Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science

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ISSN / EISSN : 1496-2551 / 1496-256X
Published by: Thomas Telford Ltd. (10.1680)
Total articles ≅ 702
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Sambuddha Bajracharya, Awanish Adhikari, Prasesh Pote Shrestha,
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00045

Abstract:
Solid waste management is becoming a major environmental and public health concern in emerging municipalities in Nepal. In this study, the life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach is used to address the environmental impacts of potential waste-treatment scenarios in Dhulikhel Municipality in Nepal. The assessment was based on four different scenarios – namely, scenario 1, landfilling; scenario 2, composting combined with landfilling; scenario 3, recycling, composting and landfilling; and scenario 4, recycling, anaerobic digestion and landfilling. The LCA methodology was developed, including the benefits and impact potentials of different unit processes in each scenario, also taking into consideration emissions from energy use. The environmental impacts from the scenarios were compared in terms of global warming potential, acidification potential and eutrophication potential. Among the four scenarios, scenario 4 (i.e. with anaerobic digestion) showed the most environmental advantage. Scenarios without biological treatment facilities are the least preferred option, as their impact is significantly greater than those of other options. Therefore, organic waste is recommended not to be disposed of in landfill sites even if the transportation activity increases, because the magnitude of methane avoidance increases with an increased amount of waste diversion to the biological treatment units.
Nabila Shehata, Marwa Faisle, Ahmed Farghali, Mohamed El-Rabiei, Nady Mahmoud
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-12; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00003

Abstract:
The resistance of the intraparticle diffusion of different pollutants into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) is considered the main challenge in wastewater treatment. Hence, in this investigation, the authors discuss the kinetic parameters affecting the diffusion of different pollutants from municipal wastewater into the CNT matrix. Different models (pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, intraparticle diffusion, Avrami and mixed first- and second-order models) were studied to describe the adsorption characteristics of the reduction in chemical and biochemical oxygen demand of municipal wastewater in addition to the kinetic profile of some nutrients and heavy metals ions in the existence of CNTs. Finally, the mechanism of sorption of these main pollutants was proposed.
Azadeh Kalateh Arabi, Babak Akram, Seyed Ahmad Mirbagheri
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00028

Abstract:
Freshwater resources are limited and economically worthwhile with socio-economic and environmental impact. Due to the extension of cities, industrial extension, and population growth, environmental pollution has become noteworthy. Heavy metals are pollutants that are produced by industrial factories. Therefore, wastewater should be purified and treated and then be returned to natural water circulation. In this research, the removal of heavy metal Zinc at high concentrations in Esfarayen Steel Industrial Complex and the performance of the integrated system including activated carbon adsorption column (as pretreatment) and reverse osmosis (RO) membrane system under different operating conditions are investigated. The variable parameters studied are pH (4.5, 6.5, 7, and 9), pressure (5, 7, 9, and 11 bar), and Zinc concentration (30, 50, 70 mg/l) to obtain Zinc removal efficiency, turbidity dissolved solids (TDS), electrocoagulation (EC), and turbidity (TU) at constant temperature and flow rate. The results show that the efficiency of the integrated system at 9 bar pressure and the pH of 7.5 is considered to be optimal in terms of water outlet quality. At optimal conditions, the removal efficiency recorded for TDS is 98.1%, 97.4% for EC, 100% for Zinc and the turbidity removal efficiency is 95.3%, which is desirable. Moreover, the efficiency of this system at a high concentration of Zinc is evaluated. According to the results, it can be seen that the integrated system is resistant to probable shocks, high concentration and has a desirable efficiency since the efficiencies of all parameters are almost above 90%.
Kun Yin, Chen Guo, Zhanlu Lv, Shuli Zhao, Chengjun Jia, Hongxia Zhu
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00029

Abstract:
Toxicity and associated health risks of typical contaminated groundwater were evaluated using the bioassays, SOS/umu test and micronucleus assay, with a comparison of identified risks based on bioassay and chemical methods. Analysis of fifteen water extracts showed that a lifetime cancer risk (LCR) value of 10−6 was recorded for 47% of water extracts. These results indicated that some water extracts did not exhibit toxicity when analyzed using one type of bioassay, yet indicated high toxicity when analyzed using another method. Our results also demonstrated that LCR values from bioassays were generally greater (2.4-foldmax) than those derived from chemical analysis, a finding indicating that risks can be underestimated or false-negative results can be obtained when only chemical-based methods or even just one bioassay is used. This study suggests that the use of multiple bioassays should be considered to be an efficient method and a comprehensive method should be established for risk assessment. Our findings also suggest that groundwater and freshwater in the studied area might pose significant health risks and exhibit toxicity.
Sandra Ukaigwe, Yun Zhou, Mohamed Shaheen, Yang Liu
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00025

Abstract:
The performance of a membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) treating raw municipal wastewater primary effluent (PE) was optimized. The MABR performance was challenged by the gradual increase of the organics and ammonia surface loading rates with hydraulic retention times (HRT) of 10.7, 6.24, 4.0, 2.0, and 3.0 hours. With organics and ammonia surface loading rates of 20 gTCODm−2d−1 and 3.32 gNH4+-Nm−2d−1, respectively, the reactor achieved simultaneous organics, nitrogen, and Total nitrogen (TN) reductions of 98%, 96%, and 67%, respectively. Microbial analysis indicated the coexistence of nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB), ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB), aerobic denitrifying bacteria (ADB), and other bacteria within the MABR biofilm, correlating to simultaneous nitrification, denitrification, and organics within the reactor. Acceptable effluent water quality was obtained when the MABR was operated at an HRT as low as 3 hours.
Gaber S AbdelGhany, Ebrahiem Esmail Ebrahiem, Hamdy F M Mohamed, , Nabila Shehata
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-14; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00002

Abstract:
Rice hulls (RH), a harmful biowaste, was used to produce nanosized activated carbon (RHAC) by combustion and phosphoric acid treatment. The developed RHAC was characterized using various structural and morphological techniques (SEM, XRD, FTIR, and N2 adsorption). The prepared RHAC was used to remove heavy metal ions (Fe(III) and Cr(VI)) by the adsorption mechanism. Adsorption parameters, e.g., contact time, the dose, initial concentration of the heavy metals ions, were investigated. Five adsorption models (2 & 3 parameters) were studied. Also, the adsorption kinetic through the intraparticle diffusion model was applied. RHAC shows adsorption capacities of 47.00 and 45.00 mg/g for Fe(III) and Cr(VI), respectively. The findings recommend using RHAC as low-cost and eco-friendly for metal ions removal and water treatment applications.
Mehrnaz Amini, Hajar Share Isfahani, Amin Azhari
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-11; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00013

Abstract:
Due to the progressive use of landfills and the challenges about their effect on their surrounding environment, the hydraulic and gas permeability of the landfill liners have always been a great concern for geotechnicians. Clay-based materials are usually used as the main material for landfill liners. Various additives are implemented to control the hydraulic and gas permeability of these clay liners under different climate conditions. The attempt of this research was to investigate the effect of using four types of geo-fibers, including ordinary and web polyester, polypropylene, and polyvinyl alcohol fibers, on reducing the hydraulic and gas permeability under wet and dry conditions. In this regard, two sets of water and gas permeability tests were performed for clay-fiber mixtures with 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 weight percentages of fiber additives. The results show an initial decrease and then a growth in the permeability coefficients by increasing the fiber dosages, resulting in an optimum percentage for each fiber type. Among the fibers used in this study, polyvinyl alcohol fiber with 0.2 weight percent performed best by reducing the permeability coefficient by approximately 65% and 75% for hydraulic and gas permeability coefficients under wet and dry conditions.
N A Mostafa, Sabah Mohamed Farouk, S M S Abdelhamid, Aliaa M Monazie
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-9; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00026

Abstract:
Cost efficiency and environmental friendliness biomass-derived adsorbents for wastewater treatment are explored. Preparation of bio-adsorbents which were economically and environmentally sustainable has achieved an enormous interest in water treatment. A single step method for preparing a high-capacity adsorbent is shown in this study by refluxing barley straw (BS) and coconut shell (CS) in concentrated sulfuric acid. Using Response Surface Methodology to predict the optimum parameters for production of the bio-adsorbent based on the yield and the adsorption capacity for methylene blue dye. Optimal conditions for the sulfuric acid refluxing stage were obtained at 94 % sulfuric acid, 10 L/S ratio for 2 h and 98% sulfuric acid, 4 L/S ratio for 2.5 h for BS and CS, respectively. The produced bio-adsorbent were characterised by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray scattering, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Thermo gravimetric analysis, Raman spectroscopy and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area analysis. The detailed analysis showed that the bio-adsorbent produced from BS and CS have good adsorptive properties, thermal stability and high specific surface area which are 11.759 and 1.165 m2/g, respectively. The results indicated that BS and CS are critical and potential low-cost raw material for the production of bio-adsorbents.
Feride Ulu,
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science pp 1-8; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.21.00024

Abstract:
The aim of this study was the optimization of the activated carbon production process by dehydration-carbonization using concentrated H2SO4 from the hazelnut shells found as locally and readily available agricultural waste and the adsorption of Cr(III) on the activated carbon produced by this method. Adsorption experiment was carried out at conditions of 25°C and initial concentration of 30 mg Cr(III)/L. Optimum process conditions to ensure maximum adsorption capacity was investigated by means of statistically designed experiments and steepest ascent experiments. The optimum values were found as impregnation ratio of 4.5 ml H2SO4/g hazelnut shell, oven temperature of 50°C, and holding time in the oven of 19.8 hours respectively and maximum adsorption capacity as 14.76 mg Cr(III)/g HSAC. The surface properties HSAC were investigated by scanning electron microscopy and FTIR and agreed with outcomes. The adsorption mechanism can be rapid ion exchange and slow chemisorption or/and an outer-sphere complexation at pH 3.5-6.0 during process.
Lokeshwari Navalgund, Keshava Joshi, Govindan Srinikethan, Vinayaka B Shet, Satish N Hosamane
Journal of Environmental Engineering and Science, Volume 16, pp 138-144; https://doi.org/10.1680/jenes.20.00051

Abstract:
In this paper, effect of Land use and Land cover, impact of urbanization on Respirable particulate matter (RSPM), SOx and NOx of the Hubli-Dharwad a tier-II city is correlated based on the trends in air quality observed from 2006 to 2013, population from 1990 to 2010, number of vehicles between the period 2004 and 2013 and urbanization between the period 1975 and 2009. It has been studied that urbanization has increased threefold from 92 km2 in 1975 to 271 km2 in 2009 and the corresponding decrease in agriculture area from 368.22 km2 to 123.43 km2. The RSPM in the study region is increasing at a rate of 8.9 % per year as per. The study depicts that vehicular pollutants are the major cause of air pollution followed by industries by the highest RSPM value of 128 µg/m3 at traffic junctions in Hubli-Dharwad region in 2013. Based on the trend analysis, air quality atlas predicted for 2030, shows that RSPM level in the air reaches 150 µg/m3 well above the National ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) and have serious consequences on the health of the humans if proper strategies are not undertaken. Owing to a unique geographical setting, future urbanization in Hubli-Dharwad will be in the narrow area which may lead to severe air pollution problem and needs immediate attention to provide a safe environment.
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