Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research
Latest articles in this journal
Published: 25 June 2020
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 8, pp 06-12; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.8.2.2
Background: Garcinia lancifolia, a potential medicinal plant has significant local use to alleviate various diseases like dysentery, diarrhea, dyspepsia, and as a pain reliever but not scientifically proven at yet. The present study was aimed to evaluate the anti-diarrheal, analgesic, and antioxidant activities of crude extract of G. lancifolia. Methods: The plant parts of G. lancifolia were collected, dried, powdered, and extracted with methanol. Then the extracts were subjected to in-vivo anti-diarrheal activity by castor oil-induced method and analgesic activity by hot plate method in mice model. The Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging and total phenolic content were demonstrated for the analysis of antioxidant activity. Results: Phytochemical screening confirmed the presence of active phytochemicals like flavonoids, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycoside, and terpenoids in the plant extract. The extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significantly a reduction of diarrheal feces by 61.161% (p 0.01) and 72.33% (p 0.001), respectively in contrast to standard drug loperamide (77.83% reduction). In the hot plate method, the crude extract (300 mg/kg) revealed significant (p 0.05) analgesia in comparison to standard aceclofenac. In an antioxidant activity test, the extract contains a moderate level of phenolic content 10.78 μg/mg of gallic acid equivalent and the antioxidant activity by using DPPH free radical scavenging showed poor antioxidant potential with an IC50 value of 148.26 μg/mL. Conclusion: The findings of this study conclude that this plant is a potential source of pharmacological actions that may be a basis for further investigation on a large scale
Published: 25 June 2020
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 8, pp 01-05; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.8.2.1
Introduction: A sickle cell anaemia one of a haemoglobinopathy, which constituted as a model for genetically inherited disorders, the course of the disease involves may crises, the investigation of hemostatic components as fibrinogen and fibrinolysis as D-dimer, reflect the overall hemostatic status in the sickle cell anaemia patients. Aim: To investigates hemostatic and fibrinolytic system parameters among sickle cell anaemia patients in the Khartoum state. Methods: The study was conducted in Khartoum state, in JafarIbn Auf Reference Hospital for children as descriptive case-control, a laboratory-based study from 2017-18, specimens were collected randomly of the study population with irrespective to age and gender, blood draw in tri-sodium citrate container, the ethical and consent were obtained. The fibrinogen level was estimated by CA51 semi-automated coagulation analyzer optically based, and the D-dimer were assayed by MISPA-i2, a nephelometric based, the results for each parameter were recorded and using statistical package for the social sciences (SPSS) software for analysis by independent T-test and the statistical significance > 0.05. Results: A hundred participants fifty as study group (HbSS) sickle cell anemic Sudanese child clinically and laboratory-confirmed and fifty healthy as the control group, in comparing a mean of fibrinogen show statistically insignificant (P value 0.645) study group 291.1 ± 107.8 mg/dL and control group 283.4 ± 49.1 mg/dL, but there was a significant difference in comparing a mean of D-dimer in study group 0.56 ± 0.33 μg/mL and control group 0.33 ± 0.14 the P. value 0.00015. Conclusion: The level of D-dimer may be used as a hypercoagulability biomarker in comparison to the level of fibrinogen level for sickle cell anaemia Sudanese child.
Published: 31 March 2020
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 8, pp 01-08; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.8.1.1
Candida albicans is currently the fourth-leading cause of hospital-acquired bloodstream infections, reaching a mortality rate of up to 35–40% for systemic or disseminated infections. Systemic mycoses can occur in patients with severely impaired immune systems (AIDS), with organ or bone marrow transplants, cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy, and patients in ICU (neonates and elderly). It is, therefore, obvious that there is a substantial need for fast, effective antifungal antibiotics to combat fungal infections. The present investigation has been proposed to screen effective fungal metabolites for the control of Candida albicans by evaluating the potential of fungal bioactive compounds, its purification and characterization
Published: 31 March 2020
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 8, pp 09-13; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.8.1.2
A kidney is particularly prone to the action of nephrotoxins because it receives 25% of the cardiac output. The presence of the metabolic processes in the renal tubular cells, nephrotoxins can release toxic components and induce damage. Nephrotoxicity can be diagnosed through a simple blood test. Evaluation of nephrotoxicity through blood tests includes the measurements of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), the concentration of serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate and creatinine clearance. The majority of cases of renal disease remain unnoticed unless they progress to advance stages when conventional therapeutic interventions are usually not sufficient to cure them completely. In this review, the study attempted to identify biomarkers that are more sensitive than the established markers and that are more indicative of pre-renal damage. Research is also focused on identifying biomarkers that can indicate the nature of the mechanisms involved. Nephrotoxicity assays such as measurement of the concentration of serum creatinine or blood urea nitrogen (BUN) do not have the sensitivity and selectivity required to determine nephrotoxicity in an early stage. Recently identified biomarkers described in this review may provide useful information to diagnose nephrotoxicity earlier and more selectively.
Published: 31 December 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 05-09; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.4.2
Diabetes is a chronic disease that is raising health concerns. Eriosema psoraleoides is one of the medicinal plants reported to be used in managing this condition in Eastern Nigeria. This study investigated the effect of four fractions [(n-hexane; n-hexane: dichloromethane (50:50); dichloromethane; and dichloromethane: methanol (95:5)] of the n-hexane leaf extract of this plant on the blood glucose levels of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. The n-hexane extract was obtained by maceration, filtration, and evaporation using a rotary evaporator. Phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out using standard methods. The extract was fractionated using column chromatography, and ten fractions were obtained. The fractions were pooled together into four fractions based on the similarity in their Rf values. A dose of 200mg/kg of each of the fractions was given orally for 7 days to the alloxan-induced diabetic rats, and plasma blood glucose concentrations determined. Preliminary screening of the extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, steroids, reducing sugars, tannins and combined anthraquinones. Two fractions, the n-hexane: dichloromethane (50:50) and the dichloromethane, produced significant (p 0.05) decrease in blood glucose concentrations in their treated groups compared to that of glibenclamide (standard drug) treated, and the diabetic untreated groups of the diabetic rats. However, the n-hexane and the dichloromethane: methanol (95:5) fractions produced no significant (p 0.05) decrease in blood glucose concentrations. The observed antidiabetic property of the n-hexane: dichloromethane (50:50) and the dichloromethane (100%) fractions suggests that Eriosema psoraleoides could be used in the management of diabetes and this gives credence to its use in ethnomedicine for this purpose.
Published: 31 December 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 01-04; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.4.1
Cardiovascular disease the life threatens issues in the present days, which includes other diseases like angina pectoris, atherosclerosis, and myocardial infarction. The various novel drug delivery systems like transdermal patches, liposomes, micelles, nanoparticles, microbubbles, drug-eluting balloons, and an eluting drug stents are used for targeted drug delivery and improved therapeutic efficacy and showed better patient compliance in the present days.
Published: 30 September 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 05-11; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.3.2
The oral route is the most preferred route for the administration of various drugs because it is the most convenient and safest route for drug delivery. The researcher develops a recently fast dissolving tablet (FDT). This improved patient compliance and convenience. FDTs are defining as the solid dosage form, which disintegrates in saliva without the need for water. Solid dispersions attract considerable interest by increasing the dissolution rate and also enhance the bioavailability of poor water-soluble drugs. Pre-gastric absorption avoids first-pass hepatic metabolism, which increases the bioavailability of the drug. One part of the review article focus on solid dispersion, there advantages, disadvantages, and method of preparation. Later part of the review article focus on the evaluation of fast dissolving tablet.
Published: 25 September 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 01-04; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.3.1
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Published: 30 June 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 01-08; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.2.1
A series of coumarin-benzimidazole derivatives i.e. 4-((1H-Benzo[d]imidazol-2- yl)methoxy)coumarin derivatives (7a-j) was synthesized by reacting appropriate starting materials and evaluated for its in vitro antimicrobial activity. The newly synthesized compounds have been characterized on the basis of elemental analyses, spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR). Antimicrobial studies of these compounds were performed against the both the Gram positive, MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis) as well as Gram negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria. The activity was investigated by using both Agar well diffusion as well as MIC assay. All the compounds were show significant bactericidal activity against all the pathogenic strains in comparison to Ciprofloxacin, a broad spectrum antibiotic against Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria. Most of the synthesized derivatives appeared as excellent antimicrobial agents as compared to standard drug Ciprofloxacin. Compound 7b was found to be the most active antibacterial agent against Gram positive as well as Gram negative bacteria.
Published: 30 June 2019
Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Research, Volume 7, pp 09-16; doi:10.30750/ijpbr.7.2.2
Among newly discovered chemical entities about 40% drugs are hydrophobic which are failed to reach market due to their low aqueous solubility. For orally administered drugs solubility is one of the rate limiting parameter to achieve their desired concentration in systemic circulation for pharmacological response.Drug efficacy can be limited due to poor aqueous solubility and some drugs also show side effects like gastric irritation, peptic ulcers,due to their poor solubility. Because of solubility problem of many drugs the bioavailability of them gets affected and hence solubility enhancement becomes challenging. The present review is devoted to various traditional and novel techniques for enhancing drug solubility to reduce the percentage of poorly soluble drug candidates eliminated from the new formulation development.