Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences

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ISSN / EISSN : 1512-8601 / 1840-4812
Total articles ≅ 1,164
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Renjing Ju, Xiaochun Chen, Shiliang Zhang, Bin Liu, Hao Pei, Fan Tu, Jun Liu, Hao Yu
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6404

Abstract:
Objective: To investigate the levels of plasma exosome-derived fragile-site associated tumor suppressor (FATS) and evaluate its predictive ability in ovarian cancer (OC) patients. Patients and Methods: Exosome-rich fractions were isolated from the plasma of enrolled 90 patients with OC. The levels of plasma exosome-derived FATS were detected with ELISA. Results: The levels of exosome-derived FATS in OC patient were significantly lower than in healthy controls (P < 0.001). The levels of plasma exosome-derived FATS were obviously higher in OC patients with low grade (1/2), FIGO stages I/II than high grade (3/4), stages III/ IV disease (P = 0.003; P < 0.001). The levels of plasma exosome-derived FATS were significantly higher in OC patients with no lymph node metastasis, no ascites than those with lymph node metastasis, ascites (both P < 0.001). The levels of plasma exosome-derived FATS were obviously higher in OC patients with CA-125 less than 35U/ml than more than 35U/ml (P < 0.001). Among all enrolled OC patients, both 5-DFS and 5-OS were shorter in patients who had low plasma exosome-derived FATS levels than that high levels (both P < 0.001). The AUROC of plasma exosome-derived FATS were 0.85(95% CI: 0.76-0.91) for 5-DFS, 0.91(95% CI: 0.83-0.96) for 5-OS prediction in patients with OC, respectively. Conclusions: Plasma exosome-derived FATS levels in OC patient were significantly down-regulated. Low levels of plasma exosome-derived FATS had close relationship with FIGO stages I/II, low grade, ascites, higher levels of CA-125, lymph node metastasis and prognosis of OC patients. Our findings may provide a new strategy in treating OC.
Lukoye Atwoli, Abdullah H. Baqui, Thomas Benfield, Raffaella Bosurgi, Fiona Godlee, Stephen Hancocks, Richard Horton, , Carlos Augusto Monteiro, Ian Norman, et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6411

Abstract:
The UN General Assembly in September 2021 will bring countries together at a critical time for marshalling collective action to tackle the global environmental crisis. They will meet again at the biodiversity summit in Kunming, China, and the climate conference (COP26) in Glasgow, UK. Ahead of these pivotal meetings, we—the editors of health journals worldwide—call for urgent action to keep average global temperature increases below 1.5°C, halt the destruction of nature, and protect health. Read more in PDF.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6016

Abstract:
Systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (SJIA) is a severe childhood-onset inflammatory disease characterized by arthritis accompanied by systemic auto-inflammation and extra-articular symptoms. While recent advances have unraveled a range of risk factors, the pathomechanisms involved in SJIA and potential prognostic markers for treatment success remain partly unknown. In this study, we included 70 active SJIA and 55 healthy control patients from the National Center for Biotechnology Information to analyze for differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using R. Functional enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI), and gene module construction were performed for DEGs and hub gene set. We additionally examined immune system cell composition with CIBERSORT and predicted prognostic markers and potential treatment drugs for SJIA. In total, 94 upregulated and 24 downregulated DEGs were identified. Two specific modules of interest and eight hub genes (ARG1, DEFA4, HP, MMP8, MMP9, MPO, OLFM4, PGLYRP1) were screened out. Functional enrichment analysis suggested that complex neutrophil-related functions play a decisive role in the disease pathogenesis. CIBERSORT indicated neutrophils, M0 macrophages, CD8+ T cells, and naïve B cells to be relevant drivers of disease progression. Additionally, we identified TPM2 and GZMB as potential prognostic markers for treatment response to canakinumab. Moreover, sulindac sulfide, (-)-catechin, and phenanthridinone were identified as promising treatment agents. This study provides a new insight into molecular and cellular pathogenesis of active SJIA and highlights potential targets for further research.
Aura Jurescu, , , Adelina Gheju, Octavia Vița, , Codruța Lăzureanu, Marioara Cornianu, Sorina Tăban, Ciprian Duță, et al.
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6110

Abstract:
The aim of our study was to assess the prognostic value of the two new grading systems based on the quantification of tumor budding - TB (GBd) and poorly differentiated clusters - PDCs (PDCs-G) in colorectal carcinomas (CRC). We performed a retrospective study on 71 CRC patients who underwent surgery at the Emergency County Hospital, Timișoara. CRC cases were classified based on haematoxylin-eosin slides, using the conventional grading system, GBd and PDCs-G, respectively. We used two-tier and three-tier grading schemes for each system. Subsequently, we evaluated associations with other prognostic factors in CRC. Based on the three-tier GBd (GBd-3t) most cases (34/69, 49.27%) were classified as G3Bd-3t, while based on the conventional grading system, the majority of the cases (55/69, 79.71%) were considered G2. On the other hand, based on the three-tier PDCs-G system (PDCs-G-3t), most cases (31/69, 44.93%) were PDCs-G2-3t. We also noted a more significant association of GBd-3t with other prognostic parameters analyzed, as compared to the conventional grading system. Nodal status, tumor stage, and lymphovascular invasion were strongly correlated with GBd-3t (p=0.0001). Furthermore, we noted that PDCs-G-3t correlated more significantly than the conventional grading system with nodal status (p<0.0001), tumor stage (p=0.0003), lymphovascular invasion (p<0.0001), perineural invasion (p=0.005) and the tumor border configuration (p<0.0001). High GBd and PDCs-G grades correlate directly with other negative prognostic factors in CRC.Thus, these new parameters/classification methods could be used as additional tools for risk stratification in patients with CRC.
, Dong-Hua Yang
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6419

Abstract:
The therapeutic modalities of early-stage and advanced extranodal natural killer/T-cell lymphoma (NKTCL) patients are completely different. The former is mainly radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy, while the latter relies on chemotherapy-based systemic treatment.1,2 According to Ann Arbor staging system, approximately 70% of the NKTCL patients are classified as early-stage cases who are promising to be cured.3 Considering NKTCL is sensitive to radiation but may be resistant to chemotherapy, the radiotherapy is considered to be the most important treatment for some early-stage patients with a satisfactory local control rate and could be used alone.4 However, systemic recurrence after radiotherapy in a portion of NKTCL patients seriously affects their long-term survival, and the first-line treatment combined with radiotherapy and chemotherapy is considered necessary. Therefore, the use of radiotherapy alone in early-stage NKTCL is still a controversial issue.5,6 Read more in PDF.
, Jiaochen Luan, Shouyong Liu, Limin Ma, Yi Wang
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6097

Abstract:
The aim of this article was to construct an accurate prognostic model by using RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to predict overall survival (OS) for patients with clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) as well as to reveal its associations with immune infiltration. Expression profiles based on RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and clinical follow-up parameters were obtained from the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and the ArrayExpress databases. Through univariate COX and LASSO regression analyses, the RBPs based signature was developed. A total of six RBPs (CLK2, IGF2BP2, RNASE2, EZH2, PABPC1L, RPL22L1) were eventually used to establish a prognostic signature. Based on this signature, ccRCC patients were classified into high-risk and low-risk subgroups and significant OS was obtained in both the internal and external datasets (p<0.05). AUCs of its ROC curve were all above 0.70 and this signature was an independent prognostic factor of OS for ccRCC (p<0.05). Nomograms were also constructed to visualize the relationships among individual predictors and 1-, 3- and 5-year OS for ccRCC. Furthermore, the established RBPs based signature was strongly related to critical clinicopathologic characteristics such as grade (p=8.921e−12), stage (p=1.421e−11), M (p=1.662e−05), and T stage (p=7.907e−10). Moreover, 12 kinds of tumor-infiltrating immune cells were significantly linked to high-risk and low-risk groups classified by our constructed model (all p<0.05). Our study successfully identified six RBPs as a robust prognostic signature in ccRCC by both external and internal verification. Besides, our established model displayed significant associations with immune infiltration. In addition to original clinical parameters, our findings may further help clinicians in predicting patients’ survival status and creating individualized treatment plans.
Raluca Petea-Balea, , , , Simion Bran, , , Simona Senila, Csaba Csutak,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6019

Abstract:
Vascular anomalies comprise a wide and heterogeneous group of lesions that may be found in all parts of the body, with most of the cases of vascular malformations involving the head and neck region. Ultrasound (US) is the reliable first-line imaging technique to assess flow parameters. However, in some cases, US fails to depict the real extent of the lesions. On the other hand, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows the evaluation of the full extension and anatomic relationship of the vascular anomalies with the neighboring structures and provides hemodynamic characterization using dynamic contrast enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI), avoiding unnecessary invasive catheter-based procedures. DCE-MRI angiography can make a distinction between low and high flow vascular anomalies and it is useful for selecting adequate therapy and appreciating prognosis. The aim of this paper is to review the role of DCE -MRI in the evaluation of flow characteristics and lesion extent in vascular anomalies of the head and neck region.
Božo Šušak, Vinka Mikulić, Armina Lazarević, Ivanka Mikulić,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6340

Abstract:
SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2) is a novel virus that has been identified as a causal agent of COVID-19, an emergent infectious disease which brought about a new pandemic in the twenty-first century. The immune responses and clinical features of individuals infected with SARS-CoV-2 have not yet been fully described. Thus, in this study, we compare the seroprevalence and define the correlation between symptoms and serological results in the first COVID-19 cluster in the city of Konjic, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Of the total number, 93% of RT-PCR positive participants had positive IgG serology and 75% of them developed symptoms of COVID-19. We found that there was no significant alteration in specific IgG (p = 0.504) antibody levels during the 1-year period after COVID-19. Our results indicate that symptomatic COVID-19 patients have a higher rate of seroconversion (p < 0.01). The IgG seroconversion was correlated with high fever (p = 0.002) and headache (p = 0.007), suggesting that these symptoms could be considered as indicators of a better immune response. This study has demonstrated persistence of sustained levels of specific SARS-CoV-2 antibodies after recovering from COVID-19 infection. However, in order to gain a better insight into the immune response to SARS-CoV-2, further systematic studies should be focused on quality and longevity analyses.
, Fulvio Alexandre Scorza, , Ana Fiorini
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.6341

Abstract:
The involvement of cranial nerves is being increasingly recognised in COVID-19. This review aims to summarize and discuss the recent advances concerning the clinical presentation, pathophysiology, diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 associated cranial nerve mononeuropathies or polyneuropathies. Therefore, a systematic review of articles from PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted. Altogether 36 articles regarding SARS-CoV-2 associated neuropathy of cranial nerves describing 56 patients were retrieved. Out of these 56 patients, cranial nerves were compromised without the involvement of peripheral nerves in 32 of the patients, while Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) with cranial nerve involvement was described in 24 patients. A single cranial nerve was involved either unilaterally or bilaterally in 36 patients, while in 19 patients multiple cranial nerves were involved. Bilateral involvement was more prevalent in the GBS group (n=11) as compared to the cohort with isolated cranial nerve involvement (n=5). Treatment of cranial nerve neuropathy included steroids (n=18), intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) (n=18), acyclovir/valacyclovir (n=3), and plasma exchange (n=1). The outcome was classified as “complete recovery” in 21 patients and as ”partial recovery” in 30 patients. One patient had a lethal outcome. In conclusion, any cranial nerve can be involved in COVID-19, but cranial nerves VII, VI, and III are the most frequently affected. The involvement of cranial nerves in COVID-19 may or may not be associated with GBS. In patients with cranial nerve involvement, COVID-19 infections are usually mild. Isolated cranial nerve palsy without GBS usually responds favorably to steroids. Cranial nerve involvement with GBS benefits from IVIG.
Pinli Zou, Min Zhou, Jinquan Wen, Xin Liao, Yali Shen, Haiyan Liu, Lin Song,
Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences; https://doi.org/10.17305/bjbms.2021.5879

Abstract:
Specific fusion genes play important roles as risk factors for strategic treatment in pediatric B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), and the risk factors in patients without common fusion genes have not been well demonstrated. We collected and analyzed clinical and laboratory findings, treatment responses and outcomes in B-ALL patients without specific fusion genes. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) and/or RNA sequencing (RNAseq) data from bone marrow relapsed patients were also analyzed. 283 patients were enrolled in the study. Traditional elements and treatment responses at different time points (TPs) were evaluated to classify risk groups and adjust the treatment strategy. Treatment-related mortality was found in 11 (3.89%) patients, 49 (17.31%) patients relapsed, and the ten-year prospective event-free survival (pEFS) was 78.2±2.5%. Univariate analysis revealed that significant differences were not found in the pEFS of traditional risk factors, including sex, age, WBC count or chromosome status; good responses of BM smears at TP1 and minimal residual disease (MRD) levels at TP2 and TP3 were strongly associated with prolonged pEFS. Compared with the IR or the HR group, patients in the SR group presented with longer pEFS and a lower relapse rate. Multivariable analysis of outcomes and hazard ratios revealed that a positive MRD level was a key risk factor. WES or RNAseq was performed for BM relapse patients, and adverse and unreported genetic abnormalities were discovered. Favorable outcomes were acquired in the cohort. The study results showed that traditional risk factors and poor prednisone response were overcome by modified chemotherapy, and a positive MRD level was a key risk factor in these patients. NGS is needed to discover more risk-related molecular abnormalities.
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