Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1512-8601 / 1840-4812
Current Publisher: Association of Basic Medical Sciences of FBIH (10.17305)
Total articles ≅ 1,139
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Latest articles in this journal

Hong-Xia Chang, Yue-Feng Zhao
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5928

Abstract:
Emerging evidence has shown that protocatechuic acid (PCA) has antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Evidence suggests that PCA can alleviate the injury of sciatic nerve, while the mechanism of its therapeutic effect on neuralgia remains unknown. Chromium bowel ligation was used in vivo to establish a chronic constriction injury (CCI) rat model to induce sciatic nerve pain. Subsequently, two doses of PCA were used to treat CCI rats. In vitro, 10 ng/mL TNF-α was used to stimulate glial satellite cells derived from the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) L4-L6 of the sciatic nerve to simulate sciatic nerve pain. PCA relieved mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia in CCI rats. CCK-8 assay revealed that PCA inhibited the proliferation of glial satellite cells induced by TNF-α. Moreover, ELISA demonstrated that PCA could improve the inflammatory response of rats caused by CCI and cells induced by TNF-α. Next, RT-qPCR and Western blot assays showed that PCA blocked the c-Jun N-terminal kinase/the chemokine ligand 1/CXC chemokine receptor 2 (JNK/CXCL1/CXCR2) pathway by inhibiting CXCL1 levels in cells induced by TNF-α and DRG in CCI rats. In conclusion, PCA can alleviate neuropathic pain in CCI rats and improve oxidative stress by inhibiting the JNK/CXCL1/CXCR2 signaling pathway. Thus, these findings provide a new perspective for the treatment of neuropathic pain caused by CCI.
Zishan Wang, Chenwei Li, Xinjian Li, Jianguang Shi, Weijie Wu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5891

Abstract:
The objective of this study was to investigate the possible association between the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs35569394, of the vascular endothelial growth factor gene (VEGF) and the risk of esophageal cancer (EC) in the Han Chinese population. A total of 290 EC subjects and 322 ethnically matched unrelated healthy controls free from the esophageal disease were studied. Genomic DNA was isolated from peripheral blood by salting out. Genotyping of VEGF rs35569394 polymorphism was carried out via polymerase chain reaction followed by agarose gel electrophoresis. The results showed that the distribution of genotypes was significantly different across the gender groups (p=0.032) and clinical stages (p=0.034). VEGF rs35569394 was associated with EC risk (p= 0.012, OR=1.34). A gender analysis break-down showed that rs35569394-D allele frequency was significantly higher in females than in the controls (p=0.0004, OR=1.81). Moreover, significant associations were also found in females under the dominant model (II versus ID+DD: χ2=8.18, p=0.003, OR=2.12) and the recessive model (II+ID versus DD: χ2=8.25, p=0.004, OR=2.39). Additionally, we found that the genotype, rs35569394-DD, was associated with a complete response + partial response to chemotherapy when compared with rs35569394-II (χ2=4.67, p=0.030, OR=0.47). In conclusion, our case-control study showed that the VEGF rs35569394 was significantly associated with the clinical stages and the increased risk of EC in Han Chinese females. In addition, the genotype rs35569394-DD showed a better response to chemotherapy.
Wei Chen, Huajun Cai, Kui Chen, Xing Liu, Weizhong Jiang, Shoufeng Li, Yiyi Zhang, Zhifen Chen, Guoxian Guan
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5856

Abstract:
While the prognosis of patients with partial SRCC (PSRCC) has been rarely reported, colorectal signet-ring cell carcinoma (SRCC) has been associated with poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the prognosis of patients with different SRC composition and establish a prediction model. A total of 91 patients with SRC component were included in the study. These patients were divided into two groups: SRCC group (SRC composition > 50%; n=41) and partial SRCC (PSRCC) group (SRC composition ≤ 50%; n=50). COX regression model was used to identify independent prognostic factors for overall survival (OS). A predictive nomogram was established and compared with the 7th AJCC staging system. After a median follow-up of 16 months, no significant difference in OS was observed in either group. Preoperative carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) level, pN stage, M stage, preoperative ileus, and adjuvant chemotherapy were independent prognostic risk factors for OS (p<0.05). A nomogram for predicting the overall survival of colorectal SRCC was established with a C-index of 0.800, and it showed better performance than that of the 7th AJCC staging system (p<0.001). In summary, the ratio of SRC component was not an independent prognostic factor of the OS. Those patients with less than 50% of SRC component should be given the same clinical attention. A predictive nomogram for survival based on five independent prognostic factors was developed and showed better performance than the 7th AJCC staging system. This resulted to be helpful for individualized prognosis prediction and risk assessment.
, , Sema Hepsen, , Davut Sakiz, , Hakan Duger, , Bekir Ucan, , et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5756

Abstract:
Routine calcitonin measurement in patients with nodular thyroid disease is rather controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of serum calcitonin measurement in the diagnostic evaluation of thyroid nodules with insufficient, indeterminate, or suspicious cytology. Out of 1668 patients who underwent thyroidectomy with the diagnosis of nodular thyroid disease and were screened, 873 patients with insufficient, indeterminate, or suspicious fine needle aspiration biopsy results were included in the study. From the total number of patients in this study, 10 (1.1%) were diagnosed as medullary thyroid cancer (MTC) using histopathology. The calcitonin level was detected to be above the assay-specific cut-off in 23 (2.6%) patients ranging between 6.5 - 4450 pg/mL. While hypercalcitoninemia was detected in all 10 MTC patients, a false positive elevation of serum calcitonin was detected in 13 patients (1.5%). Of the MTC group, 7 patients had cytology results that were suspicious for malignancy (Bethesda V), one patient’s cytology showed atypia of undetermined significance (Bethesda III) and two patient’s cytology results were suspicious for follicular neoplasm (Bethesda IV). Among the cases with non-diagnostic cytology (Bethesda I), none of the patients were diagnosed with MTC. In conclusion, routine serum calcitonin measurement can be performed in selected cases rather than in all nodular thyroid patients. While it is reasonable to perform routine calcitonin measurement in patients with Bethesda IV and Bethesda V, this measurement was not useful in Bethesda I patients. In Bethesda III patients, patient-based decisions can be made according to their calcitonin measurement. Read more in PDF.
Müge Fırat,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5840

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of COVID-19 on central foveal and choroidal thicknesses. Thirty-two patients with a positive SARS-CoV-2 PCR test who received outpatient treatment within the previous two months and 32 healthy controls were included in the study. Patients requiring hospitalization due to COVID-19 as well as the patients who received either intensive care support and/or antiplatelet therapy, smokers, or patients with systemic or ocular diseases were excluded from the study. After full ophthalmological examination, central foveal and choroidal thicknesses were evaluated by using optical coherence tomography. Statistical analysis of the study data demonstrated no significant difference between the groups in terms of age or gender (p > 0.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of central foveal thickness, central choroidal thickness, or nasal 500, nasal 1500, temporal 500, or temporal 500 micron distances (p > 0.05 for all parameters). Choroidal and retinal thicknesses were not affected in patients with recent mild COVID 19 without comorbidities. Read more in PDF.
Adela Patcas, , Claudia Florentina Militaru, Roxana Ioana Bordea, , , , , Doina Adina Todea
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5859

Abstract:
Implementation of precision medicine in lung cancer has benefited from intense research in the past years, developing subsequently an improved quality of life and increased overall survival of the patients. Targeted therapy has become one of the most important therapeutic innovations for the non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) category with anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene rearrangement. The aim of this review is to provide a through overview of the main molecules of ALK tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) with their general and particular mechanisms of resistance, the main methods of ALK gene detection, each with advantages and limits and the future perspectives currently under research which try to overcome the mechanisms of resistance. We have used two of the most reliable medical databases EMBASE and PubMed to properly select the latest and the most relevant articles for this topic. Encouraged by the promising results, the clinical practice was enriched by the approval of tyrosine kinase inhibitor molecules, three generations being developed, each one with more powerful agents than the previous ones. Unfortunately, the resistance to TKI eventually occurs and it may be induced by several mechanisms, either known or unknown. Crizotinib was the most intensely studied TKI , becoming the first molecule approved into clinical practice and although four other drugs have been broadly used (alectinib, ceritinib, brigatinib and lorlatinib) it seems that even the most recently developed one remains imperfect due to the resistance mutations that developed. There are two types of resistance generally described for the entire class and for the particular drugs, but half of them remain unknown Read more in PDF.
, , Erika Cvetko
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5876

Abstract:
In obesity, accumulation of lipid droplets in skeletal muscle fibers and a shift towards fast muscle fiber types can both contribute to insulin resistance. However, it is not yet clear how intramyocellular lipid accumulation and fiber type changes are associated. Therefore, we investigated to what extent the lipids accumulated in a fiber type-specific manner in the functionally similar fast-, intermediate- and slow‑twitch gastrocnemius, plantaris, and soleus muscles, respectively, in high-fat diet-induced obese 54-week-old female C57BL/6JOlaHsd mice (n=9) compared to control standard-diet-treated lean mice (n=9). A high-fat diet was administered for 26 weeks. Fiber-type specific intramyocellular lipid content analysis and muscle fiber typing were performed using histochemical analysis of lipids with Sudan Black and immunohistochemical analysis of myosin heavy chains on serial sections of skeletal muscles. Compared to the lean mice, the lipid accumulation was most prominent in types 2a and 2x/d fibers (p<0.05) of fast-twitch gastrocnemius and intermediate plantaris muscles in the obese mice, while in slow-twitch soleus muscle, there was no significant lipid accumulation in the obese animals. Furthermore, the slow-twitch soleus muscle of the obese mice with no significant change in muscle fiber diameters exhibited the most pronounced shift towards fast-type myosin heavy chain isoform expression (p<0.05). In contrast, the fast-twitch and intermediate-twitch gastrocnemius and plantaris muscles, respectively, in which the muscle fiber diameters increased (p<0.05), were more resistant toward myosin heavy chain expression changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated both muscle- and fiber-type specificity in intramyocellular lipid accumulation in obese mice, suggesting that in obesity, similar muscle fiber types in different muscles accumulate lipids differentially.
Peixin Lu, Wen Cheng, Kexin Fang, Bin Yu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5783

Abstract:
Gastric cancer (GC) represents a widespread malignancy, having a poor prognosis, making it necessary to search for reliable biomarkers. Cell Division Cycle Associated protein (CDCA) family, comprising CDCA1-8, acts as a key in tumor progression. However, CDCAs expression and their impact on prognosis in gastric cancer, especially stomach adenocarcinoma (STAD), have not been clarified. Consequently, we carried out a multifaceted study aimed at exploring the CDCAs expression levels and appraising their potential prognostic values in patients with STAD, using bioinformatic tools. Remarkable upregulation of all 8 CDCAs was identified in STAD tissues, as compared with the healthy tissues. Elevated CDCA4/7/8 mRNA expression predicted a short overall survival (OS), while STAD patients, showing increased transcriptional levels of CDCA7, exhibited a short disease-free survival (DFS). The most frequent alteration was low mRNA expression among all mutations. The function enrichment analysis incorporating Gene Ontology (GO) together with Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway showed that cell cycle, foxO signaling pathway and Epstein-Barr virus were relevant to the main functions of CDCAs. Finally, through the immune infiltration analysis, a remarkable relationship was found between CDCAs expression and the extent of infiltrating levels in six immunocytes. Therefore, differentially expressed CDCAs were assessed as potential biomarkers of the prognosis of STAD patients, aiming at the improved survival of these patients. Furthermore, this study might offer new ideas for the design and development of immunotherapeutic drugs.
Archana A Gupta, Supriya Kheur, Saranya Varadarajan, Sameena Parveen, Harisha Dewan, Yaser Ali Alhazmi, A. Thirumal Raj, Luca Testarelli, Shankargouda Patil
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.6006

Abstract:
Dear Editor, We thank Dr. Jian Xie for the valuable inputs on our paper titled ‘Chronic mechanical irritation and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A systematic review and meta-analysis [1].’ The first concern of Dr. Xie was that we had included two studies that were based on the same population. We re-examined these papers, one was published in 2010 [2] and the other in 2017 [3] by the same group of authors. Given the significant time difference between the two papers, we did not want to presume they were from the same sample population. There is no clear evidence that they are from the same sample population. Read more in PDF.
Jian Xie, Lang Li
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; doi:10.17305/bjbms.2021.5939

Abstract:
Dear Editor: We have read with a great interest the article by Gupta et al. [1] who performed a meta-analysis exploring the association between chronic mechanical irritation and oral squamous cell carcinoma. The conclusion of the meta-analysis is that chronic oral mucosa irritation has a significant association with oral squamous cell carcinoma, and the nature of association could be that of a potential co-factor (dependent risk factor) rather than an independent risk factor. Read more in PDF.
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