MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research)
ISSN / EISSN : 2079-4665 / 2411-796X
Current Publisher: Publishing House Science (10.18184)
Total articles ≅ 357
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.409-420
Purpose: this article identifies strategic directions for the development of digital infrastructure that affect the level of employment in the segments of small and medium-sized businesses in the Russian Federation, including identifying opportunities and threats for their implementation.Methods: the research involves the use of a complex of scientific methods – general (analysis, analysis, synthesis, comparison, comparison); econometric (tools of linear regression using the least squares method); elements of the strategy methodology of Professor V.L. Kvint (OTSWanalysis).Results: the study examines China's experience in developing and integrating digital infrastructure into the economy. The impact of these system-forming transformations on employment in various business segments is considered. The current policy of the Russian Federation in the aspects of digital transformation and digitalization is analyzed. The results of the implementation of this policy and the consequences of its implementation in the Russian economy are studied. By constructing an econometric model, the strategic directions of digitalization have been identified, which determine employment in the segments of small and medium-sized businesses in the conditions of economic and technological realities. Based on the OTSW-analysis, the opportunities and threats posed by the digitalization process were considered in terms of their impact on small and medium-sized businesses and employment in these segments of the economy.Conclusions and Relevance: the authors found that the most important strategic aspects of digitalization processes that directly affect the development of employment in the Russian segments of small and medium-sized businesses are: internal costs for research and development of digital solutions; the share of the population with access to the Internet; the absolute volume of investment in ICT. A clear understanding of the potential opportunities and threats of the planned strategic priorities will contribute to the effectiveness of the further development of the Russian digital infrastructure.
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.370-383
Purpose: this article analyzes India’s innovation development model. In this regard, the author aims to examine the current state of India's innovation policy as well as its features as one of the tools for solving the socio-economic problems of the state.Methods: the author applies general scientific methods of logical analysis, comparison and generalization, as well as quantitative methods (graphical and tabular methods, and descriptive statistics). In addition, the article embraces a systematic approach that contributes to a holistic consideration of the research subject.Results: the article provides an overview of the fundamental documents and projects of the state's innovation policy, studies India’s positions in world innovation ratings as well as notes the unique features of the Indian model of innovative development associated with the government strategy adjusted to the socio-economic, cultural and civilizational features of this country.Conclusions and Relevance: the article addresses the distinguishing characteristics which have eventually become disadvantages of the existing system and touches upon the reasons that hinder the development of innovations and prevent the country from achieving tangible results in this domain. The author concludes that without systematic government support, appropriate staffing, and functioning triple helix model involving academia, industry, and government, the country's innovative development will be limited, and India will fail to address the ever-widening gap between grassroots and high-tech innovation sectors will continue to grow. Still, Russia may learn a lot from the Indian experience as it also aims at solving its “grand challenges”, including those of social and economic nature, by the means of innovations.
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.398-408
Purpose: the main purpose of the article was to study the trends in the global pharmaceutical industry, as one of the most knowledge-intensive in the world economy, against the background of the 2020 COVID-related crisis. The task was to study the impact of the economic crisis on the priorities of the largest pharmaceutical multinationals, to link them with trends in the restructuring of health care systems, as well as to analyze and assess the potential impact of Brexit on the European pharma industry, starting from 2021.Methods: the work is based on a comparative analysis of trends in the restructuring of global value chains in pharmaceuticals, the digitalization of pharmaceuticals and health care, as well as a quantitative analysis of the revenue and value added by the largest European pharmaceutical multinational companies.Results: the COVID-19 pandemic has accelerated the process of digitalization of big pharma; the intensified transition to a continuous production model can be expected in the coming years. Also, the second largest industry market, the EU-27, will suffer less from Brexit than the UK itself, and industries in developing countries will benefit from additional growth opportunities. The digitalization of healthcare remains an important underlying factor for the transformation of pharmaceuticals and further growth of innovation competition. This paper presents the problems of pharma and how to address them, as well as possible ways to restructure healthcare systems to reduce the likelihood of new pandemics – this will be at the heart of regulatory solutions in the medium term.Conclusions and Relevance: governments and state regulators will be actively involved in the process of recovery of the pharmaceutical industry after the crisis. For small regional pharmaceutical producers in developing countries there is a growing need to digitalize production and diversify supply chains. Implementation of continuous production technologies allows expecting growth in the number of small pharmaceutical producers, deepening competition in the industry. The Brexit deal will also have significant implications for the industry, leading to a restructuring of supply chains within the EU from early 2021, reducing the UK's competitiveness.
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.384-397
Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to analyze the state and prospects of science and technology (S&T) cooperation between the Russian Federation and the PRC in the context of the global S&T cooperation trends.Methods: research is based on a combination of desk and field methods. The article is based on the data from official documents of the Russian Federation, state companies, institutions for development, and other structures, as well as media sources. A series of non-focused expert interviews with representatives of the innovation and expert community, linked to Russia-China S&T cooperation, was also conducted.Results: the main trends and directions of the S&T cooperation between Russia and China in 2000–2020s have been identified, including: large projects in traditional medium- and high-tech industries; horizontal academic cooperation; bilateral activities in developing innovation infrastructure (science parks, investment funds, etc.); tech activities of big corporations – with special focus on Huawei. Several factors, limiting the potential of bilateral S&T cooperation, were identified. Among the most important are: differences in the structure of real (not declarative) S&T priorities; weak complementarity of both economies and unwillingness to form harmonized trade and investment regimes (also because of the different size of Russian and Chinese economies); the techno-nationalist ideology of state policies of both nations; mismatching areas of scientific leadership that impedes synergy in academic research. The fragmentation and insufficient financial support of the Russian S&T and innovation sectors are noted as separate factors.Conclusions and Relevance: despite high mutual interest in intensification of Russia-China dialogue is declared, there are clear limits for bilateral S&T cooperation. Existing restrictions predetermines the preservation of a relatively small scale of S&T cooperation for the foreseeable future, with P2P interactions of groups of actors at its core. However, some of these interactions may be large-scale and long-term, as is the case of Huawei. One of the ways to change this dynamic (not saying about urgent need to optimize economic situation in Russia) is to develop a comprehensive strategy of cooperation with China – with subsequent focus on a small group of most important initiatives and creating favorable conditions for interaction of private and academic actors.
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.338-357
Purpose: the purpose of the research is to determine the essence and role of the value approach to setting and solving goal-setting tasks in the system of state strategic planning in conjunction with the analysis of the correlation of goals and interests of economic agents in the conditions of realization of property rights to natural and intellectual resources of the development of the social state.Methods: the issues of identifying the essence and studying the characteristics of the axiological foundations of goals-setting for national development in the sphere of public power, as well as determining the motivational role of ownership relations in the initiation and coordination of purposeful activities are considered using the methods of logical, content and statistical analysis in the framework of a systematic approach to the study of problems and tasks of improving the methodology and tools of strategic planning in the conditions of digital transformation of society, economy and management.Results: the issues of improving the goal-setting mechanism in the context of reforming the state strategic planning system of the Russian Federation in the context of digital transformation of the economy and management are considered. Assessments of the validity and effectiveness for setting and achieving goals in strategic planning documents in the framework of development programming at the federal, regional and municipal levels of government are presented. The state of institutional support for the tasks of setting goals of socio-economic development in the multi-level structure of public administration bodies is characterized. Axiological aspects of targeting coordinated activities in various types of organizational systems are described. The article analyzes the features and role of ownership rights to natural and intellectual resources by the implementation of the concept of sustainable development in the social state. The features of the implementation of property rights to natural and intellectual resources in the context of the implementation of the concept of sustainable development of the social state are analyzed. The role of property relations in the initiation and coordination of purposeful activity of economic agents in the space of national development has been determined.Conclusions and Relevance: The results of the study allow us to formulate a number of conclusions. Firstly, further improvement of the methodology of strategic management should be carried out in the context of the interrelated modernization of national models of economy, development and management. Secondly, the advance of methods and tools for substantiating long-term development goals should take into account the axiological foundations of goal-setting. And third, digital transformation allows to differentially describe the motivational function of public ownership by natural and intellectual resources of development.
Published: 28 December 2020
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.4.358-369
Purpose: this article includes the review of the Japanese policy on the digital transformation transformation of the agricultural sector, description and analysis of the implementation cases, as well as identification of obstacles to achieve the expected results.Methods: the study uses the methods of structural, comparative and systems analysis and the principle of formal logic. The article is based on the analysis of scientific and analytical materials devoted to the problem of research. The factual basis is the framework documents of the Cabinet of Japan, media, reports of Japanese research institutes.Results: the article provides a brief review and analysis of the Japanese public of digital transformation of the agricultural sector, provides some cases, summarizes the interim results of the measures taken, identifies problematic factors that prevent the achievement of the expected results. The hypothesis is put forward about the key role of the government in the process of developing new standards for the digital transformation.Conclusions and Relevance: Japan agricultural sector is facing a severe labor shortage. The situation is expected to get worse in the next 5 years. The Japanese government expects that digital technologies and autonomous equipment will compensate for the lack of labor on farms, as well as provide a new stage in the development of the traditional agricultural sector. However, the digitalization of agriculture sector is not limited to the introduction of the latest technology, but also involves the development of new safety rules for the use of robotic tractors, unmanned aerial vehicles, improving farmers ICT education, and standardizing new agricultural terms. However, despite the promise of using digital technologies, the high cost of new equipment and the complexity of its use is a significant obstacle to the digitalization of agriculture in Japan. The study of the features of the digital transformation of the Japanese agricultural sector is very important for the effective implementation of industry projects that exist today in Russia.
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.3.266-279
Purpose: this article is devoted to the study of issues and the creation of proposals for the formation of a model of indicative planning in the Russian Federation.Methods: the study is based on system analysis methodology. Program and strategic documents of the Russian Federation and modern scientific publications on the topic of research were used as materials for the work.Results: the author analyzed modern ideas about indicative planning and identified the problems of the lack of a systematic scientific and methodological approach in this area. Modern scientific literature does not have a single opinion on the theoretical and methodological provisions of indicative planning. Based on the analysis of foreign experience and Russian practice, the author presented proposals on the role and place of indicative planning in the system of strategic planning and project management documents in order to achieve the established development and security goals. On this basis, proposals are formulated for the formation of a domestic model of indicative planning. It was noted that the popular tools for implementing coherence, monitoring and adjusting goals through digitalization of strategic documents are part of indicative planning.Conclusions and Relevance: The approach to indicative planning is recommended as a process for the formation of a system of indicators (indicators) and the development of measures of state impact on economic processes based on indicators. In this regard, indicative planning should be considered as a combination: 1) the system of goals and objectives described by the corresponding indicators (indicators), 2) the system of measures aimed at achieving these indicators. This measure system also includes an indicative planning tool.As a toolkit, an approach is proposed that determines the conjugation of the two indicated blocks of indicative planning:architecture, which includes rules for building the system and structured on the basis of goals, objectives, indicators;tools that include balance calculations and mathematical modeling, as well as implementing on the basis of indicators the task of resource determination of goals for the development of a system of measures and management decisions.
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.3.294-319
Purpose: the main purpose of this article is to analyze the main trends and directions of development of industrial robots, as well as the problems associated with their distribution. To achieve these goals, the following tasks were solved: analysis of the dynamics of the stock of industrial robots, the structure of the stock of robots by region (Europe, America, Asia / Australia), as well as the annual volumes and structure of world sales of robots by key industries; analysis of the main tasks of industrial robots, performed by them in these industries, and the directions of their use; analyze the dynamics of the robot fleet by industry in different countries (Japan, USA, South Korea, China, Germany, etc.); analysis of indicators and problems of using industrial robots in Russia.Methods: the research methodology consists in a comparative analysis of the use of industrial robots in different industries (automotive, food, chemical, electronic, etc.) based on statistical data by country. A systematic approach, tabular and graphical interpretation of information was applied, analysis of the dynamics of the levels of the time series, the calculation of growth indices of indicators.Results: the analysis showed that the use of industrial robots reduces injuries at the workplace, production costs and improves the quality of the final product, productivity, flexibility and safety, which contributes to a significant increase in their use in both developed and developing countries.Conclusions and Relevance: recently, robotization has become available even in non-industrial countries. The introduction of robotization into production processes increases the competitiveness of the economy. The acceleration of digitalization and automation, as well as the ease of use of industrial robots, are driving their proliferation. In Russia, the wider use of industrial robots, the development of the industrial Internet of things and the implementation of digitalization are possible only on the basis of the restoration and further development of mechanical engineering, electronic and other manufacturing industries.
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.3.250-265
Purpose: to consider in detail the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the modern world, in relation to three dimensions – the economy, society. Politics, to outline the most problematic points of negative effects generation, to propose directions for the restoration of the world system within the framework of the formation of a new post-COVID-19 ”normality”.Methods: includes the principles of systemic, theoretical-cognitive, institutional, instrumental and interdisciplinary approaches, mediated by the accepted in social science ideas about the relationship and interaction of subjective and objective factors in social processes with relative independence of the subject.Results: today, the world around us and human civilization, together with the impressive process of globalization, has entered the stage of the emergence of new challenges that were not previously presented to it or were not manifested so powerfully. The first of these challenges of the current 21st century is undoubtedly the COVID-19 pandemic. Today it is stated that, according to the most optimistic estimates, the fall of the world economy may exceed the crisis of 2008–2009. In terms of social practices and communications, COVID-19 is already forcing us to design a new “normality” that will become a reality in the post-COVID-19 era. In the field of politics, it is stated that in authoritarian and authoritarian regimes, a more effective public response to restrictive measures was ensured.Conclusions and Relevance: at the present stage, the market and the signals it gives, by asset class, recession and recovery patterns, should be closely monitored not only by economists, but also by sociologists. political scientists, politicians and public figures. Urgent and decisive political action is needed not only to contain the pandemic and save lives, but also to protect the most vulnerable in our society from economic collapse and to maintain economic growth and financial stability.
MIR (Modernization. Innovation. Research), Volume 11; doi:10.18184/2079-4665.2020.11.3.280-293
In this article a research of the nature of modern enterprises development is presented, characterized by moving from material-based to information-based economic products. It was discovered that economically developed enterprises have almost exhausted their potential for further growth due to organizational improvements, previously affecting mainly the material part of the economic product. Therefore, studies on improving the efficiency of the production organization of information economic products are becoming more and more relevant.Purpose: the main purpose of this research is to develop extended principles of lean manufacturing of information economic products. To achieve this goal following tasks were resolved: material intensity analysis was implemented, the structure of information economic product (IEP) was examined, traditional principles of lean manufacturing were reviewed and expanded for information economic product creation.The object of the research are modern industrial enterprises that apply the concept of lean manufacturing or similar. The subject of the research are the principles of lean manufacturing for creating an information economic product.Methods: the time series extrapolation method and the empirical analysis method were used to calculate the material intensity index of products. Abstract and comparative analysis methods were applied to develop the extended principles of IEP lean manufacturing. In addition, methods of analysis and synthesis, the historical method, as well as elements of factor analysis were used for the study.Results: the material and information structure of the economic product is considered and proposed. The nature of the dynamics of its changes in the process of changing the stages of technological and economic development of scientific and technological progress is justified, which allowed us to argue the vector of changes in the structure of costs for creating a modern material product in terms of increasing information and reducing material components. The constantly rising costs of creating information increasingly characterize it as a market product that has its own cost structure, which gave reason to classify it as an information economic product (IEP). In this regard, the structure of the information economic product was studied and developed, based on the analysis of the term of "information" both from the perspective of the organization and operational management and from the perspective of related branches of knowledge. As a result of the comparative analysis, extended principles of IEP lean manufacturing were developed.Conclusions and Relevance: the analysis of the material intensity index revealed a tendency to a continuous decrease in the material intensity of the economic product and an increase in the information component. As a result of the study of the structure of the information economic product, it was revealed that the potential for increasing the economic efficiency of modern industrial enterprises is primarily laid in improving logical data processing. It is proposed to achieve this by using the developed extended principles of IEP lean manufacturing, among which the main one is the principle of intellectual and creative reciprocity.