Solid State Phenomena

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EISSN : 1662-9779
Published by: Trans Tech Publications, Ltd. (10.4028)
Total articles ≅ 13,875
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Dominik Nuss, Minh Quang Pham, Cornelia Sennewald, Gerald Hoffmann,
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 183-195;

Fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP) structures are established in numerous lightweight solutions. Among textile products available for technical applications, flat woven fabrics are commonly used to produce 3D components. In order to convert the flat woven structures into 3D geometries, draping and cutting processes are applied primarily. This leads to structural distortions, yarn interruption and overlaps of the layers. Beside the resulting reduction of mechanical properties, manual work steps are necessary. 3D woven fabrics offer outstanding possibilities for realizing net-shape FRP lightweight structures while avoiding these disadvantages. A current challenge in the manufacture of 3D net-shape structures is the direct generation of desired geometry during the weaving process. The aim of the presented work is the development of a novel weaving technology that enables the creation of spherically curved woven fabrics. Constructive-technological solutions are presented and the required mathematical as well as weaving modelling is shown.
Müslüm Kaplan, Beate Krause, Petra Pötschke
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 91-96;

Textile products are of great importance in the dissemination of newly developed communication devices and flexible electronics in conjunction with the advantages of covering the entire human body and being used all day long by all individuals in society. Various approaches have been developed to ensure the required electrical conductivity of textiles. Our research deals with melt spinning of carbon nanomaterial-based composites (CNCs) into electrically conductive filaments. By combining the various composite structures and property profiles with a conductive filler at high concentration, specific morphological structures can be achieved that offer a much higher potential for the development of new functional fibers for different smart textile applications.This study aims to produce nanocomposites from polyamide 6 (PA6) and polyethylene (PE) matrices with single-walled CNTs (SWCNTs) and multi-walled CNTs (MWCNTs) by using a small-scale mixing device that provides short mixing time, and material savings in the first stage of the research.
Elena Osswald, Helder Carvalho, Isabel Cabral, António Pedro Souto, Ana Cunha
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 143-151;

The combination of sensor technology and textiles substantially extends the range of textile applications. Smart textiles, especially clothing, might increasingly be equipped with pressure sensors. They could be used in the sports or health sector to measure body activities or other activities which are close to the body. Therefore, it is essential to develop flexible sensors which allow to adapt to the properties of textile materials which are in contact with the body or surrounding it. In this paper a pressure sensor based on piezoresistive ink and conductive fabric with high flexibility is reported. Preliminary pressure sensors have been fabricated and tested on a universal testing machine. The sensors show to be functional, but also showing some aspects to improve, such as its hysteretic behaviour.
, Hans Winger, Philippa Ruth Christine Böhnke, Jens Wagner, , Andreas Nocke, ,
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 39-46;

The internet of things is a key driver for new developments in the fields of medicine, industry 4.0 and gaming. Consequently, the interaction of virtual and real world by smart interconnecting of devices in our everyday life is the basis idea of the Cluster of Excellence "Centre for Tactile Internet with Human-in-the-Loop" (CeTI) at TU Dresden. To enable a user-centric approach in CeTI innovative textile structures, mainly knitted smart gloves, and their functionalization by integration of sensors and sensory yarns are focus of research activities.
Henriette Probst, Joanna Wollmann, Johannes Mersch, Andreas Nocke,
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 81-89;

Electrically conductive fibers are required for numerous fields of application in modern textile technology. They are of particular importance in the manufacturing of smart textiles and fiber composite systems with textile-based sensor and actuator systems. Elastic and electrically conductive filaments can be used as strain sensors for monitoring the mechanical loading of critical components. In order to produce such sensorial filaments, thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) is compounded with carbon nanotubes (CNT) and melt spun. The mechanical performances of filaments produced at different spinning speeds and containing different amounts of CNT were tested. Furthermore, the correlation between the specific electrical resistance of the filaments and the mechanical strain were analyzed depending on the CNT-content and the spinning speed.
Elham Mohsenzadeh, Hayriye Gidik, Daniel Dupont, Axel Hemberg, Driss Lahem
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 63-68;

Nowadays, building insulation must be more and more effective to avoid energy loss. This can result in the lack of ventilation which can cause an increase in the concentration of pollutants in the indoor air, such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) which are harmful to human health. Different approaches have been proposed to reduce this problem such as ventilation, filtration, depolluting plants, etc. The aim of this study consists of developing functionalized textile substrate allowing the VOCs degradation, ideally into H2O and CO2, by the photocatalytic effect under visible light. It is necessary to have photocatalytic activity under visible light for indoor applications as the UV light is filtered by window glasses. To achieve this objective, firstly the samples of woven cotton fabrics are functionalized with the dispersion of silver doped/non-doped TiO2 in Carboxymethyl Cellulose (CMC) and water by padding process. After that, the treatment sustainability of the functionalized fabric is determined.
Isabel Cabral, António Pedro Souto
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 97-106;

Smart textile behaviour encompasses changes over time, which are triggered upon a sensed stimulus. With a focus on dynamic qualities, this research sought to study how gradual and reversible transitions of smart textiles can be influenced by the activation variable – stimuli magnitude. Taking into account an analysis of different external stimuli for the same property change, the experimental work was conducted with Colour Change Materials, namely textiles screen printed with thermo, photo and hydrochromic pigments. The results attained demonstrate how stimuli magnitude can affect textile temporal expressions, in this case: hue, saturation and lightness, as well as pace change. In addition, different considerations also arose in respect to each stimulus’ energy type and interdependencies between stimuli types. Contributing to the understanding of dynamic qualities of smart textiles and chromic materials’ properties, this research also discusses further alternatives to explore textile behaviour towards new design possibilities for smart textiles as dynamic interfaces.
Mujgan Nayci Duman, Ismail Usta, Gokhan Bora Esmer
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 55-62;

Textile-based Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) tags are widely used in different applications such as sensing, localization, and identification applications. Embroidery is one of the methods in textile-based RFID tag production. The embroidered RFID tags are generally used in the follow-up of textile raw material production and inventory, and laundry of commercial textiles. They capture the transmitted electromagnetic wave and generate a new one with a special coding that includes the required information about the item. Therefore, the fabrication parameters of the embroidered antennas are important in terms of durability, cost, and working performance. The conductivity of an embroidered antenna depends on the conductivity of the thread, stitch density, thread tension, and sewing method of the embroidery. In this study, the effect of stitch density, thread tension, and using conductive yarn as needle (upper) or bobbin (lower) thread for embroidered RFID antennas were examined using a polyester yarn twisted with stainless steel that is plain stitched on cotton fabric. The read range performances of the samples were tested with an integrated circuit (IC) by using an indoor RFID reader. It was seen that the optimised stitch density has a significant impact while it was determining the amount of conductive element due to the length of the yarn. Additionally, using conductive yarn as lower thread gave nearly 50% better results in signal strengths.
Nertila Ogreni, Gentian Zavalani, Ligor Nikolla, Artan Sinoimeri
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 227-235;

The mechanical behaviour of textile structures is one of their most important characteristics as far as their end use is concerned. Textile structures, fabrics, or yarns are often considered as continuous mediums apart from the fact that they are composed of some discrete elements, individual fibres composing yarns and yarns composing fabrics. This is known as the transition scale, a very important lock to be considered, to evaluate the real structure behaviour. In this context, this work presents some simulations of the mechanical behaviour of a fabric where the yarn is a continuum material. Particular attention was paid to simultaneous loading in uniaxial or biaxial extension and shear loadings. The results of numerical simulations, which show the deformed fabric unit cell under multi-load conditions, are coherent with experimental observations and encourage the authors to continue the present work with parametrical and inverse case studies.
Moniruddoza Ashir, Andreas Nocke,
Solid State Phenomena, Volume 333, pp 47-53;

Adaptive fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) contain actuators that enable the controlled modification of system states and characteristics. The textile-technical integration of actuators, in particular shape memory alloys, into reinforcing fabrics has increasingly been applied in recent years. The objective is to achieve optimum force transmission from shape memory alloy to FRP, long-term stability of adaptive FRP as well as a maximum degree of deformation. This paper presents the development of actuator networks for adaptive FRP, where two shape memory alloys are integrated into reinforcing fabrics by means of open reed weaving technology. After infusion of the functionalized reinforcing fabrics, the deformation behavior of adaptive FRP was characterized with variable actuator switching frequencies (≥ 1 Hz) or actuator activation times (≤ 1 s).
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