Solid State Phenomena
EISSN : 1662-9779
Published by: Trans Tech Publications, Ltd. (10.4028)
Total articles ≅ 13,681
Latest articles in this journal
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 119-124; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.119
Research results of modified composites which consist of isolated layers with different properties and their practical usages are represented in this article. A structure of the composite material is considered. The structure is combined of few layers; external layers are made of corrosive resistance material with dielectric behavior while the internal part of the composite is made of electrically conductive material with high conductive and mechanical properties. Conductive properties of each layer have been measured as well as their mechanical properties and structure. Also, the features of the joints between layers in terms of structure and properties were defined. More than that, varieties of mixtures and their possible usage are considered. Conductive properties of composite materials and ways of their adjustment have been described as well. For the first time, the measuring scheme of conductive properties for each layer was offered and heat shrinkable tubes and copper electrodes were used for it. Efficiency of modified composites and its behavior when electrical current applied can be measured by using the scheme.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 188-193; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.188
The development and subsequent production of these special kind of grog from raw materials available in the Czech Republic is one of the possibilities how to reduce income costs for the production of refractory materials with specific properties. The experimental work is focused on verifying the possibility of producing grog with increased alumina content from available raw materials. The raw materials are kaolins and claystones. To achieve a higher content of alumina in the grog, waste mullite dust is used. In order to improve the physical and mechanical properties of the grog, modifiers are used. Selected modifiers are expected to affect positively on the resulting density while maintaining the heat properties.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 28-33; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.28
Portland-limestone cement materials are susceptible to sulfate attack at low temperature and high humidity, because such conditions facilitate the formation of thaumasite, detriment to the structural integrity of calcium silicate hydrates (C─S─H). In this work, the effect of the cation associated with sulfates, concentration of sulfate solution, and limestone content in cement, were thermodynamically simulated. MgSO4 solution is of higher risk, degrading extensively the structural integrity of C─S─H. Although this phase is partially preserved under the effect of Na2SO4 and K2SO4 solutions, extensive expansion and thaumasite formation occur. The sulfate content of the corrosive solution and the limestone content in cement are the factors mostly intensifying the attack caused by MgSO4 and Na2SO4/K2SO4 solutions, respectively.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 59-64; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.59
Computational prediction damage in cementitious composites, as steel fibre reinforced ones, under mechanical, thermal, etc. loads, manifested as creation of micro-fractured zones, followed by potential initiation and evolution of macroscopic cracks, is a rather delicate matter, due to the necessity of bridging between micro-and macro-scales. This short paper presents a relatively simple approach, based on the nonlocal viscoelasticity model, coupled with cohesive crack analysis, using extended finite element techniques. Such model admits proper verification of its existence and convergence results, from the physical and mathematical formulation up to software implementation of relevant algorithms. Its practical applicability is documented on a sequence of representative computational examples.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 21-27; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.21
The article describes the influence of chrysotile nanofibers dispersion introduction on the properties of the cement matrix. Comparison of the dispersion level of suspensions obtained using cavitation and ultrasonic processing methods is presented. The positive effect of chrysotile fibers application on the strength characteristics of the material has been confirmed. A 34% increase in the compressive strength of the samples was achieved on the 7th day of hardening, while on the 28th day it increased by 36% and with the steam treatment - by 38% compared to the reference sample. Laser particle size analysis confirmed the predominance of the nanosized component of chrysotile fibers in the suspension, which affected the structuring of the cement matrix. The results of the differential thermography, IR spectrometry, X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy of the samples are also presented. The analysis methods confirmed that introduction of chrysotile nanofibers suspension into the composition of a cement binder makes it possible to significantly vary the structure and morphology of new formations in fine-grained concrete. It also changes the quantitative and qualitative phase composition of the material with the formation of calcium silicate hydrates of lower basicity, leading to an increase in the strength of cement concrete.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 53-58; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.53
The influence of the chemical composition of bauxite on the mineral formation and structure of sulfoaluminate-ferrite clinker (SAFC), and physical and mechanical properties of cement based on it is studied. Ferrous bauxite, marble crushing screenings and neutralized fluorine-anhydrite were used for the synthesis of SAFC. The compositions of raw mixes of low-and high-alkaline SAFC are calculated with modular characteristics: Mf (ferritic modulus) = 0.35 and 0.7, Мs (sulfate modulus) = 0.167 and 0.5, respectively. Clinker synthesis from a raw mix containing ferrous bauxite with a quality coefficient of 1.7 must be carried out at a temperature of 1250 °C, which is reduced to 1200 °C for burning a raw mix based on bauxite with a quality coefficient of 2.2. Intensive decomposition of anhydrite occurs with the release of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere at a temperature of 1300 °C, so it is not recommended to burn SAFC at this temperature. The mineral composition of the obtained SAFC is represented by sulfoaluminate, calcium sulfoferrite and free anhydrite. There is no C2S as a separate phase in clinkers, since in the process of their synthesis belite dissolves in 3С(A,F)·СŜ, mainly in the aluminoferrite phase. The use of bauxite with a quality coefficient of 2.2 in the SAFC raw mix increases the cement activity up to 54.2 MPa. Increasing its specific surface from 350 to 460 m2/kg significantly reduces the setting time of cement paste and increases the strength of sulfoaluminate-ferrite cement both in the early (up to 43.4 MPa) and late hardening periods (up to 67.3 MPa).
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 79-85; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.79
The storage of the phosphogypsum in stockpiles causes serious environmental problems. In order to avoid them, this by-product should be utilised. Hence, one solution is to employ it as a binding material, so that its structural and binding properties must be satisfactory. Depending on the type of original phosphate rock, the microstructure of phosphogypsum may differ, determining its main physical-mechanical properties. However, research with comparative analyses of the properties of phosphogypsum from different origins is almost inexistent. Therefore, in this study, the microstructure of phosphogypsum from two different sources is analysed: the first type is from Kovdor mine (Russia); the second is a mixture between material from Kirov (Russia) and Casablanca (Morocco) mines. The microstructure of both phosphogypsum types was analysed and compared by applying SEM-DES analysis and by measuring the loss on ignition. In order to obtain high mechanical properties, the material was processed by press-forming. Eventually, the mechanical properties of hardened phosphogypsum of both types were obtained by compression test and then compared.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 40-46; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.40
Carbonatation represents one of the potential degradation processes whose can negatively affect the service life of constructions based on the inorganic binders. The carbonatation depth of the constructions when exposed to various environments is significantly dependent on the existing conditions. The most crucial parameters are the partial pressure of carbon dioxide and humidity. There were selected four environments for the deposition of samples made of the alkali-activated blast furnace slag mortars (exterior, interior, water and CO2 chamber) in this study. These types of environments guarantee the variation of desired parameters influencing the carbonatation rate. The progress of carbonatation was evaluated with a selected technique in time intervals of 28; 56 and 84 days of the sample's exposition to the selected environments. The characterization was done using the destructive techniques (compressive and flexural strength, phenolphthalein method) as well as the non-destructive one like the Impact-Echo or the Ultrasound time passage measurement. The combination of these techniques allows to determine and evaluate the progress of carbonation without the destructive testing of the samples which is necessary for the real applications of these materials.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 9-20; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.9
Glass is an amorphous material, which could be a good pozzolanic material and can be beneficial in compressive strength gain. However, if waste of glass powder has undesirable contaminations (aluminium, clay impurities, sulphates, etc.) it can negatively affect hydration process. In the research were used two types of waste glass (with and without harmful impurities). Waste glass shards were obtained from a local waste recycling plant and its properties were investigated in the Portland cement hydration process. Properties of waste glass were analysed by SEM, XRD test methods, pozzolanicity of glass powder was investigated by Chappelle test method. The hydration process of Portland cement was researched by the semi-adiabatic test method and XRD analysis. Properties of hardened cement paste was analysed by: density, flexural and compressive strength test methods The main aim of this research is to analyse waste glass, which after primary cleaning is not suitable for secondary reuse and investigate its suitability in cement-based systems.
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 325, pp 168-173; https://doi.org/10.4028/www.scientific.net/ssp.325.168
This paper deals with the possibility of using pumice aggregates into thermal insulation lining of industrial chimneys. It introduces the construction of modern chimneys and mentions possible risks and degradation processes associated with condensate penetration. In the experiment, mixtures with pumice as aggregate were prepared. The thermal insulation properties, compressive strengths and the resistance to sulphates in a 5% sodium sulphate solution were evaluated and compared.