Modern Applied Science

Journal Information
ISSN / EISSN : 1913-1844 / 1913-1852
Current Publisher: Canadian Center of Science and Education (10.5539)
Total articles ≅ 2,656
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Hani Alkhaldi, Malek Alkhutaba, Mohammad Al-Dlalah
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p17

Abstract:
This study aimed to build self-confidence for high school students in Al-Mafraq Governorate in Jordan following the Item Response Theory (IRT). The scale included its initial version (50) items. To ensure the external validity of the scale, it was reviewed by several experts. According to the experts’ feedback, some items should be deleted or modified. The final version of the scale included (44) items. The scale was further applied to an experimental sample of (310) male and female students to verify psychometricians’ characteristics. Finally, the scale was administered to a sample of (1060) male and female high school students in Al-Mafraq Governorate. Data were collected, coded, and analyzed using statistical programs (SPSS and WINSTEPS). The most important results were the following: the self-confidence measure was one-dimensional, which means it measures only a single dimension. The results further revealed identical to the partial estimation model, and the index of average matching of individuals and the external and internal items approached zero, and the standard deviation approached the correct one. The estimated values of the distinct thresholds for the scale items showed a clear discriminatory ability and the emergence of particular threshold scores on the scale. After deleting the paragraphs that did not fit the study's model, the scale's final version included 39 items. The results also showed that the transfer values of logistical capacity units were within (-2.88 -2.77), within the IRT's accepted range.
Alejandro De Jesús Cortés-Sánchez
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n3p1

Abstract:
Fish and products are considered a food of nutritional quality that constituents a part of the human diet, produced and commercialized worldwide. Tilapia is one of the main fish for aquaculture production destined for human consumption in different presentations: refrigerated, frozen, fillet, cured, canned, among others. Fish, in addition to being a highly nutritious food, is also sensitive to deterioration and contamination along the food chain, being able to be contaminated mainly by microorganisms that are casual agents of consumer illnesses. Clostridium botulinum and spores can contaminate foods such as fish and products whose germination, growth and generation of botulinum toxin puts the health of consumers at high risk of acquiring botulism disease, which is of importance in public health due to its incidence and high fatality rate. This review describes in a general way the aspects related to fish and tilapia, foodborne diseases such as botulism, the causal agent, in addition to sanitary regulation, control and prevention of contamination of food products to protect food safety, and consumer’s health.
Sunny Lee
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p112

Abstract:
Reviewer Acknowledgements, Vol. 15, No. 2, April 2021
Hussien H. Almistareehi, Nashwan A. Nashwan
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p96

Abstract:
This study aimed to identify the impact of a digital educational story based on sports on developing alphabetical learning skills among Jordanian pre-school kids in light of the Covid-19 pandemic. The study sample consisted of (29) pre-school kids from the leaders' international schools, "The International Curriculum," which is affiliated to Al-Qweismeh District's Directorate in Amman. The study used an Experimental approach; the study sample chosen by intention randomly was divided into two groups: experimental group (14) kids: (7) girls and (7) boys, and control group (15) kids: (7) are boys, and (8) are girls. To achieve the study's goal, the researchers built a guide for the teacher to implement the experiment; they also built a pre-and post-test consisting of (16) items and provided the Arabic language teacher with digital educational stories based on sport learning the alphabet. The stories include the alphabet lessons: (letter al-ba, letter al-da, letter al-ha, letter al-ain), from the "curriculum in the Arabic language” for the academic year 2020/2021. The results of the study showed that there were statistically significant differences in favor of students of the experimental group, which studied the digital educational story in each Alphabet learning skills: Pronunciation, Abstraction, and writing, in the combined skills, and the absence of statistically significant differences attributed to gender, interaction in testing the skills of learning the alphabet together, and in each of the skills of learning the alphabets: (pronunciation, abstraction, writing). In light of the findings mentioned above, the researchers proposed a set of recommendations that include Arabic language curricula guides in digital educational programs based on sports to be used in learning and teaching processes in teaching Arabic.
Gem Prasad Gurung, Suman Kumar Shrestha
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p88

Abstract:
Nature, culture, and education are interrelated to each other to maintain the beauty, peace, and habitability of the earth planet for all living creatures. But it’s being a hidden subject in concerned authorities. Nepal is rich in natural biodiversity as well as cultural diversity. Education is the main medium to handover the (cultural) knowledge of nature conservation to their generation. Hence this study aims to explore the deep relationship between nature (environment), culture, and education. As per the nature of research objectives, qualitative research methodology has been adopted. The reviewed literature is related to the world's perspectives and practices to maintain interrelation among nature, culture, and education. Hence, this study can contribute to making people aware of environmental conservation by exploring the relationship of our nature, human culture, and education. From the study, all the concerned environmental justice communities, agencies, and institutions would endeavour to link their particular significant roles for nature conservation.
Ao Gai
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p73

Abstract:
To improve the aerodynamic efficiency of a Formula One (F1) in Schools race car, the original model of the car is evaluated and compared with a new design. The ideas behind the new design are supported by research about aerodynamics. Different potential designs are created with CAD software Fusion 360 and evaluated within CFD software Solid Edge 2020 with FloEFD. Empirical data shows how specific changes to the structure of race cars can improve aerodynamic efficiency by decreasing their aerodynamic drag. The experimental data and methods of this study can provide help and guidance for teenagers participating in the F1 in Schools competition program to solve the aerodynamic performance problems of racing cars and thereby increase youth interest in STEM programs, as well as their opportunities to learn about engineering and enter engineering careers.
Prastiwi Prastiwi, Sumani Sumani, Minardi Slamet, Suntoro Suntoro, Supriyadi Suntoro
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p63

Abstract:
Rice (Oryza sativa L.) is a very important food crop because the result is used as a staple food for residents in Indonesia. Higher food fulfillment leads to the increase of rice production of the Mojogedang sub-district. Paddy fields that have high soil fertility will produce good rice productivity. Rice fields in Mojogedang Sub-district are managed with organic systems and conventional systems, the management of different fields of rice field certainly affects the level of fertility in the paddy fields so it is necessary to evaluate the soil fertility index. The survey area consists of 10 points with organic and conventional management systems. The parameters taken include chemical and biological properties of soil, including; pH, redox potential, C-organic, CEC, base saturation, P available, available K, N Total, C/N ratio, and total microbial. The data obtained by performed analysis of the main component principal component analysis (PCA) using statistical applications. Then after complete the calculation of The Soil Fertility Index (SFI) at each point and management system. The results of statistical analysis obtained soil Fertility Index on organic management systems have a class of 4 or very high and in conventional management systems have a class of 3 or High. The value of the index obtained is strongly influenced by the K indicator available where the indicator has a noticeable effect on the various management systems. Increased soil fertility index due to the use of manure that can improve plant nutrients and applied for long periods.
Gastón Sanglier, Carmen B. Martínez Cepa, Inés Serrano Fernández, Aurora Hernández González, Juan Carlos Zuíl Escobar
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p45

Abstract:
The research conducted in this study was applied to multidisciplinary groups of Higher Education belonging to different degrees using the methodology proposed by the Design Sprint (DS) tool for the achievement of different challenges/objectives in a very short time. The methodology used is an adaptation of the one proposed by the DS, carried out in five non-consecutive stages/sessions focused on students of the first two years of different degrees of the CEU San Pablo University. The students, in general, have valued very positively the collaborative work in small groups, the time management and the administration of work under stress. The abandonment of the different challenges was set at 32%. A high level of commitment has been appreciated among the students to reach the proposed challenges, however, the work of the mentors as guides, becomes essential in the first courses of the different degrees in a general way. The application of the SD methodology provides students with an increase in their performance, in their ability to work in teams and to adapt in the best possible way to the demands of a society that is increasingly demanding new technologies. Students have increased their ability to reflect, transform and innovate in the different objectives/challenges/projects demanded by the new circumstances and social strategies. The support of good mentors, critics and specialists in the different areas to be addressed is necessary to offer students a better learning experience.
Emeka P. Ukaegbu, Frank O. R. Akamigbo
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p36

Abstract:
Study evaluated predictive accuracy of USDA Soil Taxonomy Classifications of Soils of University of Nigeria, Nsukka. Data from 0 – 20cm and 30 – 60cm depths of 9 profiles, each representing a map unit, were used to determine coefficients of variation (CV) of soil properties over whole area sampled (control), within Great group class and series. There was progressive reduction in CVs from high to low categories, with the properties doing so irregularly. Average CVs for the various levels were 59.58% (over whole area), 56.97% (Great group), 50.77% (series) at topsoil, while at subsoil they were 38.15% (whole area), 31.53% (Great group), 25.19% (series). At topsoil, predictions of K & OC improved by 36.16% on the average at Great group, while it did for Clay, K, OC by 43.71% at series. At subsoil Silt, Mg, CEC, OC, TN improved by 34.17% at Great group on the average, while Clay, Silt, Mg, CEC, OC, TN, av.P did by 47.49% at series. Predicted properties, which were found to correlate with others, influence soil productivity. Sand and pH were virtually unaffected by classification. Study highlights a technique for evaluating predictive accuracy of soil classification using small sample size as well as the essence of detailed characterization of the soils.
Kimia Ghasemi, Mostafa Behzadfar, Mahdi Hamzenejad
Modern Applied Science, Volume 15; doi:10.5539/mas.v15n2p24

Abstract:
This article, through comparison, analyzes evolutions in architecture and school concepts and the relation between them in classic and modern periods in Iran, and by relying on persistent traditional Islamic schools architectural design patterns, provides an atmosphere, conforming to physical and spiritual needs in schools. The research method used in this article is descriptive-analytical and is conducted through library study in order to get familiarized with persistent social components in these schools, to use in new schools. In this research, after evaluating traditional schools, some factors, such as flexibility, central courtyard and the presence of natural elements in there, annular formation of classrooms and appropriate atmosphere for discussions and the transformation process of the interior and exterior relations are introduced which we can use in designing new schools, in order to fully improve the quality of the atmosphere in modern schools.
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