistently, TGIF2 restoration partially abrogated the role of miR-424-5p upregulation in Huh7-HBV and Hep3B-HBV cells. The circ-RNF13 sponged miR-424-5p to suppress HBV-associated HCC cells malignant progression and HBV infection by regulating TGIF2, providing a novel insight into the occurrence and treatment of HBV-associated HCC.
Published: 15 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5454
Lung signet ring cell carcinoma (LSRCC) is a very rare type of lung cancer, the clinical characteristics, and prognosis of which remain to be clarified. In order to explore the clinicopathological and survival-related factors associated with LSRCC, we performed a large population-based cohort analysis of data included in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) registry from 2001- 2015. A total of 752 LSRCC and 7518 lung mucinous adenocarcinoma (LMAC) patients were incorporated into our analysis, with respective mean ages of 63.8 and 67.5 years at the time of diagnosis. LSRCC patients were significantly more likely than LMAC patients to have distant-stage disease (72.1% vs. 45.8%, p
Published: 13 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5400
COVID-19 is the current pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, that emerged from China at the end of December 2019. The scientific community is making extraordinary efforts to understand the virus structure and the pathophysiology and immunological processes activated in the host, in order to identify biomarkers, diagnostic tools, treatments, and vaccines to decrease COVID-19 incidence and mortality. Various abnormalities have been noted during SARS-CoV-2 infection both in lymphoid and myeloid cells. Such abnormalities may disturb the immune system function and cause a massive inflammatory response that impairs tissue function. This review discusses the close relationship between the immune system abnormalities and the broad spectrum of clinical manifestations, including fibrosis, in the context of COVID-19 disease. Moreover, we described the current strategies for COVID-19 diagnosis, and we provide a summary of the most useful clinical laboratory parameters to identify severe COVID-19 patients.
Published: 13 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5261
Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has become the standard of minimally invasive lumbar segmental scoliosis treatment. Our objective is to determine the safety and efficacy of XLIF in spinal canal stenosis (SCS) and spondylodiscitis (SD). Patients treated with XLIF in our department between 2012 and 2018 were retrospectively analyzed. Patient records with clinical and radiographical parameters were evaluated. The patient cohort consists of 40 male and 32 female patients with a median age of 66.6 years. Forty-five patients had an SCS and 27 patients SD. The mean follow-up was 23 months. One level XLIF was performed in 49 patients, 2 levels in 15, 3 levels in 7 patients and 4 levels in 1 patient. All but one patient received an additional dorsal stabilization. The pain was present in all patients with a mean Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) score of 8.8 vs. postoperative VAS of 2.8 (p
Published: 12 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5381
This is the first report of molecular and epidemiology findings from Bosnia and Herzegovina related to ongoing SARS-CoV-2 epidemic. Whole Genome Sequence of four samples from COVID-19 outbreaks was done in two laboratories in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Veterinary Faculty Sarajevo and Alea Genetic Center). All four BiH sequences cluster mainly with European ones (Italy, Austria, France, Sweden, Cyprus, England). The constructed phylogenetic tree indicates possible multiple independent introduction events. The data presented contributes to a better understanding of COVID-19 in the current reemergence of the disease.
Published: 12 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5329
Kaposi sarcoma is a rare disease and there is a gap in the literature about which chemotherapeutics should be applied, especially for the classical type. We aimed to present our institutional data on the demographic characteristics, treatment, and treatment efficacy in 16 Kaposi sarcoma (KS) patients treated with chemotherapy. We retrospectively analyzed the demographic and clinical characteristics, and the chemotherapeutic agents administered to the 16 KS patients diagnosed in our center and treated with chemotherapy, based on the medical records obtained. The median age, gender, type of KS, site of involvement, cytotoxic agents administered, progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), and safety profiles of the patients were evaluated. The median age at disease onset was 61.07 years (range, 39.4–85.8 years). Among the patients, 1 had immunosuppression-related KS, 4 had AIDS-related KS, and 11 had classical KS. In the first-line cytotoxic therapy, 7 patients received pegylated-liposomal doxorubicin (PLD), 6 patients received paclitaxel, 2 patients received oral etoposide, and 1 patient received the adriamycin, bleomycin, and vincristine regimen. In the Kaplan–Meier analysis, the PFS was 39.9 months (95% CI, 7.7–72.0). In the first-line setting, a significant difference in terms of PFS was observed between the PLD- and paclitaxel-treated groups (not reached vs. 12.8 months, p = 0.033). The OS was 66.1 months (95% CI, 30.2–102.0). The ORR of the 16 patients was 43.8%, and their DCR was 81.3%. No grade 3 or 4 toxicity was observed. This retrospective study showed that PLD seems better than paclitaxel in terms of PFS and response rates and it has shown to have a good safety profile in KS patients.
Published: 12 February 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5466
To compare the performance of various CT reporting tools, including Zonal CT Visual Score (ZCVS), the number of involved lobes, and Radiological Society of North America (RSNA) categorization in predicting adverse outcomes among patients hospitalized due to lower respiratory symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 405 patients admitted with severe respiratory symptoms who underwent a chest CT were enrolled. The primary adverse outcome was ICU admission of patients. Predictive performances of reporting tools were compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves (AUC ROC). Among the 405 patients, 39 (9.63%) required ICU support during their hospital stay. At least two or more observers reported a typical and indeterminate COVID-19 pneumonia CT pattern according to RSNA categorization in 70% (285/405) of patients. Among these, 63% (179/285) had a positive PCR test for the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The median number of lobes involved according to CT was higher in patients who required ICU support (median [IQR], 5[3; 5] vs. 3[0; 5]). The median ZCVS score was higher among the patients that subsequently required ICU support (median [IQR], 4[0; 12] vs. 13[5.75; 24]). The bootstrap comparisons of AUC ROC showed significant differences between reporting tools, and the ZCVS was found to be superior (AUC ROC, 71 to 75 %). The ZCVS score at the first admission showed a linear and significant association with adverse outcomes among patients with lower respiratory tract symptoms during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Published: 28 January 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5368
The global prevalence for diabetes mellitus nearly doubled from 4.7% in 1980 to 8.5% in 2014. Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) is an NAD+-dependent deacetylase that is expressed in a variety of tissues. It modifies proteins that participate in DNA repair, stress, and inflammatory response. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between SIRT1 rs7069102 polymorphism and diabetic nephropathy (DN) in patients with T2DM. In our retrospective association study, we included 724 Slovene (Caucasian) patients who have had T2DM for at least 10 years. We classified the participants into two groups, the first group was comprised of 301 patients with DN, and the second (control) group was comprised of 423 patients without DN. We analyzed the rs7069102 polymorphism using StepOne Real-Time PCR System and TaqMan SNP Genotyping Assay. We found a statistically significant difference in the distribution of rs7069102 genotypes and alleles between the two groups. We used logistic regression analysis and adjusted for systolic pressure, arterial hypertension (AH), duration of AH, triglycerides, the value of HbA1c, carotid disease, diabetic foot, and DR. Furthermore, we discovered that patients with the CC genotype are significantly more likely to develop DN according to both the codominant (OR = 1.94; 95% CI = 1.09 – 3.45; p = 0.02) and recessive (OR = 2.39; 95% CI = 1.12 – 5.08; p = 0.02) models of inheritance. We found a significant association between the SIRT1 rs7069102 polymorphism and DN in T2DM. We speculate that SIRT1 rs7069102 might be an interesting marker of DN.
Published: 27 January 2021
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2020.5420
There is a lack of predictive models to determine the prognosis of elderly patients diagnosed with stage I small-cell lung cancer (SCLC). The purpose of this study was to establish a useful nomogram to predict cancer-specific survival (CSS) in this patient population. Based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results registry database, patients aged ≥ 65 years with pathological American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) stage I SCLC from 2004 to 2014 were identified. The CSS was evaluated by the Kaplan-Meier method. Patients were randomly split into training and validation sets. In the training cohort, univariate analysis and multivariate analysis using the Cox regression identified risk factors that affected CSS. The results were utilized to construct a nomogram for the prediction of the 1-, 3-, and 5-year CSS rates of elderly patients with stage I SCLC. The effectiveness of the nomogram was validated internally and externally by the bootstrap method. The clinical practicability and accuracy of the nomogram were evaluated by the concordance index (C-index), calibration curve, receiver operating characteristic curve, and decision curve analysis. In total, we extracted 1,623 elderly patients with stage I SCLC. The median CSS was 34 months, and the 5-year CSS was 41%. Multivariate analysis revealed that histologic type, tumor size, age, and AJCC stage were significant predictors of CSS. A nomogram was constructed according to the results of multivariate Cox analysis. The C-indices of the nomogram for training and validation sets were 0.68 and 0.62, indicating that the nomogram demonstrated a favorable level of discrimination. The calibration curves exhibited satisfactory agreement between the actual observation and nomogram prediction. The net benefit of the nomogram was better than the AJCC TNM staging. We constructed a practical nomogram to predict the CSS of elderly patients with stage I SCLC. The predictive tool is helpful for patients counseling and treatment decision-making.