Journal of Water Resources Research

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 2166-6024 / 2166-5982
Published by: Hans Publishers (10.12677)
Total articles ≅ 779
Archived in
SHERPA/ROMEO
Filter:

Latest articles in this journal

肖 汐
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 157-167; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.102016

Abstract:
# 生态流量是保障和维持河流健康的基础,在全球变化和社会经济快速发展的变化环境下,生态流量的计算和生态流量实施效果具有诸多不确定性。本文介绍了适应性管理的概念,结合生态流量管理的需求,讨论了生态流量适应性管理的框架。以淮河流域的沙颍河为研究对象,从生态保护目标的确定、生态调度方案实施、实施效果监测、调整生态流量方案的过程探讨了沙颍河生态流量适应性管理方案。论文研究成果体现出适应性管理方法对推动社会经济与生态环境协调发展、促进我国河流管理模式的完善和创新具有现实意义。 Ecological flow is the basis of protecting and maintaining river health. In the changing environment of global change and rapid socio-economic development, there are many uncertainties in the calculation and implementation effect of ecological flow. This paper introduces the concept of adaptive management, and discusses the framework of adaptive management of ecological flow combined with the needs of ecological flow management. Taking Shaying River as a case study, the ecological flow adaptive management scheme from the determination of ecological protection objectives, implementation of ecological scheduling scheme, and effect of monitoring and adjusting ecological flow scheme are discussed. The research results show that the adaptive management method has practical significance to promote the coordinated development of social economy and ecological environment, and promote the improvement and innovation of river management mode in China.
练郭 生
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 125-136; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.102013

Abstract:
清江流域7月20日以后洪量明显减小,可以根据洪水和长江中下游出梅时间的预报结果考虑提前蓄水。建立梯级水库提前蓄水多目标联合优化调度模型,以旬最小生态流量作为蓄水期下泄流量的刚性约束,并采用NSGA-II和PA-DDS优化算法求解。应用结果表明:Pareto前沿分布范围均匀且广泛,可供决策者灵活调度。与原设计方案相比,通过水库群提前蓄水联合优化调度,总蓄满率由82%增加到89%,蓄水期可增发电量4100万kW•h (+2.1%),增加生态供水1.1亿m3。 Since the flood volume in Qing River basin is decreased evidently after July 20, the reservoir early im-pound operation might be considered based on the forecasts of flood and out-time Meiyu in the middle and lower Yangtze River basin. A multiobjective early impound operation model for cascade reservoirs is established with ecologic flow constrains and optimized by the NSGA-II and PA-DDS algorithms. Application results demonstrate that the Pareto front has wide and uniform distribution which provides a flexible selection for decision-makers. Compared with the original impoundment operation rule, the optimal solution can enhance total impoundment efficiency from 82% to 89%, generate 41 million kW•h (or 2.1%) more hydropower annually and increase 0.11 billion m3 elological flow during impound period.
华叶 凯
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 270-279; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.103029

Abstract:
针对水库优化调度模型求解方法中,传统动态规划(DP)法存在“维数灾”,求解耗时较长等不足,提出基于自优化模拟技术的水电站水库调度模型快速求解方法(SOST)。该方法在满足水电站负荷要求和最小下泄流量要求的前提下,尽可能提高水库调度期的运行水位以寻求全局优化调度解。选取潘口–小漩梯级水电站30个典型日的历史运行数据作为计算实例,汛期典型日的小时尺度优化调度结果显示:该方法能够实现潘口–小漩梯级水电站总负荷的经济分配,优化分配计算所得梯级水电站总耗能为104.23万kW•h,比实际运行耗能减少3.89%。相较于传统的DP算法,该方法计算时间降幅达58.04%。SOST法寻优性能较好,可有效提高水能利用效率,为梯级水电站发电优化调度提供参考。 The traditional dynamic programming (DP) method has the disadvantages of “dimension disaster” and long solving time. According to the characteristics of low water consumption rate of reservoir in high head operation, a fast solution method for reservoir operation model of hydropower station based on self-optimization simulation technology (SOST) is proposed. Under the premise of meeting the load requirements and minimum discharge requirements of hydropower station, the method can improve the operation level of reservoir as much as possible to seek the global optimal operation solution. Taking the historical operation data of 30 typical days of Pankou-Xiaoxuan cascade hydropower sta-tions as an example, the hourly optimal operation results of typical days in flood season show that this method can realize the economic distribution of total load of Pankou-Xiaoxuan cascade hydropower stations, and the total energy consumption of the cascade hydropower stations calculated by the op-timal distribution is 1,042,300 kW•h, which is 3.89% less than the actual operation energy consump-tion. Compared with the traditional DP algorithm, the calculation time of this method is reduced by 58.04%. The results show that the SOST method has good performance and can effectively improve the utilization efficiency of water energy, which provides a reference for the optimal operation of cascade hydropower stations.
君费 如
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 305-311; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.103033

Abstract:
梯级水电灵活性较强广泛应用于电网调峰、调频,然而梯级水电站群约束众多,是高度复杂的混合整数非线性规划问题,求解难度较大。为此本文提出一种改进的遗传算法对梯级水电站进行优化求解,针对遗传算法时效性差、容陷入局部最优的缺点,本文从初始解的产生、交叉变异概率选取、精英个体保存三个方面对遗传算法进行改进。以一个二级水电站为例进行验证,结果表明,改进后遗传算法收敛更快、求解效率更高,只需要59.30 s,即可得出结果;在保证其它约束不变的情况下,梯级水电多发45.56万kW•h。能有效满足梯级水电联合优化调度时效性与经济性的要求。 Cascade hydropower has strong flexibility and is widely used in peak load regulation and frequency regulation of power grid. However, there are many constraints of cascade hydropower station group, which is a highly complex mixed integer nonlinear programming problem and difficult to solve. In this paper, an improved genetic algorithm is proposed to solve the problem of cascade hydropower stations. Aiming at the shortcomings of poor timeliness and local optimum of genetic algorithm, this paper improves the genetic algorithm from three aspects: the generation of initial solution, the selection of cross mutation probability and the preservation of elite individuals. Taking a two-stage hydropower station as an example, the results show that the improved genetic algorithm has faster convergence and higher efficiency, and it only takes 59.30 s to get the result; under the condition of keeping other constraints unchanged, the cascade hydropower station can generate 455,600 kW•h more. It can effectively meet the requirements of timeliness and economy of cascade hydropower joint optimal operation.
清李 月
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 331-337; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.103036

Abstract:
2005年以来,随着水资源的大力开发利用,德宏州境内两大水系大盈江、瑞丽江兴建了众多梯级电站,为掌握近十多年来水电站水库建设运行对河流水文特性造成的影响情况,以工程建设前后都有水文站控制的两江干流为例,采用数理统计法进行水文情势的变化分析,结果表明:两江干流梯级电站建设运行后对下游水文特性的影响程度较大。其中,下泄水体含沙量明显减少,河床发生持续下切,水位呈明显下降趋势;电站运行使下游水量呈减少趋势,对年径流量影响较小,对年最大流量影响较大,对年最小流量影响最大;水文要素系列一致性发生改变,水文资料宜按电站建成前后分段使用。最后,根据影响情况及水资源可持续发展新需求,提出了相应的对策和建议,以供水资源开发利用和保护管理参考。 Since 2005, with the development and utilization of water resources, many cascade hydropower sta-tions have been built in Yingjiang rivers and Ruili rivers of Dehong Prefecture. In order to grasp the influence of hydropower station reservoir construction and operation on river hydrological characte-ristics in recent ten years, take the main stream of two rivers with hydrological stations before and after the project construction as an example, use mathematical statistics to analyze changes in hydro-logical situation, the results showed that: Yingjiang Rivers and Ruili Rivers after the construction of two power plants run downstream impact on the hydrologic characteristics of large, Among them, the sediment concentration of the discharged water decreased significantly, the riverbed continued to cut down, and the water level showed an obvious downward trend. The operation of the power station causes the downstream water volume to decrease, which has a small impact on the annual runoff, a greater impact on the annual maximum flow, and the largest impact on the annual minimum flow. The consistency of the series of hydrological elements has changed, and the hydrological data should be used in sections before and after the completion of the power station. Finally, according to the impact situation and the new demand for sustainable development of water resources, put forward the cor-responding countermeasures and suggestions to water resources development, utilization and protec-tion and management of reference.
丽王 巧
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 299-304; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.103032

Abstract:
简述了水平式多普勒剖面测速仪(H-ADCP)的原理及应用情况,通过采用传感器控制技术及系统集成方法,构建水平式多普勒流速仪流量在线监测系统,实现了对流量数据的自动采集、存储和分析处理,并在江苏南京前垾村水文站开展示范应用和比测分析,为水平式多普勒流速仪流量在线监测系统的应用提供了实践基础。 The principle and application of H-ADCP was briefly described. Through the use of sensor control tech-nology and system integration method, the online H-ADCP flow monitoring system is constructed, which realizes the automatic collection, storage, analysis and processing of flow data, and carries out demonstration application and comparative analysis in Qianhan village hydrological station in Nanjing, Jiangsu Province. It provides a practical basis for the application of on-line flow monitoring system of fixed-point Doppler current meter.
民张 爱
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 111-124; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.101012

Abstract:
基于最严格的水资源总量控制目标约束,研究评估新疆地方系统(不含新疆生产建设兵团)农业灌溉水资源承载力。本文以2018年现状为基准,综合考虑农业用水在总用水量的占比、滴灌面积在总灌面积的占比、灌溉定额、灌溉水利用系数对灌溉水资源量的影响,运用水土平衡及系统工程优化评估灌溉水资源承载能力。结果显示:预期2035年农业用水总量由2018年386.20亿m3降至282.10亿m3,这一远景目标的实现伴随农业用水占比由91.8%降至74.7%,毛灌溉定额由7695 m3/hm2下降至5955 m3/hm2,滴灌面积占比由48.5%提升至86.2%,灌溉水利用系数由0.542提升至0.650,由此可承载极限总灌面积为488.15万hm2,比2018年减少灌溉面积13.52万hm2。分析结果说明,在十分有限的农业水资源总量控制条件下,在适宜范围内降低灌区灌溉定额,提升灌溉水利用系数和滴灌节水规模,是以水定地稳定总灌面积的重要保障。 Based on the most stringent water resources total amount control target constraints, the agricultural irrigation water resources carrying capacity of local systems (without Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps) in Xinjiang are studied and evaluated. Using 2018 as the benchmark, this paper comprehensively considers the effects of the proportion of agricultural water in total water consumption, the proportion of drip irrigation area in total irrigation area, irrigation quota and irrigation water utilization coefficient on irrigation water resources, and evaluates the carrying capacity of irrigation water resources by using water and soil balance and system engineering optimization. The results show that the total amount of water used for agriculture is expected to decrease from 38.620 billion m3 in 2018 to 28.210 billion m3 in 2035. The achievement of this long-term goal is accompanied by the decrease of agricultural water use from 91.8% to 74.7%, the decrease of gross irrigation quota from 7695 m3/hm2 to 5955 m3/hm2, the increase of drip irrigation area from 48.5% to 86.2%, and the increase of irrigation water use coefficient from 0.542 to 0.650. The ultimate carrying capacity of the total irrigated area is 4.881.5 million hm2, which is 135.2 million hm2 less than 2018. Analysis results show that under the condition of limited total amount of agricultural water resources, the irrigation quota can be reduced and the irrigation water use efficiency and water saving scale can be increased, which is an important guarantee to stabilize the total irrigation area with water.
冬张 冬
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 74-82; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.101008

Abstract:
长江上游梯级水库运行使得长江中下游水文情势发生了变化。基于长江中下游2012年河道实测资料,构建宜昌至大通的一维水动力模型,分析了蓄水期溪洛渡、向家坝和三峡水库联合调度对中下游控制站点水位的影响。结果表明:蓄水期上游梯级水库运行一定程度上降低了下游各个站点的水位,溪洛渡、向家坝两座水库运行对长江中下游干流的水文情势影响主要集中在9月份,以宜昌站为例,两座水库运行对宜昌站9月份旬水位影响的贡献率在27.5%~88.4%,两座水库运行对干流10月份和11月份的水文情势影响较小。三峡水库运行对长江中下游干流水文情势影响主要集中在9月下旬和10月份,三峡水库对干流11月份水库影响较小。 The upstream cascade reservoirs have changed the hydrological regime in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River. Based on the 2012 terrain data of the river, the one-dimensional hydro-dynamic model was used to analyze the influence of combined operations of the Xiangjiaba, Xiluodu reservoirs and the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) on the downstream water levels. The results show that: the water level of each station in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River was dropped due to the impoundment of the upstream cascade reservoirs during the storage period. The water lev-el changed most in September and less in October and November because of impound operation of the Xiangjiaba and Xiluodu reservoirs. For example, the contribution rate of descending water level is 27.5%~88.4% due to the impounding of the two reservoirs. The water level of each station in the mid-dle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River dropped with maximum change in October and minimum change in November due to the operation of TGR.
祚谢 雨
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 1-10; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.101001

Abstract:
随着国家大力推进生态文明建设,梯级水库调度中发电和生态效益之间的矛盾亟需得到协调。以清江梯级水库为研究对象,以最小下泄流量为参照,分别考虑清江最小和适宜生态流量,建立基于高斯径向基函数的梯级水库多目标调度模型,采用NSGA-II算法求解,从水库优化调度的角度对水文学方法计算得出的生态流量进行适用性讨论。结果表明:基于高斯径向基函数的调度规则具有较好的优化效果,考虑生态效益会在一定程度上降低发电效益,且随着生态要求的增加,发电和生态效益之间的矛盾更加明显;最小生态流量比适宜生态流量更适用于清江梯级水库的生态调度;采用优化调度结果对最小生态流量进行修正,可以在保持Tennant法流量状况的评价的基础上降低生态流量缺额。With the promotion of national ecological civilization construction, it is urgent to balance the contradiction between hydropower and ecological benefits in cascade reservoir operation. In this paper, the cascade reservoirs in the Qing River were selected as the case study. The Gaussian radial basis function-based cascade reservoir operation model was established, which considered the minimum outflow as a reference, the minimum and suitable ecological flows, and the multi-objective optimization model was optimized using NSGA-II algorithm. The applicability of the ecological flow calculated by hydrological methods from the perspective of reservoir optimization operation was discussed. The results show that the operation rule based on the Gaussian radial basis functions performs well. Considering ecological benefits will reduce hydropower generation benefits to a certain extent, and as the ecological requirements increase, the contradiction between power generation and ecological benefits becomes more obvious. The minimum ecological flow is more suitable than the suitable ecological flow in practice. The minimum ecological flow modified by optimized operation results can reduce the ecological flow deficit on the basis of maintaining the Tennant-based flow evaluation.
成吕 盼
Journal of Water Resources Research, Volume 10, pp 44-52; https://doi.org/10.12677/jwrr.2021.101005

Abstract:
中长期径流预报对水库优化调度及水资源优化开发利用都有着重要的意义。首先采用基于Boosting算法的梯度提升回归树(Gradient Boosting Decision Tree, GBRT)和极端梯度提升树(Extreme Gradient Boosting, XGBoost)、基于Bagging算法的随机森林(Random Forest, RF)和极端随机树(Extreme Random Tree, ET)四种算法作为预报模型对锦屏一级水库月平均入库流量序列进行预报,并对预测结果进行对比分析。结果显示,RF预测效果最差,XGBoost预测效果最好。进一步选用其中预测效果较好的三个方法ET、XGBoost、GBRT作为初级学习器,以Logistic回归作为次学习器,进行Stacking集成学习预测。结果表明,Stacking集成学习的预测效果要优于单一模型中预测效果最好的XGBoost,其预测值的结果和实测值更为接近,为中长期径流预报提供了新思路。 Medium and long-term runoff forecast is of great significance to the optimal operation of reservoirs, development and utilization of water resources. Firstly, the gradient boosting decision tree (GBRT) and extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) based on boosting algorithm are selected. There is also random forest (RF) and extreme random tree (ET) based on bagging algorithm. These four algorithms are used as forecasting models to forecast the average monthly inflow of the Jinping-I Reservoir, and then the prediction results are analyzed and compared. The results showed that the RF prediction was the worst, and XGBoost was the best. Then, the three methods with better prediction effect are ET, XGBoost and GBRT as primary learners, logistic regression as secondary learners, and stacking ensemble learning to predict. The first mock exam results show that the prediction result of Stacking ensemble learning is better than that of XGBoost with the best prediction result in a single model. The predicted value is closer to the measured value, which provides a new idea for medium and long-term runoff forecast.
Back to Top Top