Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1512-8601 / 1840-4812
Total articles ≅ 1,183
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Seungyeon Kim, Songmi Kim, Seyoung Mun, Yongsik Kwak, Kwang-Sun Suh, Song-Yi Choi,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6789

Abstract:
Ovarian granulosa cell tumor (OGCT) is a rare ovarian tumor that accounts for about 2-5% of all ovarian tumors. Despite the low grade of ovarian tumors, high and late recurrences are common in OGCT patients. Even though this tumor usually occurs in adult women with high estrogen levels, the cause of OGCT is still unknown. To screen genetic variants associated with OGCT, we collected normal and matched-tumor formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) from 11 OGCT patients and performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) using Illumina NovaSeq 6000. A total of 1,067,219 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 162,155 insertions/deletions (indels) were identified from 11 pairs of samples. Of these, we identified 44 tumor-specific SNPs in 22 genes and four tumor-specific indels in one gene that were common to 11 patients. We used three cancer databases (TCGA, COSMIC, and ICGC) to investigate genes associated with ovarian cancers. Nine genes (SEC22B, FEZ2, ANKRD36B, GYPA, MUC3A, PRSS3, NUTM2A, OR8U1, and KRTAP10-6) associated with ovarian cancers were found in all three databases. In addition, we identified seven rare variants with MAF ≤ 0.05 in two genes (PRSS3 and MUC3A). Of seven rare variants, five variants in MUC3A are potentially pathogenic. Furthermore, we conducted gene enrichment analysis of tumor-specific 417 genes in SNPs and 106 genes in indels using cytoscape and metascape. In GO analysis, these genes were highly enriched in “selective autophagy”, and “regulation of anoikis”. Taken together, we suggest that MUC3A is implicated in OGCT development, and MUC3A could be used as a potential biomarker for OGCT diagnosis.
Tao Hong, Songzhe Piao, Liangxue Sun, Yiran Tao, Mang Ke
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6763

Abstract:
Cystitis glandularis is characterized by chronic inflammation and hyperproliferation of bladder mucosa, and contributes to progression of bladder adenocarcinoma. TPRG1 (Tumor Protein P63 Regulated 1) is related to cellular inflammatory response, and dysregulation of TPRG1 in tumor tissues is associated with tumor early recurrence. The effect of TPRG1 on cystitis glandularis was investigated in this study. Firstly, bladder specimen were isolated from patients with cystitis glandularis and E. coli-induced cystitis rat. Expression of TPRG1 was found to be up-regulated in the bladder specimen. Moreover, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated silence of TPRG1 was delivered into rat, and data from hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining showed that injection with AAV-shTPRG1 ameliorated E. coli-induced histological changes in bladder tissues of rats, and suppressed the inflammatory response. Secondly, TPRG1 was also increased in primary cystitis glandularis cells. Knockdown of TPRG1 decreased cell proliferation of primary cystitis glandularis cells, and suppressed the migration. Thirdly, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was up-regulated in the bladder specimen isolated from patients with cystitis glandularis and E. coli-induced cystitis rat. Injection with AAV-shTPRG1 reduced protein expression of COX-2, p65 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in the bladder specimen. Lastly, interference of COX-2 attenuated TPRG1 over-expression-induced increase of cell proliferation and migration in the primary cystitis glandularis cells. In conclusion, TPRG1 promoted inflammation and cell proliferation of cystitis glandularis through activation of NF-кB/COX2/PGE2 axis.
, , Xiaoyuan Feng, , Michael Jagodzinski
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6538

Abstract:
Osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis are the most ubiquitous joint disorders which cause tremendous loss of life quality and impose an economic burden on society. At present, the treatment options for these two diseases comprise non-operative and surgical treatments, amongst those total knee arthroplasties (TKA). Various studies have recognized smoking as a significant risk factor for postoperative complications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of smoking on the incidence and postoperative complications after a total knee arthroplasty by a systematic review and meta-analysis. The research was performed using PUBMED, Cochrane Library and EMBASE, extracting data from thirteen suitable studies and incorporating 2,109,482 patients. Cohort studies evaluating the impact of smoking on TKA with sufficient data were included for the study, and cohort studies without a proper control group and complete data were excluded. A fixed-effects or random-effects model was used to measure the pooled risk ratio (RR) or hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Compared to non-smokers, smokers had a significantly lower incidence of TKA (p<0.01). However, smokers had a higher incidence of total complications (p=0.01), surgical complications (p<0.01), pneumonia (p<0.01) and revision surgery (p=0.01). No significant difference in the risk of blood transfusion (p=0.42), deep vein thrombosis (p=0.31), pulmonary embolism (p=0.34), urinary tract infection (p=0.46) or mortality (p=0.39) was found between smokers and non-smokers. In conclusion, the study indicated that tobacco has two diametrically opposite effects on TKA patients: 1. Tobacco increases the incidence of surgical complications, pneumonia and revision after TKA; 2. It decreases the overall risk of being a candidate for TKA.
Yanhua Wang, Shengjian Tang, Jianping Lv
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6301

Abstract:
The incidence of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) has been increasing in recent years. Meanwhile, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been found to play vital roles in various cancers, including cSCC. This study aimed to investigate the expression of microRNA-573 (miR-573) in cSCC, its relationship with long non-coding RNA PICSAR and analyze its biological role. The relationship between PICSAR and miR-573 was confirmed by dual-luciferase reporter assay and Pearson’s correlation coefficient analysis. The levels of PICSAR and miR-573 were measured using quantitative Real-Time PCR. Cell Counting Kit-8 assay was used to evaluate the cSCC cell proliferation ability. The migration and invasion abilities of cSCC cells were evaluated by Transwell assay. PICSAR expression was increased and miR-573 was decreased in tumor tissues and cSCC cell lines. PICSAR and miR-573 can bind directly, and miR-573 expression was downregulated by PICSAR in cSCC. Overexpression of miR-573 significantly inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion abilities of A431 and SCC13 cells. Additionally, miR-573 overexpression reversed the promotion effects of PICSAR overexpression on cSCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion abilities. In conclusion, our findings indicated that miR-573 expression was decreased in tumor tissues and cSCC cells and was downregulated by PICSAR in cSCC. Additionally, miR-573 overexpression inhibited cSCC cell proliferation, migration and invasion, and reversed the promotion effects of PICSAR overexpression on cSCC cell biological functions. Thus, miR-573 might function as a tumor suppressor and might be involved in the regulatory effects of PICSAR on tumorigenesis in cSCC.
Chunhui Zhou, Hulin Zhao, Shuiwei Wang, Chao Dong, Fan Yang, Jianning Zhang
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6199

Abstract:
The long non‐coding RNA antisense 1 ADAMTS9-AS1 has been reported to serve as an oncogene or tumor suppressor in several tumors, including colorectal cancer and hepatocellular carcinoma. Nevertheless, the clinical significance and biological behaviors of ADAMTS9-AS1 in glioma still remain unclear. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate the functional roles and potential mechanisms of ADAMTS9-AS1 in glioma cells. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, we found that ADAMTS9-AS1 was upregulated in glioma tissues and cells in comparison to corresponding controls. ADAMTS9-AS1 expression level was correlated to tumor size (p=0.005) and WHO grade (p=0.002). Kaplan-Meier analysis and Cox multivariate analysis showed that ADAMTS9-AS1 could serve as an independent prognostic factor affecting the overall survival of glioma patients. Functionally, depletion of ADAMTS9-AS1 significantly suppressed the proliferation, migration and invasion in glioma cell lines (U251 and U87), as shown via CCK-8 assay, Edu corporation assay, wound healing assay and transwell assay. Furthermore, we demonstrated that knockdown of ADAMTS9-AS1 suppressed Wnt1, β-catenin, c-myc and PCNA, while upregulating E-cadherin expression. In conclusion, our data revealed that ADAMTS9-AS1 confers oncogenic function in the progression of glioma, thus targeting ADAMTS9-AS1 might be a promising therapeutic strategy for this disease.
Aline Rangel-Pozzo, Tinuccia Dettori, Daniela Virginia Frau, Federica Etzi, John Gartner, Garbor Fisher, Roberta Vanni, Sabine Mai, Paola Caria
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6639

Abstract:
Papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) has two main histologic variants: classical-PTC (CL-PTC) and follicular variant PTC (FV-PTC). Recently, due to its similar features to benign lesions, the encapsulated FV-PTC variant was reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP). Nonetheless, specific molecular signatures are not yet available. It is well known that telomere-related genome instability is caused by inappropriate DNA repair of dysfunctional telomeres and that mechanisms involved in the damaged telomere repair processing may led to detrimental outcomes, altering the three-dimensional (3D) nuclear telomere and genome organization in cancer cells. This pilot study aimed to evaluate whether a specific 3D nuclear telomere architecture might characterize NIFTP, potentially distinguishing it from other PTC histologic variants. Our findings demonstrate that 3D telomere profiles of CL-PTC and FV-PTC were different from NIFTP and that NIFTP more closely resembles follicular thyroid adenoma (FTA). There was no association between BRAF expression and telomere length in all tested samples. Our data indicate that 3D telomere profiles of CL-PTC and FV-PTC were different from NIFTP and that NIFTP more closely resembles FTA. NIFTP has longer telomeres than CL-PTC and FV-PTC samples, and that telomere length of NIFTP overlaps with that of the FTA histotype. These preliminary findings reinforce the view that NIFTP are lesions closer to non-malignant thyroid nodules and confirmed that short telomeres are a feature of PTC.
, Hasan Ali Barman, , Adem Atici, Atike Nazli Akciger, Omer Sit, , Yucel Yavuz, Songul Borahan, Omer Genc, et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6577

Abstract:
The aim of this study was to investigate the patient characteristics and laboratory parameters for COVID-19 non-survivors as well as to find risk factors for major bleeding complications. For this retrospective study, the data of patients who died with COVID-19 in our intensive care unit were collected in the period of March 20 - April 30, 2020. D-dimer, platelet count, C-reactive protein (CRP), troponin, and international normalized ratio (INR) levels were recorded on the 1st, 5th, and 10th days of hospitalization in order to investigate the possible correlation of laboratory parameter changes with in-hospital events. A total of 161 non-survivors patients with COVID-19 were included in the study. The median age was 69.8±10.9 years, and 95 (59%) of the population were male. Lung-related complications were the most common in-hospital complications. Patients with COVID-19 had in-hospital complications such as major bleeding (39%), hemoptysis (14%), disseminated intravascular coagulation (13%), liver failure (21%), ARDS (85%), acute kidney injury (40%), and myocardial injury (70%). A multiple logistics regression analysis determined that age, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, use of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), hemoglobin, D-dimer, INR, and acute kidney injury were independent predictors of major bleeding. Our results showed that a high proportion of COVID-19 non-survivors suffered from major bleeding complications.
Fatma Irem Yeşiler, Mesher Çapras, Emre Kandemir, Helin Şahintürk, Ender Gedik, Pınar Zeyneloğlu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6657

Abstract:
The decrease in social distance together with the normalization period as of June 1, 2020 in our country caused an increase in the number of COVID 19 patients. Our aim was to compare the demographic features, clinical courses and outcomes of confirmed and probable coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU) during the normalization period. Critically ill 128 COVID-19 patients between June 1 - December 2, 2020 were analyzed retrospectively. The mean age was 69.7±15.5y (61.7% male). Sixty-one patients (47.7%) were confirmed. Dyspnea (75.0%) was the most common symptom and hypertension (71.1%) was the most common comorbidity. The mean Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation System (APACHE II) score; Glasgow Coma Score (GCS); Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) scores on ICU admission were 17.4 ± 8.2, 12.3 ± 3.9 and 5.9 ± 3.4, respectively. 101 patients (78.1%) received low flow oxygen, 48 had high flow oxygen therapy (37.5%) and 59 (46.1%) had invasive mechanical ventilation. 53 patients (41.4%) had vasopressor therapy and 30 (23.4%) patients had renal replacement therapy (RRT) due to acute kidney injury (AKI). Confirmed patients were more tachypneic (p=0.005) and more hypoxemic than probable patients (p<0.001). Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and AKI were more common in confirmed patients than probable (both p<0.001). Confirmed patients had higher values of hemoglobin, C- reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer than probables (respectively, p=0.028, 0.006, 0.000, 0.019). The overall mortality was higher in confirmed patients (p=0.209, 52.6% vs 47.4%). Complications are more common among confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to ICU. The mortality rate of confirmed COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICU was found to be higher than probable patients. Mortality of confirmed cases were higher than prediction of APACHE-II scoring system.
Xianbo Huang, De Zhou, Xiujin Ye, Jie Jin
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6274

Abstract:
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is a highly heterogeneous hematopoietic malignancy that strongly correlates with poor clinical outcomes. Ferroptosis is an iron-dependent, non-apoptotic form of regulated cell death which plays an important role in various human cancers. Nevertheless, the prognostic significance and functions of ferroptosis-related genes (FRGs) in AML have not received sufficient attention. The aim of this article was to evaluate the association between FRGs levels and AML prognosis using publicly available RNA-sequencing datasets. The univariate Cox regression analysis identified 20 FRGs that correlate with patient overall survival. The LASSO Cox regression model was used to construct a prognostic 12-gene risk model using a TCGA cohort, and internal and external validation proved the signature efficient. The 12-FRGs signature was then used to assign patients into high- and low-risk groups, with the former exhibiting markedly reduced overall survival, compared to the low-risk group. ROC curve analysis verified the predictive ability of the risk model. Functional analysis showed that immune status and drug sensitivity differed between the 2 risk groups. In summary, FRGs is a promising candidate biomarker and therapeutic target for AML.
Xin Su, Xiang Chen, Hua Peng, JingJin Song, Bin Wang, Xijie Wu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6606

Abstract:
According to the previous reports, hypothyroidism has been shown to be strongly correlated with increased circulating concentrations of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and triglycerides (TG). Notably, thyroid hormones are confirmed to modulate the production, clearance, and transformation process of cholesterol within circulation of mammals. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that the thyroid-stimulating hormone could also participate in modulating serum lipid metabolism independently of thyroid hormones, which further induces the pathological development of dyslipidemia. However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully elucidated. Recently, several research studies have demonstrated that the pathogenic progression of hypothyroidism-related dyslipidemia might be correlated with the decreased serum concentrations of thyroid hormones and the increased serum concentrations of thyroid-stimulating hormones. Thus, this indicates that hypothyroidism could induce dyslipidemia and its related cardio-metabolic disorder diseases. In addition, several newly identified modulatory biomarkers, such as proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTLs), and fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), might play an important role in the regulation of dyslipidemia induced by hypothyroidism. Furthermore, under the status of hypothyroidism, significantly dysfunctional HDL particles could also be observed. In the current review, we summarized the recent knowledge of the relationship between the development of hypothyroidism with dyslipidemia. We also discussed the updated understanding of the mechanisms whereby hypothyroidism induces the risk and the development of dyslipidemia and cardio-metabolic diseases.
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