Journal of Orthoptera Research
ISSN / EISSN : 1082-6467 / 1937-2426
Published by: Pensoft Publishers (10.3897)
Total articles ≅ 715
Latest articles in this journal
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 155-161; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.65172
Aversive learning has been studied in a variety of species, such as honey bees, mice, and non-human primates. Since aversive learning has been found in some invertebrates and mammals, it will be interesting to know if this ability is shared with crickets. This paper provides data on aversive learning in male and female house crickets (Acheta domesticus) using a shuttle box apparatus. Crickets are an ideal subject for these experiments due to their well-documented learning abilities in other contexts and their readily quantifiable behaviors. The shuttle box involves a two-compartment shock grid in which a ‘master’ cricket can learn to avoid the shock by moving to specific designated locations, while a paired yoked cricket is shocked regardless of its location and therefore cannot learn. Baseline control crickets were placed in the same device as the experimental crickets but did not receive a shock. Male and female master crickets demonstrated some aversive learning, as indicated by spending more time than expected by chance in the correct (no shock) location during some parts of the experiment, although there was high variability in performance. These results suggest that there is limited evidence that the house crickets in this experiment learned how to avoid the shock. Further research with additional stimuli and other cricket species should be conducted to determine if house crickets and other species of crickets exhibit aversive learning.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 145-154; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.65971
The recent upsurge of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775) has had an impact on East Africa and the Middle East as far as India. It has affected and slowed down many aspects of the Pakistani economy. Swarms of locusts have infested many areas and caused immense damage to all types of crops. Both farmers and economists are concerned and are trying to get the most up-to-date information on the best strategy to manage this pest. This paper is an attempt to (i) provide insight into the dynamics of this upsurge internationally as well as in the various regions of Pakistan, (ii) briefly assess its local impact and locust control measures, and (iii) clarify the role of the various stakeholders in the management, both nationally and internationally, suggesting various improvements for the future.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 117-130; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.64266
The increased attention given to health, food security, and biodiversity conservation in recent years should bring together conventional scientists and indigenous people to share their knowledge systems for better results. This work aims to assess how grasshoppers are perceived by the local people in southern Cameroon, particularly in terms of food, health, and landscape conservation. Villagers were interviewed individually using a rapid rural assessment method in the form of a semi-structured survey. Nearly all people (99%) declared that they are able to identify local grasshoppers, generally through the color of the insect (80%). Crop fields were the most often cited landscape (16%) in terms of abundance of grasshoppers, with forest being less mentioned (8%). In general, villagers claimed that grasshopper abundance increased with forest degradation. Grasshoppers were found during all seasons of the year but noted to be more abundant during the long dry seasons. People found grasshoppers both useful and harmful, the most harmful reported being Zonocerus variegatus, an important crop pest. Cassava is the most attacked crop with 75–100% losses. Industrial crops, such as cocoa, coffee, and bananas, were not cited as being damaged by grasshoppers. The most effective conventional method cited for the control of pest grasshoppers is the use of pesticides (53%) with, in most cases (27%), a 75–100% efficiency. The traditional method of spreading ash was also often cited (19%), with an estimated efficiency of 25–75%. Biological methods were neither cited nor used by the villagers. Most of them (87%) declared that they eat grasshoppers; some sold these insects in the market (58%) and some used them to treat diseases (11%).
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 107-115; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.63405
Synchronous hatching within single egg clutches is moderately common in locusts and other insects and can be mediated by vibrational stimuli generated by adjacent embryos. However, in non-locust grasshoppers, there has been little research on the patterns of egg hatching and the mechanisms controlling the time of hatching. In this study, the hatching patterns of six grasshoppers (Atractomorpha lata, Oxya yezoensis, Acrida cinerea, Chorthippus biguttulus, Gastrimargus marmoratus, and Oedaleus infernalis) were observed under various laboratory treatments. Under continuous illumination and a 25/30°C thermocycle, the eggs of these grasshoppers tended to hatch during the first half of the daily warm period. Eggs removed from egg pods and cultured at 30°C tended to hatch significantly earlier and more synchronously when kept in groups vs. singly. In general, eggs hatched earlier when egg group size was increased. Egg hatching was stimulated by hatched nymphs in some species, but not in others. In all species, two eggs separated by several millimeters on sand hatched less synchronously than those kept in contact with one another, but the hatching synchrony of similarly separated eggs was restored if they were connected by a piece of wire, suggesting that a physical signal transmitted through the wire facilitated synchronized hatching. In contrast, hatching times in the Emma field cricket, Teleogryllus emma, which lays single, isolated eggs, were not influenced by artificial clumping in laboratory experiments. These results are discussed and compared with the characteristics of other insects.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 99-106; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.62000
A new species of tree cricket, Neoxabea mexicana sp. nov., is described from northeast Mexico. Although it has morphological similarities to two other species found in Mexico, there are distinguishing characters, such as a well-developed tubercle on the pedicel, black markings on the maxillary palpi, one of the two pairs of spots on the female wings positioned at the base of the wings, stridulatory teeth count, and the pulse rate of the male calling song. The calling song description and pre-singing stuttering frequencies are provided. Character comparisons that rule out other species in the genus are presented. The common name given to this new species is Mexican tree cricket. Sound recordings and video are available online. We also make some clarification of the status of Neoxabea formosa (Walker, 1869), described as Oecanthus formosus, and present a key of Neoxabea in North and Central America.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 95-98; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.62022
A new subspecies of the Asian mantis Hierodula patellifera (Audinet-Serville, 1839), Hierodula patellifera daitoana ssp. nov., is described based on specimens collected from the Daito Islands, the Ryukyus, Japan. This new subspecies is distinguished from the nominotypical subspecies H. patellifera patellifera in adulthood by the relatively larger body size, the larger number of antennal segments, the presence of a white marking along the dorsal-inner surface on the procoxa, and marginal spines of the procoxa comprising two large and several small tooth-like projections.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 87-94; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.62170
The genus Dicranostomus belongs to the very few Orthoptera with elongated mandibular processes, here called tusks. However, it is also one of the least studied genera from whose two species only one female and two males have been known so far. We present additional material from both species and sexes that confirms that the males have the relatively longest (2–2.8 times pronotal length) tusks of all Orthoptera. Surprisingly, the females of both species differ in this character: females of D. monoceros have tusks and those of D. nitidus do not. Based on a comparison with other species, we hypothesize that the species use holes that males can defend and use to monopolize the females.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 73-80; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.59153
Most grasshopper species have simple and similar life cycles and histories; however, different environmental and ecological factors have different effects on their distribution, sexes, and developmental stages, with effects varying among species. If we are to conserve grasshoppers, we need to understand their ecology and life histories. The aim of this study was to investigate aspects of the life histories and ecology of two recently described co-occurring, congeneric species of wingless grasshoppers, Eremidium armstrongi (Brown, 2012) and Eremidium browni Otte & Armstrong, 2017, at the Doreen Clark Nature Reserve near Pietermaritzburg, South Africa. These two species have limited extents of occurrence, only being known from an endangered forest type in parts of the midland area of KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa, and therefore may need conservation action to ensure their long-term survival. No significant differences in the abundances of the two Eremidium grasshoppers were found, but their phenologies differed, with the adults of E. armstrongi being present before the adults of E. browni, with some overlap in presence over time. The Eremidium grasshoppers were only found in the forest and were more abundant in the forest margin. The Eremidium grasshoppers fed on soft plants from several families. Information on dietary differences between the species is required to determine whether there is potential competition between them. An adult E. browni female kept in an ex situ terrarium laid eggs in the soil, and nymphs took approximately two months to hatch.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 67-71; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.52634
The Atlantic beach cricket Pseudomogoplistes vicentae Gorochov, 1996 (Orthoptera: Grylloidea: Mogoplistidae) is among the rare Orthoptera species that live exclusively in coastal habitats. It inhabits cobble beaches from North Africa to Great Britain, with populations known in Morocco, Portugal, Spain, France, Channel Islands, Wales and England. P. vicentae was found on the Spanish continental coast for the first time in 2018, in Asturias. The discovery of three populations in the Basque autonomous community (Northern Spain) is reported here, and useful information for increasing its detection and monitoring its populations is provided.
Journal of Orthoptera Research, Volume 30, pp 81-85; https://doi.org/10.3897/jor.30.63692
In the original description of Allonemobius walkeri Howard & Furth, 1986, the authors describe the species’ calling songs in a table that included trill length, length of the interval between trills, pulse rate, and carrier frequency for four individuals. Further investigation of the acoustics of this species reveals that the calling songs are composed of syllables organized into echemes composed of a varying number of syllables, and organized into groups of echemes, of variable length. The echemes are separated by intervals of various lengths. The calling song is pleasing to the ear, with ~27 syllables per second and a carrier frequency of ~7.7 kHz at 25°C. The characteristics of the echemes and echeme intervals are significantly different when the cricket is singing in sunlight compared to darkness. In sunlight, echemes are shorter, but echeme intervals are longer. There is no effect on calling bout lengths. Courtship songs are quieter than calling songs, with a random delivery of soft and loud chirps in addition to fainter, rhythmic sounds randomly distributed between the chirps. Courtship songs are interspersed with long bouts of calling songs with displays lasting hours.